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BOft fio WEfi . SNAME 

tA1 n 7 ? 218 K513 v.2B 
SERIAL. 37d.cxa 

The Kindergarten P 


Nolional-I xmis University 



2840 Sheridan Road 

Evans ton, Illinois 60201 







SEPTEMBER, 1915-JUNE, 1916 













Index to Volume XXVIII— 1915-1916 

unlop 51 

Apporistic Milestones on the Road of the New 

Education Dr. W. N. Hailmann 2 

Testing the Value of the Kindergarten • • • ■ • 3 

The International Peace Congress, San Francisco, 


General Suggestions for September Program.... 

Br. Jenny B. Merrill 4, 5, 6, i 

Early Primary Work and Its Relations to the 

Kindergarten Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 8, 9, 10 

Activities of the Bureau of Education Committee 10 

Mother Play Bertha Johnston 12, 39 

The Teaching of a Poem Anna Mae Brady 

Hints and Suggestions Bertha Johnston 

Kindergarten Freedom; Mental and Physical 

Bora A. Mondore 23 

September "seed-Pods '.'.'.'.'... F G. Sanders 26 

A College for Teachers at the Johns Hopkins 


Little Pieces for Little People 


The International Kindergarten Union 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Grace Dow 





The Little Bottle Susan Plessner Pollock 

Expanding the work of the Kindergarten 

Charles H. Judd 

Grasshoppers'.'." .".'.' F. G. Sanders 

Paper Cutting for the Number Lesson 

John Y. Dunlop 

The Two Little Travelers Rebecca Strutton 

The Discipline of the Kindergarten 

The Montessori Method and the Kindergarten 

Elizabeth Harrison 17-18 

The Flood .' .' .' .' ' .'.'.'.'.'.''." Dora A. Mondore 33 

One Hundred Occupations for Children's Hands 

Carolyn Shericin Bailey 34 

• oc 

The Montessori Movement 

Notes from the California Expositions 

. . . .Olive Wills 




Games for Memorizing • 

The Kindergarten and the Elementary School 

Randall J. Condon 

Suggestions for October Program 

Jenny B. Merrill 

Aphoristic Milestones on the Road of the New 

Education Dr. W. N. Eailnmnn 

October. Apple Story *■ *- Niven 

Influences of the Kindergarten in Elementary 
.Velvalee Blueher Duke 

Education. . . 
Dr. Montessori 
Landscape. . . 

.Olive Wills 






Paper Folding for the Story Lesson. .J.Y.D n P ton 

Nature Study in the Kindergarten ' 

Margaret D. Ply) ndore 

Broadoaks Kindergaten, Pasadena, Cal 

The Tower of Babel Dora A. Mo n ^on 

Mother Play— The Pigeon House •••• 

Bertha Joh ' Dow 

„ , ™ r. 'otting 
Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers. 


„ _, , e Kin- 
Picture Studies Mary E. C pd ^ 

Little Pieces for Little People hnston ' 

Early Primary Work and Its Relation to th^ 

dergarten Jenny B. Merrill, ^^ 

Hints and Suggestions Bertha Jo 

The Montessori Method and the Kindergartr^.^ 

_ # . Bessie 

Suggestions for the November Program. . . ' 

Jenny B. & 

Value of Initiative; Method of Training.. 

Bora A. M* 

Kindergarten Flower Garden 

Early Primary Work and its Relation to tl 

dergarten Jenny B. 

Toy Making for the Kindergarten. John Y. 
Kindergarten Teachers Volunteer to T 

Additional Work 

Tasting Song Bertha J 

Montessori System 

November Booklets ou 

Willie's Penny Dora A. i 

Self-Activity as a Principle for Kindergar 

cedure ■ Mary R 

Visual Training; Recognition at Sight.. 

Dora A. . 

November Suggestions F. G. 

Hints and Suggestions for Kindergartn 

Primary Teachers Bertha J 

Exhibition of Children's Pets. . . Lida May 
Hints and Sugestions for Rural Teachers. 

Thanksgiving Plays and Pieces 

New Games, Plays and Pieces for Little Pec 

The Nest Dora. M. 

For the Light Bird Dora M. 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wi 

Gems for Memorizing 

Kindergarten Growth 

Practical Kindergarten Material Dora 

Teacher-Mothers in New York 

Game to Teach Names of Trees. . . , 
Laura I f> 



> on 









93 1 






Index to Volume XXVIII— 1915-1916— Continued 

Suggestions for December Program 

Jenny B. Merrill 100 

Early Primary Work and its Relation to the Kin- 
dergarten Jenny B. Men-ill 103 

Suggestions for a Community Christmas 

J Mari Ruef Hofer 105 

Wljiile the Stars of Christmas Shine 

Emilie Poulsson 106 

The Value of the Rural Literary Society 

George Jesse Chandler 107 

Mother Play Picture — The Little Boy and the 

Moon 110 

The Little Two-Year-Old Maiden and the Stars 

. Bertha Johnston 111 

Merry Christmas Olive Wills 112 

Divide-Up Time Claudia May Ferrin 113 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wagner 114 

Study of a Picture Mary E. Cotting 115 

Little Pieces for Little People 118 

Christmas Stockings Myrtle Barber Carpenter 118 

My Mother's a Queen Claudia May Ferrin 118 

Writing to Santa Anna Broionioell Dunaivay 119 

An Interview with Santa Claus 

Rebecca Strutton 119 

How the Stars Came Out Bertha Johnston 120 

Christmas Candles Laura Rountree Smith 120 

Suggestions for a Kindergarten Christmas Tree. . 121 
Hnts and Suggestions for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers Bertha Johnston 122 

Brooklyn Kindergartners Seeking Legislation 

Favorable to Kindergartens '. . 125 

Toy Village Bertha Johnston 126 

Santa Claus' Arrival Bertha Johnston 127 

Gems for Memorizing Rebecca Strutton 127 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Grace Dow 129 

Cranberries '• F. G. Sanders 130 

Suggestions for the December Program 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 132 

January Program by Weeks .Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 133 

Mother Flay Bertha Johnston 135 

Import^-jt New Courses at Teacher's College... 136 

Moth/^j "jay Pictures 137 

Litt/^,'— ies for Little People 139 

Whi, ti j Snow Comes Clara J. Denton 139 

Kindergarten Self-Government 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 140 

Bringing Up the Three-Year-Old 142 

Little Games for Little People 

Laura Rountree Smith 143 

Rural School Improvement 144 

Gems for Memorizing 144 

Training the Baby Stella J. Penman 144 

Hints land uggestions Bertha Johnston 145 

The Bfroken Window Pane Bertha Johnston 146 

Hints kind Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

• • • J y Grace C. Dow 147 

) Some 'Hiding Places F. G. Sanders 148 

Our (J jitting Lesson Olive Wills 149 

The Jrilopted Baby l Jane Burr 149 

Early^rimary Work and Its Relations to the Kin 

der^arten Jenny B. Merrily 

The Teachers' Summer Mabel Pearson 151 

January Drawing F. G .Sanders 152 

The Relation of the Kindergarten to the Ele- 
mentary School Lillian B. Poor 154 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling Carrie L. Wagner 157 

Nature Study F. G. Sanders 157 

How Reinhard Wendelin Bathazar Got His Name 

Susan Plessner Pollock 160 

Kindergarten Bible Story Dora Mondore 161 

Women as Leaders in Education 161 

Kindergarten Discipline Applied in I. A. Class 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 157 

Suggestions for the February Program 

Jenny B. Merrill 164 

When Lincoln Killed His Mother's Turkey 

Marion Thomas 166 

February Nature Story F. G. Sanders 168 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wagner 168 

Mother Play Bertha Johnston 169 

Interesting Facts about Kindergartens 

Mrs. L. T. Worley 170 

Hints and Suggestions for Kindergartners and 

Primary Teachers Bertha Johnston 172 

Kindergarten Children Suffer from Frost Bites at 

St. Paul 173 

February Olive Wills 173 

Little Pieces for Little People 175 

Study of a Picture Mary E. Cotting 177 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Grace Dow 178 

The Relation of the Kindergarten and the Ele- 
mentary Grades Jennie R. Faddis 182 

Drawing for February J. M. Niven 182-183 

Paper Tearing and Drawing J. Y. Dunlop 185 

Pool of Bethesda Dora Mondore 186 

How to Start a Kindergarten." 187 

The Little Boy and the Tree Clara J. Denton 188 

Suggestion for The March- Program 

Jennie B. Merrill 19f 

Program for March by Weeks • .Jenny B. Merrill 193 
Tribute to Life Effort of Kindergarten Worker.. 193 
The Relation of the Kindergarten and the Elemen- 
tary Grades Jennie R. Faddis 194 

Mother Play — The Charcoal-Burner 

i.l Bertha Johnston 198 

George the Triller 19t 

The Second Gift Elsie Gilson Baker 201 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wagner 202 

The Wind 204 

Pattern for "Circus Parade March 205-206 

March F. G. Sanders. 207 

Paper Cutting and Spring Topics. . .F. G. Sanders 20E 

A Welcome Clara J. Denton 20S 

Game Based on the Two Gates L. Rountree Smith 208 

Study of a Picture VII. Mary E. Cotting 2 

The Little Sick Hare Susan Plessner Pollock 2 

Naughty Jack Frost Evelyn Brogan r 

Game Based on the Flower Basket , 

L. Rountree Smith 

Game to Teach Names of Flowers and Act o 
_Giving L. Rountree SmitJ 

3 raMVOGHiSitf 

Index to Volume XXVIII— 1915-1916— Concluded 

Game to Teach Names of Flowers and Act of 

Giving L. Rountree Smith 212 

Game Based on the Weather Vane 

L. Rountree Smith 212 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

Grace C. Dow 213 

Mother Play Picture— "The Rabbitt on the Wall" 212 

The International Kindergarten Union 213 

Betty and Bobby Stella Jaques Penman 214 

Closer Relations Between the Kindergarten and 

the Grades Milton C. Potter 215 

General Suggestions for the April Program 

Jenny B. Merrill 217 

The Program for April by Weeks 

Jenny B. Merrill 217 

Relation of the Kindergarten and First Year 

Primary Drawing in 1 A Jenny B. Merrill 220 

A Day of Wonders Dora A. Mondore 221 

Mother Play Bertha Johnston 221 

Hints and Suggestions Bertha Johnston 222 

Study of a Picture Mary E. Cotting 224 

Drawing for April Olive Wills 225 

Toy Making in the Kindergarten. .John Y. Dunlop 226 
Hail to the Springtime. . . .Frances Juliet Douglas 227 

Easter and the Robin /. M. Niven 227 

April F. G. Sanders 228 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling Carrie L. Wagner 229 

A Toast Rebecca Strutton 229 

My Neighbor .Mrs. J. W. Meek 231 

Death of Susan E. Blow. Grace Dow 232 

The Kindergarten and Community Organizations 233 

Which Shall it Be Jeannie Rogers Sherman 233 

The Mother of Our Children Carrie A. Ritter 235 

Blackboard Suggestions for April 

L. Rountree Smith 238 

Mother Play Picture— The Flower Basket 238 

Suggestions for the May Program 

Jenny B. Merrill 240 

Ten Rules for the Treatment of Animals 242 

Religious Instruction and Public Education.... 243 
Providing Kindergarten Training for Every Child 

Bessie Locke 244 

Drawing and the Manual Arts 

Miss E. M. Pierpoint 245 

Individual Tables for Little Ones are Being Used 

in Kindergarten 245 

Study of a Picture Mary E. Cotting 246 

Care of the Baby 247 

Proper Food for Your Children 248 

Clay Modeling ...Olive Wills 250 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wagner 51 

Hints and Suggestions for Rural Teachers 

. • Grace C. Dow 52 

Kindergarten to Provide for Every Five-Year-Old 

in City 53 

Hints and Suggestions Bertha Johnston 54 

Mother Play Bertha Johnston 56 

"The Order of the Knights of Etiquette" 

Jenny B . Merrill 57 

New Kindergarten Stories . . 258 

Address of Elizabeth Harrison at Nashville, Tenn. 260 

Toy Making in the Kindergarten. John Y. Dunlop 261 

Rational Education Bertha Johnston 262 

Relative to N. E. A. Meeting at New York, July 

3-8. . . . .' 263 

Beads Made From Wall Paper Essie Hurff 263 

The Modern Kindergarten. . .Mrs. Samuel Norton 263 

The Kindergarten in Illinois 

Mrs. Mary Boomer Page 265 

General Suggestions for June Program 

Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 268 

A Teacher's Viewpoint of the Kindergarten 

.' Florence Montgomery 269 

Practical Suggestions Dr. Jenny B. Merrill 270 

Hints and Suggestions Bertha Johnston 271 

Toy Making for the Kindergarten John Y. Dunlop 273 

Game to Teach Names of Flowers 

Laura Rountree Smith 273 

Mother Play — The Little Artist. .Bertha Johnston 274 

Suggestions for Clay Modeling. .Carrie L. Wagner 275 

Little Pieces for Little People 276 

A Bird Game Mary E. Cotting 276 

Little Gray Squirrel Myra A. luck 276 

Games to Teach Politeness. . . .L. Rountree Smith 277 

Little Ted's Defense Kate Rogers N'Urst ? 277 

Where The Fairy Lives Rebecca Stritto n 211 

Study of a Picture Mary E. Cttir ig 278 

June F. G. Sade- rs 280 

Proper Food for Children I . 281 

The Fairies Clara J. J'ntij m 281 

The Kindergarten and the Elementary chor ol 

Ruth C. Hlmq m 282 

Be Honest with Your Child Luther Bu\%^nk 285 

The Monkey Trick Blsie Spicer>e^lls 287 

Educational Notes ? 288 

Our Spring Exhibition Olive Wills 289 

Interests which Carry Over from Kindergarten to 

the Primary. Miss Hilda Busick 291 

When Mamma Says So Dora A. Momlore 292 

Kindergarten and Primary Susan C. Baker 293 








54 Scott St., Chicago. 


W Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years), 

f£ and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 
ep Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). & 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 


Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Direotorst Mr*. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, M Scott St. 





JMMER SCHOOL, June 1 4 to Aug. 6 

inflergarten and Primary Method.* 
laygTound 'Work. Model Dcmon- 
tration Schools. Credits Applied 
Regular Courses, Resident 
lormltory on College Grounds. 
Come to a school 'where Instrae- 
l»» received will have practical 
a lac in yonr fall work. 

For full information address 

Box tOO, 2944 Michigan Boulevard, 




In Affiliation with New York University 

Two years normal course accredited 

by State Board of Regents. 


Pay be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 

For information address 


New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 


Organised In 1881 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
chool in Chicago. Located In Fine 
Lrts Building, overlooking Lake 
lichigan. Regular two years' dip- 
oma course.- Special courses open 
o teachers and mothers. Universi- 
y instructors. University credits. 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

loora 706, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 




Thorough training for Playground Workers, 
Tolk Games, Pageants. Festivals, Story Tel- 
ling, etc., by 

Marie Reuf Hofer 


and other specialists . 

Fall term begins Sept. 21. 

Pestalozzi-Froebel Training School 

Box 55, 622 Michigan Blvd., Chicago, 111. I 

Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School 







No. 508 
tain St. 




Presents a two-year course in kindergarten 
theory and practice. Teachers drawn largely 
from Oberlin College and Conservatory of 
Music. Miss May has returned from a course 
of study with Dr. Montessori and will give in- 
struction in the Montessori method. 

For catalogue address Secretary, 

Kindergarten Training School, Drawer 1 7 



Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 

<md Special Courses. 

200 Commonwealth Avenue 



for Kindergartners 
Richmond, *7? 

Virginia, Mechanics' Institute Building, 
Richmond, Virginia. 
Two years' training in Theory and 
Practice of Froebellan Ideals. Tout- 
Graduate Course, also Special Classes tor 
Primary Teachers. 

LUCY a. COLEMAN, Director. 

MTtfl. W. W. ARCHER. Bee. and Tree* 


Instruction in the theory and use 
of the Montessori materials. Resi- 
dent and day students. $30,000 
building adjoining All Saints Epis- 
copal Church. Elementary and col- 
lege preparatory courses. 4th year 
teacher-training course begins Oc- 
tober 1, 1915. For illustrated folder 

Mrs. J. SCOTT ANDERSON, Direct- 
ress Torresdale House, 
Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa, . . 


6 1 6-22 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Ovelooking Lake Michigan.) 

19th year. Regular Two Year's Diploma 
Course, Post-graduate, Primary, and 
Playground Courses, includes oppor- 
tunity to become familiar with the 
Social Settlement Movement at Chicago 


For circulars and information write 


Box 50. 616-22 South Michigan 
Boulevard, Chicago. 111. 


T li e New 
Training for Playground Workers. 
Folk Dancing, Pageantry, Games, Story 
Telling, etc. Address Pestalozzi-Froebel 
Tr. Sch. Box 60 616 South Michigan 
Boulevard, Chicago, 111. 



Pxvo years course. State accredited 
•jtst. Address. 

aotel Shattuck, Berkeley, Cah 

1874— Kindergarten Normal Institutions— 1914 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W. WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The eitixenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollook, Principal 

Teachers* Training 1 Course — Two Years 
Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua— Mountain Lake Pa rk— 
Garrett Co., Maryland 

Sefm &aumcl)ctt faa' id> CtttS. 

8eim 2) a u m d) e n fag' id) @tn«, 

23eim Beigefinger: %ml, 

23eim SDHttelfingev: 2)rei. 

8eim OUngfinger: Stter, 

JBelm flelnen Singer ftitnf leafage. 
£ab 1 in 1 S 23ettd)en aW getegt, 
<5d)tafen, fetneS fid) mef)t regt ; 
©till, ba$ feins ju fri$ er»a$e. 


(Seepage 12.) 




Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, fi.oo per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa* Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c f and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 

September, 1915. 



Laura Rottntree Smith will contribute a number 
of games to this magazine during the coming year. 

Mr. John Y. Dunlop, Glasgow, Scotland, will con- 
tinue his series of illustrated articles in this magazine 
throughout the coming year. 

P. G. Sanders, Toronto, Canada, is to be a con- 
tributor to the Kindergarten Primary Magazine dur- 
ing the present year. 

Mart E. Cotting, Waltham, Mass., will continue her 
Picture Study in this magazine, beginning with the 
next number. 

Miss Carrie Ives, Sheffield, Ala., will contribute cut 
out pictures for kindergarten children for the coming 
year for this magazine. 

Miss Olive Wills, formerly of Manistee, Michigan, 
but now of Cheyenne, Wy., will continue her drawing 
lessons for this publication during the year. 

The riiany kindergartners who attended the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union meetings at San Fran- 
cisco, California, report a most enjoyable and profit- 
able trip. 

Bertha Johnston, who has been a contributor to 
this magazine for many years, will continue her 
articles during the coming year. The Committee of 
the Whole has been changed to Hints and Suggestions. 

Kindergartners all over the U. S. who have profited 
so much by Dr. Jenny B. Merrill's articles in this 
magazine for several years past will be pleased to 
learn that she will be with us during the coming year. 
The two articles given in this issue will certainly 
prove very helpful to/ any kindergartner who will 
make use of the ideas given 

He that gives all, though but little, gives much; be- 
cause God looks not to the quantity of the gift, but to 
the quality of the givers. — Quarleg. 


The Annual meeting of the National Educational 
Association just closed at San Francisco, proved one 
of the most successful in its history. There were over 
7,000 delegates present at the opening meeting. 

Everywhere sentiment was strong in favor of Inter- 
ntional Peace. 

Several of the best speakers gave stirring addresses. 

The spirited contest for the presidency between Miss 
Grace Strachan of New York, and David P. Johnson, 
president of Winthrop Industrial and Agricultural col- 
lege, North Carolina, was made much by the public 
press. Miss Strachan, defeated candidate for the 
presidency, resigned as a member of the N. E, A. 
We hope to give a summary of some of the more help- 
ful addresses in future issues of our Magazine. 

Miss Bertha Johnrton, 389 Clinton St., Brooklyn, N. 
Y., formerly editor of the Kindergarten Magazine, and 
a regular contributor to this publication, has had a 
life long experience in kindergarten work. She can be 
secured for lectures. See announcement elsewhere in 
this issue. 

The Board of Education of Hempstead, L. I. have 
established a kindergarten in St. George's Parish 
house which they have rented for two years for school 

When a true genius appears in the world, you may 
know him by this sign, that the dunces are all in 
confederacy against him. — Swift. 

Country schools in Washington State are special- 
izing in warm lunches. The teachers are trained in 
household arts and the school lunch is used not only 
to better the physical condition of the pupils but to 
teach domestic science. 

Good humor is the health of the soul; sadness is its 
poison. — Stanislaus. 

The Annual meeting of the National Education 
national Peace. 

Dr. W. N. Hailmann 

In a large sense, body and mind, the physical and 
the spiritual, are one. Neither, in life, appears with- 
out the other: the mind, the master; the body, the 
servant or tool. The body mediating between the 
Inner and the outer, between self and environment; 
conveying inward, on the one hand, material for 
thought; establishing, on the other hand, in outward 
activity, the inmost purposes of thought. While, on 
the one hand, we s«e the mind, with Maudsley, as the 
crown and consummation of the organic functions as a 
whole, we see it, on the other hand, as the secret inner 
spring and true king of all physical life. Thus to 
Milton "the whole man is soul, and the soul man;" 
and Swedenborg's angels "discover man's autobio- 
graphy in his structure." 

Heart, head and hand — feeling, thinking and doing 
are not three distinct entities, to be stimulated to 
order. They are, indeed, but three different aspects 
of the same one soul' activity. The heart is the stim- 
ulated soul as it feels or wills; the head is the same 
soul as it sees or infers; the hand, the same soul as 
it explores its environment or impresses its law there- 

The same one mental act begins in experience and, 
thru thought and reacting purpose, ends in achieve- 
ment. Each and every mental' act in its wholeness 
rests on experience, and achievement alone can render 
it complete. Thus we see the brain as "a contrivance 
to change thought into action," and the hand as the 
projected will of man: the will to know and the will 
to do. 

We see the various phases of the conscious mental 
act in its integrity in this order: Hand — head — heart 
— head — hand, from exploring and discovering to ad- 
justing and achieving activity, the latter again becom- 
ing a source of further exploration and discovery; 
and so on indefinitely in ever-deepening insight, in 
ever-broadening purpose, in ever closer adjustment, in 
ever higher achievement, in ever purer joy in an on- 
ward movement that constitutes individual, social and 
general human progress. 

Thus it will be seen that full-life requires more than 
the notorious "five windows of the soul — mathematics, 
nature study, history, geography, literature.'' These 
things are, indeed, necessary; but they need to be led 
into the life of action, into daily aspirations and daily 
conduct and widening human sympathy. 

In truth, thought and action are one. In their 
unity, they establish the deed which alone gives value 
to life. It is thru verifying action that thought lifts 
itself into knowledge and, as such, becomes aware of 

its power, learns to appreciate and to know itself, as 
it were; is stirred to seek ever greater heights. 

Every complete educational measure should stimu- 
late into self-active life the entire being of the learner, 
more and more in harmony with the attitude of good 
will. Whatever stimulus comes to the learner should 
enlist spontaneous interest, invite spontaneous thought, 
stir spontaneous purpose, and lead to spontaneous 

In other words, the appeal of the educator should 
be, thruout, to self-activity which implies, on his part, 
suggestive, stimulating, sustaining adjustment of en- 
vironment and sympathetic 'living with the children' 
in example, in unostentatious help and instruction; 
for all along the learner should feel that he is accom- 
plishing a purpose of his own and that this purpose is 

The teacher will succeed in the measure in which 
she frees the children from shyness and other egoistic 
forms of narrow self-consciousness, and leads them to 
forget themselves, in the purposes of their work.- 

Thought, we have seen, rests primarily on personal 
experience and tends ultimately to corresponding con- 
duct. On the side of experience, thought is appercep- 
tive, adds to its store of knowledge. On the side of 
conduct or achievement, it is introceptive, uses the 
new acquisitions in the establishment of life-attitude 
and in the moulding of purpose. 

Thought-development, on the side of knowledge, be- 
gins with sense-perception. This furnishes the raw 
material for all subsequent phases of intellectual ac- 
tivity: for association, comparison, abstraction, the 
formation of ever clearer and higher concepts, for de- 
finition and classification, and ultimately, in rational 
life, for insight and its marvelovs revelations of law 
and principle as basis and guide of conduct. 

Thought involves processes of analysis and syn- 
thesis. Analysis gathers material from which syn- 
thesis constructs, on the side of knowledge, ideas and 
concepts; and, on the side of achievement, principles 
and rules of action. On the knowledge side, analysis 
deal's with the relatively external, is objective; and 
synthesis establishes a relatively internal idea or con- 
cept, is subjective. On the side of achievement or 
conduct, analysis deals with these relatively internal 
ideas — its conquests from the past, and thus becomes 
subjective; and synthesis projects these objectively in 
conduct into a relative future of life. 

On the side of achievement, thought serves and es- 
tablishes purpose. Purpose, the child of instinct and 
reason, is the more or less deliberate, conscious ten- 
sion of the soul toward the achievement of some defi- 
nite object. This object is derived primarily from 


some experience touched with emotion, retained in the 
memory, revived by the imagination or lifted into the 
region of more or less ideal aspiration by the creative 
influences of reason or fancy. 

Purpose ungers and thirsts for achievement. 
From achievement it derives sustenance. Without 
achievement it perishes. For the sake of achieve- 
ment it stimulates memory, creative fancy and reason, 
that it may find ways of success. In experiment and 
research it appeals afresh to sensuous experience and 
to recorded thought. In patient drill it seeks to gain 
whatever skill and endurance it may need. In fer- 
vent speech it seeks to enlist the sympathy and co- 
operation of others. Every phase of soul life is 
touched and stirred in the development of purpose. 
Every sensation holds its germs. Under the influence 
of varied emotion it is unfolded and established. It 
stands rovealed in thought which sees and wills the 
fruit of its achievement. 

Vvith the birth of conscious purpose, indeed, man is 
Lorn, lingering heredity dethroned, and the reign of 
free spiritual evolution inaugurated. The self -ac- 
tive soul begins to feel its power to overcome resist- 
ance within as well as without. The tyranny of cir- 
cumstance begins to yield to the supremacy of self- 
conscious will. 

Not every individual purpose, however, is good. 
Purpose is to action what force is to matter. As mat- 
ter lends itself to whatever force may urge within, so 
the same action is ennobled or debased by the purpose 
it may serve. It is obvious, then, how important in 
educational practice is constant and assiduous care in 
the guidance of the learner's purpose-life which lies 
at the very root of character; how important it is to 
cultivate love and hatred, hope and fear, aspiration 
and aversion aright in order to enable these emotions 
to find worthy objects. 

True education becomes to the learner thru pur- 
poseful achievement, even in the school, a process of 
continuous self-revelation, secures faith in self and in 
the powers and responsibilities of self, clear vision, 
absence of doubt. 


The value of the kindergarten as tested by its re- 
sults is discussed by Miss A. M. Winchester in an 
annual review of kindergarten work just issued by 
the Commissioner of Education. 

"For several years investigations have been under- 
taken in different cities," says the review, "for the 
purpose of ascertaining the advantage gained by child- 
ren with kindergarten training over non-kindergarten 
children. The emphasis in these investigations has 
been placed usually upon the rate of speed with which 
the children make the successive grades." 

"The fallacy of drawing conclusions from such sur- 
veys,'' says Miss Winchester, "is manifest at once. It 
is well nigh impossible to gauge the speed correctly 
because in the first grade both kindergarten and non- 
kindergarten children are placed together, and by the 
rule of uniformity which seems necessary in school 

systems, the teacher unconsciously standardizes the 
progress of her class. The laggards are brought up 
by dint of conscientious work, and the forward ones 
are held in leash, so that by the time the fifth or 
sixth grade is reached, whatever special training im- 
petus may have resulted from the child's kindergarten 
training has ceased to be measureable. 


The Time— October 10th, 11th, 12th, are the dates 
chosen for the Peace Congress. 

The Place — A splendidly rebult city of over a half 
million population, the terminus of three well equip- 
ped railways. — The Southern Pacific, Western Pacific 
and Sante Fe, unexcelled suburban service to nearby 
cities, mountains and giant redwoods, a magnificent 
harbor with ships from all seas passing through our 
Golden Gate, prophetic of the Golden Era of Peace, 
and a surpassingly beautiful International Exposition 
that shelters the world in miniature, with all nations 
at peace! 

The Purpose — The purpose of the Peace Congress is 
to bring together, as far as possible, representative 
leaders from all nations and from all organizations 
that favor World Peace, in order to confer on the most 
practical plans for the putting into cooperative action 
those forces and agencies that will lead to the abolition 
of war. 

What a theme! What a time! What a place! 
What a purpose! What an opportunity to make this 
the crowning event of the exposition year! 

For "War must be destroyed.'' 

Delegates — We invite all peace societies; women's 
clubs and all other organizations of women; all 
churches and religious societies; colleges and univer- 
sities; labor unions; socialist societies; chamber of 
commerce and all other business men's organizations; 
and state and national governments to send delegates 
to the Peace Congress. 

Contributions — We urgently invite all readers of 
this bulletin to aid by a contribution, large or small. 
We greatly need financial help to make this Peace 
Congress worthy of its high purpose. Please make 
out all checks to our treasurer, Captain Robert Dollar, 
and send the same to the joint secretaries. 

Literature — For information and literature address 
the joint secretaries: H. H. Bell, Robert C. Root, The 
Tabernacle, Van Ness Ave. and Bush St., San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Dr. Maria Montessori, the famous Italian educator, 
is reported as insisting upon being given the title of 
"Madame," even though she has never been married. 
She asserts that the possession of a husband is not an 
essential to assuming the title usually accorded only to 
a wife. 

We first make our habits, and then our habits make 
us. — Dryden. 



Former Supervisor of Public School Kindergartens, New York City: Special Lecturer on Educational . 


The very best way to prepare your September pro- 
gram, good kindergartner, is to '"live with" a child of 
four or five years of age during part of your vacation. 

If this has been your privilege, you will doubtless 
think of this little one with his daily life and 
interests, as a background for your program. Chil- 
dren differ but they have much in common. 

If there has been no such little one in your home 
or near you, recall your own childhood if you can 
think back to that age. Read "Susie's Six Birthdays," 
or "All About Johnnie Jones," or "Four Little Fasters." 

If you can get in touch with a mother who is plan- 
ning to send her little one to kindergarten it will 
prove most valuable to you. The fears and anxieties 
of a mother in starting her first child to school or 
kindergarten are hard for a young kindergartner to 
realize, but she should try to do so. It will encourage 
attention to individuals — each one the object of so 
much solicitude at this transition period. 

It often becomes the privilege of a kindergartner to 
help a mother to see that the very "coming and going" 
every day at a regular hour \, iil prove a means of 
development to her little one. 

Some mothers almost dread to have their "babies" 
grow out of babyhood, but independence is essential 
to the forming of character. Another lesson learned 
will be the importance of reaching school on time. 
The clock will become a friend. 

Punctuality learned will help in the home as well 
as in school, and of course later in all life's duties. 

Children who have not "liked to be washed" are 
trained to cleanliness by comparison and also by 
washing plays. 

In Montessori's program for the little ones, 
the "practical exercises of life" include washing 
their own hands and faces and even the little tables. 

The very attempt is strengthening to the hands. 
Encourage mothers to let children try even if results 
are not altogether satisfactory at first. 

In leaving home many mothers give the little ones 
unwise warnings based upon the old time fears of the 
school master. Especially is this true of foreigners. 
The kindergartner should bear this in mind as it may 
account for difference and even terror in the new 
surroundings attractive tho they be. 

Yes, good kindergartner, collect your pictures, toys, 
flowers, shells. Get your room in order. Have a sand 
table, a garden, a pet animal if possible, but believe 
me, it is quite likely that your mind will be too much 
occupied with these necessary external appliances, and 
too little with the child himself, and how he will re- 
gard the new environment. 

Therefore I warn you to make a child the center of 
thought rather than these materials important as they 

Ask yourself why these little ones are leaving home 
to come to your kindergarten? 

It is mainly to enlarge their social life. It is that 
they may come in touch with other children of their 
own age, that they may become more human, less 
selfish, or rather less self-centered, interested in other 
children, other families besides their own. A little 
child is one big I. All the world about him he regards 
only as affecting his own wants. This is natural and 
right for a time but it should not last too long. 

Contact with other children is essential for the best 

This is the main plea for the kindergarten. The 
child needs to live with other children of his own age, 
to feel the atmosphere of his equals. There are often 
so many adults in the home. 

Children who have several brothers and sisters, 
have a great advantage over the only child. 

How will these facts influence you in making your 
September program? Let us see. 

First they should lead you to make an interesting 
feature of learning each other's names. A child is 
always interested in his name and shows much sur- 
prise if you miss-call' it. Tell your name. Interest the 
children in each other's names. Have simple intro- 
ductions as it were — as, "Johnny here is another 
Johnny." "Mary come and shake hands with Annie." 
Several familiar kindergarten games are based upon 
this interest in names. 

"Look at our Susie, 

Who shows us the game, 
Look at our Susie, 

Now we'll do the same." 

The simplest "visiting game" may be introduced 
very early in the month. A child is sent to the 
center and told to beckon to some other child whose 
name he knows to come into the ring and shake hands. 

Sometimes this game consists only of bowing to the 
child who is called, but a variation may be made by 
having each child as he shakes hands, say, "Good 
morning Eddie," "Good morning Josie." "How do you 

I advise this spoken greeting before the song of 
greeting, as it is less formal, more personal, more 
real, more life like. Then a greeting song may 
follow. "Good morning to you all." The children 
certainly love the greeting songs. They are elemen- 
tary lessons in politeness and lead to a social spirit. 


A finger exercise should soon follow, but I advise 
he real greeting of child to child, and child to kin- 
.ergartnerfor a week or longer before introducing a 
reeting finger game. In introducing the first finger 
anie, appeal to the humorous. Knot two corners of 
our handkerchief over the pointing fingers of your 
and and let them bow to each other and say, "How 
o do'' and even chat a little with each other. 

Children love to laugh. This little play will certain- 
y cause merriment. "Only man laughs." Laughing 
i sociable. It will' help us to accomplish our aim in 
etting the children acquainted if they have a few 
earty laughs together. 

Any of the well known finger exercises may follow 
s, "Thumbs and fingers say Good morning, 'Tis a very 
leasant day," or "Thumbkin says I'll dance." 

The reason for such finger exercises should be 
orne in mind as being largely physical, that is, to 
trengthen and develop the muscles of the hand, as a 
reparation for hand work. (An intelligent woman 
.ho did not know much about kindergarten methods 
old me once that she thought those finger exercises 
ery silly, but when I explained the physical side, the 
trengthening of the muscles of the hand for the use of 
he pencil and other tools, she immediately recognized 
heir value. Reading in Mother Play will show how 
ully Froebel realized the importance of this muscular 
evelcpmcnt as well as the social side.) 

If you examine carefully the hands of the little ones 
urins this first week, you will certainly find many 
f them flabby. Many children are not encouraged at 
mme, as they should be, even before kindergarten 
ige to use thei hands and fingers in drawing and 
:utting. A child of two or three can begin at home. 
'Opening and shutting," the fingers is a simple, pleas- 
ng exercise. Even during the first week a few lines 
nay be used to accompany such motions as, 

"Shut them, open, shut, them open, 

Give a little clap, 
Shut them, open, shut them, open, 
Lay them in your lap." 

(The words and music of this finger game are in 
Smith, No. 2, and it is a great favorite.") Extend 
;hese exercises from day to day in the ring, letting the 
mildren show you anything mother has taught them 
o make with their hands and fingers. 

So proceed from home experiences in this as in all 
)ther work you attempt. Linking the new ivith the 
rtd is the greatest secret of good teaching. 

Play with the fingers will lead naturally to talks 
ibout clean hands. "Making believe" wash the hands 
will amuse the little ones. Simple hints about clean- 
iness should follow from day to day. They appear to 
3e needed. 

"Preparing to come to kindergarten'* may be illus- 
trated in simple dramatic fashion. This is a topic 
ibout which the children oan talk freely. They will 
soon forget to be afraid to speak as they think of 
home, and all they do to "get ready." "Coming to 
kindergarten" is another available topic which may 

be acted out as an imitative game either in the morn- 
ing ring or at game time possibly in the following 

Shall we play "Coming to Kindergarten?'' "Who 
will show me how to walk nicely in the street? 

(Several children volunteer.) 

"Sometimes I see two little girls walking together." 
(Several children walk by twos.) "Sometimes I see a 
little boy running to kindergarten. Who can tell why 
he runs: Yes, he is afraid he will be late. We are 
so pleased when every one is here early." 

The kindergartner next finds an opportunity to re- 
peat directions about how to reach the kindegarten 
room. Of course these directions differ widely accord- 
ing to school conditins. 

The clock and how it helps us all to be early is 
another topic for September conversations. A simple 
clock song follows, and an imitative clock game may be 
introduced if the children have seen a pendulum swing. 

Children all love to sing 

"Tick-tock, tick-tock, 
Goes the clock." 

Sound attracts as well as the motion of the pen- 

. ."Art and literature bind society together" says 

The first month in the kindergarten finds the kin- 
dergartner introducing literature in the form of the 
realistic story, Mother Goose jingles, and the story of 
Coldenlocks, that remarkable cheery creation of 
Souihy's which deals with the simplest home objects, 
beds, chairs, bowls, spoons, and yet appeals to the 
imagination in the personification of the three bears. 
The story of Goldenlocks is easy for the youngest child 
to follow with rapt attention, and also furnishes 
material for an early dramatic play. 

Mother Goose is surely a key to English literature. 
If one happened to teach children who have English 
or American parentage they may already know of 
"Jack and Jill'," or "Litle Boy Blue" and "Little Bo- 

If they do, you have found another connecting link 
with the home. If these nursery rhymes are not 
familiar to many, secure pictures illustrating them. 
Excellent ones are now readily obtained. These pic- 
tures may constitute the beginnings of interest in art 
as the rhymes are beginnings of interest in verse. 

Some kindergartners still prefer to use the Mother 
Play pictures as centers of interest, for they are re- 
markable pictures with their home and nature setting. 

The one prescribed in this number of our magazine 
will readily connect itself with the Finger Plays 
already mentioned. 

Children love to count their fingers. To play put 
them to bed will certainly be amusing and quieting. 
Also, "Four in a bed," as appears in the picture, will 
not be an unfamiliar scene to many of our city little 
ones! Well brought up children may be led to call the ' 
four sleeping children, dollies. 

See who can find the five little birds in the tree! It 
will interest the little ones to tell them how all little 


birds hide their heads in their feathers when they go 
to sleep. (Illustrate.) 

Possibly a pet canary can be borrowed, or some 
child who has one will tell all about it — so, nature, and 
animal story are suggested by this picture. 

The Mother Play counting rhyme may be repeated, 
but no effort should be made to memorize it, for it is 
not like Mother Goose, good verse,. It is a mere dis- 
cription of what the child is doing with his fingers. 
The word "silence" is a good one to add to the child's 
vocabulary. We find it here in Froebel's play as well 
as in Dr. Montessori's newer game of "Silence'' which 
pleases children so well. Both this play and Dr. 
Montessori's may be made very effective in early dis- 
cipline, training to quiet habits. 

Find the rhyme elsewhere in the magazine. 

The piano is one of the great attractions of the 
kindergarten room. Many children will want to touch 
it. Permit one at a time to strike a note. Perhaps 
some child has learned at home to play 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. 
The children will listen with great interest to any one 
who can do this. Then let them imitate on the table 
or as in Froebel's Finger Piano. 

When I was child I loved to "make believe" play 
piano on a table. I think this simple play is less 
frequent in the kindergarten than it should be. 

Play very simple, short selections for the children 
to listen to this month. 

Sing very short songs. 

gift won:;. 

The gift work for September should be more prom- 
inent than occupations. 

The first, second and third and fourth gifts may be 
used. Large building blocks should also be provided 
for building on the floor. 

The children become familiar with the six balls, — 
their motions especially, rolling, bounding, tossing 
and swinging on the cord. Use the balls in morning 
talks, one day comparing colors to children's ribbons, 
another to flowers and fruits. I should use all six 
colors at once like a flower garden. Let the children 
choose colorsthey like best. 

Let one child, then all try to imitate the ball 
motions, for exercise, in the morning circle and in the 
game period. Who can bounce like a ball? Try. For 
the game period use large rubber balls if available. 
Children generally have played with balls at home. 
Do not treat them as if they had never seen balls. 

Encourage them to show you how they play ball, 
and simply add to their former experiences. 

There is not enough free ball playing in our kinder- 
gartens. The ball is an active playmate and should 
incite to vigorous exercise in the open air if possible. 

I once saw an experienced kindergartner standing 
surrounded by the entire group of children at one side 
of a large open playground. She had a rubber ball in 
her hand. She raised it, all the children quieted 
down and watched. "Now see who can run as fast 
as the ball. The one who gets the ball may bring it 
back to me. Then she threw it to the other side of the 

the play ground. How they all ran for it and came 
back shouting, "John has it." Then over and over 
they almost flew back and forth chasing the ball. It 
was a happy healthful recess, and every little one had 
vigorous exercise for legs and lungs. 

Do not forget, in September especially, to keep the 
children much on their feet. How often does a young 
child sit down during the play hours at home? 

Sitting long at tables is trying. Play quite often on 
the floor if it is kept clean. 

The second gift is appropriate for floor play. The 
best game with it, is similar to "nine pins," that is, 
rolling the ball' against the cube placed at a distance 
or in the center of the ring. The cylinder rests on the 
cube, and as it falls, all clap, thus early learning to 
enjoy the success of others. Let every child have a 
chance. They will not tire of watching and waiting. 
In this play children become familiar with the three 
fundamental forms, and their varying characteristics 
in the best possible way. Do not attempt to talk about 
sides, edges and corners until much later. The kin- 
dergarten stands for education thru play. Play the 
forms as wholes into the child's experience. Never 
mind the parts. Analytic instruction is for higher 
grades. Avoid too much mathematics. Keep to play 
as the best foundation. Play gives original exper- 
iences. The child learns by doing the deed. 

Standing the cylinder on the cube, trying to knock 
it off, trains eye and hand to act together which is far 
more important at this period than geometrical des 
criptions. Time will be wasted and children's minds 
fatigued if such are attempted. 

Use the third and fourth gifts for building on the 
very first day. 

It is very important to put something into the 
child's hands at once that he can do something with. 
Blocks are the most available. 

While you may be taking names or attending tc 
other necessary details, see that each child has a box 
Give all permission to open the boxes in their owe 
way at first. Uniformity may be desirable later bul 
there may not be time for it the first day. Childrei 
who cannot slide the lid at once, will learn bj 
observing others who are successful. Appoint ai 
older child to help if necessary. 

Blocks invite a child to build. Some children will 
certainly begin at once to build as they have done a 
home. Others will' observe and soon imitate. 

If they do not, let them watch others. Force nc 
child. All are under nervous tension these first 
days. Get them to fall into line gradually. 

After a few days, as soon as convenient, build two o 
three simple forms yourself on the center table or asl 
an older child to do so while all' watch. Let childrei 
who build well, place their blocks on the window ledg. 
if it is broad and leave the little constructions to in 
spire others. 

If you are not busy otherwise, ask children to tell 
what they have made and ask a question or two abou 
each form. Do not criticise at all' these first days 


Incite children to build with purpose — as, give each, a 
paper doll and ask what they will make for dolly? A 
chair, a bed, a house? These are little problems to 
solve. Allow children to change boxes if they wish to. 

Let older children use two third gifts or two fourths 
or put a third and a fourth together. 

Building blocks may be used to illustrate stories in 
the sand box as the story of Goldenlocks. Build the 
house in the woods sticking in twigs for the forest. 

Build the house. The furniture may be imagined at 
this early stage. A doll may be placed at the door 
as if to enter. The bears have not come back. 
Another day any toy animals may be used for bears, 
etc., etc. 

Build fences or gardens and put colored splints or 
beads in rows for flowers. 

Use peg boards to build fences, and place rows 
one color for a certain flower. 

Build in some way every day during this month. 

If there is a kindergarten doll, as there should be, 
make a chair for her on the floor with the big blocks. 
What else shall we build for dolly? Inclose a space 
on the floor with large blocks for dolly's house. 

Some children may be interested in counting the 
blocks. They may see how high they can build. Let 
the number work advance slowly as use for it appears. 
Do not force it. Follow the child. 


1. Draw every day. Observe the children's hands 
while they draw to judge who have used pencils or 
crayons at home. Use heavy crayons and large sheets 
of paper at least 7x9. 

Let the children draw what they please. This will 
give you an opportunity to see what they can already 

Listen attentively to anything they say about these 
early scrawls for they will reveal to you what is in 
the child's mind and perhaps give you a cue to some 
phases of his home life. 

Draw yourself for the children on the blackboard. 
Draw the house in the woods, draw the three tables, 
the three chairs, the three bowls. Thus you will be- 
gin illustrative drawing. Draw the pail that Jack and 
Jill carried up the hill. Draw Bopeep's crook if you 
cannot draw Bopeep herself and her sheep. 

Make drawing the main occupation for the month. 
Preserve several' early sets marking names and dates, 
and file these sets away to compare with results at 
the close of the term. 

There is no better way to test progress in the kin- 

2. The sand table should also be used daily and 
freely, principally for piling and digging and filling 
and emptying little pails. or cups. 

Have a few tiny spades and rakes to suggest garden 
and farm life which some children may have in mind 
from summer experiences. Talk about these tools. 
Teach their names if not known. 

Use dry sand at first. 

3. Clay modeling should be introduced as soon as 
you have the little ones well under control. 

It may be used from the first in small kindergartens, 
or one table may be prepared in large kindergartens 
and a few allowed to model at a time. To furnish clay 
to a large kindergarten early in the term is too great 
a task. It is better in this work to divide into groups. 
Drawing and building may be alternated in groups, 
also if materials are short. Give freedom to make 
anything. Model balls and marbles. 

4. Coloring outlined animals is good work for be- 

Secure good patterns from toy picture books. 

The free motion in mass coloring strengthens the 
hand. Dr. Montessori's insets are great favorites with 
the children. In like manner, the piece of paper or 
card from which an animal has been cut, may be used 
for this filling in. It is hardly possible for the young 
child to keep within a boundary line at this stage, 
hence the raised metal boundary is a help. Card- 
board stencils are helpful' too. 

The names and forms of several animal's may be 
familiarized in this way during September as well as 
by looking at animal picture books. There will be 
many city children who can scarcely name a farm 

Hence this exercise is valuable in enlarging the 
vocabulary as well as interesting the child in animal 
life. Try to secure toy picture books that show 
animals feeding. Stand them open on the ledge of 
the blackboard while the coloring lesson proceeds. 
Try to match colors as far as possible. 

Mount some of these colored animals and draw or 
cut cages for them if the capacity of the children 
warrant it. 

5. If more hand work seems necessary, try a little 
cutting, letting children who have used the scissors 
already at home, cut whatever they will as in draw- 
ing. Let others snip paper or cut fringes on towels 
for dolly. Cut a comb or plates or ball's, like those of 
the first gift. 

6. Making chains is an early occupation. Use wide 
strips, not less than half inch and make several 
single rings before attempting linking. Have a pur- 
pose in making chains. 

What are they for? To make our room look pretty. 
To wear home, to play with. 

The children soon love to measure to see whose 
chain is longest or they may suggest counting links. 

The youngest children may be only able to string 
wooden beads. 


These have already been suggested. The formal 
game should be reached gradually by means of imita- 
tive exercises and simple dramatizing. 

The rhythmic motions introduced may be, walking, 
running, skipping, clapping, swinging arms like the 

Vary these from fast to slow, and slow to fast, at 
first without music. 

"Walking, walking, walking into the ring," then 
"walking, walking back again," is a favorite rhythmic 
exercise. Walking backwards is a good exercise. The 



children keep hold of hands In this exercise, and 
laugh naturally as they reach the center all in a 

In learning to keep the circle form well, it is helpful 
to begin with a small ring, and gradually call chil- 
dren in. "Pussies and ponies'' is a simple game and 
pleases by the alternation from loud to soft. 

"We are little pussies 

Walking round and round, 
We have cushions on our feet 

And never make a sound." 
"We are little ponies 

Running round and round, 
We have hoofs upon our feet 

And stamp upon the ground." 

Repeat first verse so to end with quiet. 
See-saw is a good rhythmic game and may be played 
singly or in twos, also in rows. 


Keep out of doors during September. 

Take walks. Gather flowers and seeds. Talk of 
summer experiences in the country. 

Observe the sky, the clouds, passing birds, What 
fruits are in market. Talk of the weather every day 
and teach a weather song. 

No one can write a daily outline for you, good kin- 
dergartner. Do not deny yourself this privilege. 

Conditions differ so widely that you must settle 

Your own development also depends upon your own 
use of judgment in these matters. 

Even your own program should not be of cast iron. 
It should be a guide to prevent random work, but 
you should hold yourself in readiness to meet the 
changing moods of child and nature, and other local 
conditions which may arrive at any moment. 

One word in closing. Don't forget to sing to the 
children. This will' help in discipline. 

Use the piano in moderation. 


Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 
N. Y. C. 

Kindergartners and teachers of the first school 
grade are becoming more and more interested in each 
other's work. 

Indeed, we quite agree with Miss Emma Johnston, 
principal of the Brooklyn Training School for Teach- 
ers, who in a recent address before the N. Y. Public 
School Kindergarten Association said that she con- 
siders the kindergarten is really the first school 

There are more and more happy interchanges of 
suggestions between the kindergartner and the pri- 
mary teacher as the years go by. 

Kindergartners are glad to acknowledge that they 
are learning to do better work in art by observing 
the newer methods of the special teachers of drawing 
in primary grades. 

The special teacher in music has occasionally given 
valuable help in kindergarten music, witness the work 
in the Ethical Culture Schools in N. Y. C. under Dr. 
Dykema and more recently under Miss Alys Bentley, 
(See Kg. Mag. 1913) vice versa, many kindergarten 
songs are used by primary teachers. 

Altho dramatic play has always been an important 
element in the kindergarten, still' even the drama- 
tic game has felt the stir and impetus of the recent 
tendency to dramatization in the higher grades. 

Help has been mutually given and accepetd. Greater 
activity and less formal discipline have been encou- 
raged in the best first year classes — stories are more 
frequently told in the grades. They have always been 
advocated by kindergartners. 

More time has been given to drawing and hand- 
work in the primary grades, and observation proves 
that much of this early handwork is a copy or an 
extension of kindergarten occupations, such as folding, 
cutting, mounting, designing with sticks and seeds. 

There has been occasionally a little modeling and 
weaving, and more sewing and cardboard construction 
in the grades. All these are old kindergarten occupa- 

Yet, notwithstanding all these happy interchanges 
of materials and methods, we still hear it repeatedly 
stated that the transition from the kindergarten to 
the first year is too abrupt, and that use is not made 
in the first year of what has gone before. Proe- 
bel's "connecting" class is suggested as a help. 
It is a term all do not care to help perpetuate, 
but there seems a tendency to use it in many places 
and it does stand for a thought. It appears to me 
to be an artificial name. It does not suggest growth 
so much as it does mechanism. However, old names 
are interesting and vital, and we must not quarrel 
with a term which has a history of so much interest. 

Kindergartners are helping to organize these con- 
necting classes. 

Our purpose, then, in this series of articles is to 
help kindergartners in organizing such classes, and 
also to show the first grade teacher who may not 
have had full kindergarten training how she may con- 
nect her work more fully with the kindergarten if 
the children she teaches have had its benefits, and 
also how to help the little ones who come direct to 
school without the benefits of a kindergarten, by in- 
troducing kindergarten materials. 

Let me say first and last, it is in the spirit rather 
than in the letter that the primary teacher can best 
find the help she seeks. 

The one great principle of activity, of learning thru 
doing rather than merely talking, is the key to this 

What is our problem? Let me state it again in 
other words. It is to seek a less abrupt transition 
from kindergarten to the first school year. 

The first thing that must be done is the granting of 
smaller first year classes, or the introduction of 
"grouping" so that there may be less rigid discipline 
and more moving about the room. 



It is unnatural, unnecessary and unhealthful for 
children in the first year to sit as still as they often 
are required to do, or to maintain any special posi- 

I have no objection to individual desks. In some 
ways they are very welcome. Indeed, I have found 
that individual desks please the kindergarten children 
hut they do miss the freedom of the chair after a 
while. The little friend desk should not become a 
prison, as Dr. Montessori calls it. 

The children should frequently be called to the 
front or side of the room, allowed to write on the big 
blackboards, run back and forth in the aisles for exer- 
cise if there is no other free space in the room. I 
have seen a whole large primary class fly to the back 
of the room and forward again as gaily as if in a 
kindergarten ring. 

All is in the spirit tho, and space does aid wonder- 

Separating into groups materially aids this freer and 
more natural' discipline. One little group may be 
busy drawing on the blackboard — a second may be 
busy at their desks, designing with tablets, sticks 
or seeds, while a third group surrounds the teacher 
for practice in phonics or to read, spell or make and 
answer little number questions. 

Miss Ada Van Stone Harris and other primary sup- 
ervisors have planned with primary teachers excel- 
lent suggestive outlines for this group work, but each 
in the end must work out her own. 

At present, there will of necessity in large cities, be 
larger classes than we consider ideal, but earnest kin- 
drgartners and teachers are solving the problem of 
getting close to each individual' child by working at 
least a third or a half of the day in these groups. 

Groups of children soon learn not to disturb each 
other. Have they not the very best incentive to work 
quietly, namely to help others? These groups encour- 
age sociability and freer, better language results fol- 
low. A little child will speak in a small group more 
readily and naturally than in a class of fifty, and this 
freer oral language tends to produce natural readers. 

You remember in "Leonard and Gertrude" that Pes- 
talozzi makes Gertrude say, "I am trying to make the 
children speak well before they read well." 

The first grade teacher often feels pressed to pro- 
duce definite results in a given time. 

The symbols of spoken words and the symbols of 
numbers must be taught. This is the main new fea- 
ture, namely, to teach the little ones to connect 
spoken language with written. 

It is a great step — a great transition, but if even 
one word has been taught in the kindergarten, the ice 
is broken, as it were. I maintain that the first writ- 
ten word should be the child's own name, and that 
it is well to teach it before promotion. 

How frequently the /kindergartner scribbles the 
child's name on a piece of his handwork merely for 
his own convenience in identifying it. She does not 
stop to think that this may become the child's first 
lesson in reading the written word if she will only 

take time to write it legibly, especially as the child 
nears promotion. 

Sometimes in the kindergarten the children's weav- 
ing mats are kept in portfolios. The child's name 
should be written with great care in round, full script, 
upon his portfolio so that the form of the words, Mary 
and John, for example, are seen to be different. When 
this is done, it will be found that after a time, some 
of the brighter children will recognize the names of 
their near seat mates~as> well as their own and indeed, 
a few children may be able to distribute the portfolios 
to their rightful owners, by the names on them. 

Use always appeals to the child and he begins to see 
the use of the written word. 

I also suggest that a few days or possibly a week 
or two before promotion that a little game be intro- 
duced to see who can read his name (using only the 
given name.) 

Cut strips of paper about six inches long and two 
or three inches wide, writing a child's name on each 

Interest the children in this package of strips some 
morning in the circle. Lay four or five out on the 
floor or upon a low table; call up one child whose 
name is among these. If he can tell which is his, he 
takes it to his seat. Another strip is added to those 
lying down, and another child is called until all the 
children have found their names. 

When all the cards or strips are in the children's 
hands, let them play write their own names by tracing 
your writing with their finger. Tell them when they 
are promoted they will soon learn to write their own 
names and other children's names too. 

Ask them what they would like to do with the 
strips you have written so they can see them every 
day. Listen to their suggestions and let them decide 
which is the Perhaps they will want to take 
them home. Let them do so. 

After the children have gone home, write similar 
strips again and mount them on the backs of the 

There will be great fun in the morning when the 
children discover these slips, and run about trying to 
find which is their chair. Let them keep their own 
chairs until promoted. 

It might be a good plan to let each child mount his 
own name, but I like the surprise plan and the hunt. 
Besides it is likely that the children might mount the 
slips so that they could not be easily removed. If 
there is any objection to mounting on the backs of 
the chairs, mount on the under side of the seat. 

This drill on names may be varied again as follows: 

Show a package of slips with names and say, "To- 
day, when I want to call a child, I am going to hold 
up the card with his name." This will' insure watch- 
ful attention and start the habit of concentration on 
a given word, a start for which the primary teacher 
will truly be grateful if her class is large. 

It makes considerable difference whether this exer- 
cise with "name cards" is given by the kindergartner 
who is already so well known rather than after pro- 



motion. The slips will pave the way for the use of 
drill cards and other devices in the first grade. "From 
one learn all" was Jacatot's famous aphorism. 

The exercises I have described may also be used 
after promotion and will create interest in beginning 
reading on the blackboard if varied as follows: 

Who knows the rhyme — 
"Jack he nimble, 
Jack be quick, 

Jack jump over the candle stick." 
I see you all do. Have you ever played it? Show me 

Now I am going to write that story on the black- 
board and see if you can find Jack's name. 

Teacher writes. Children watch eagerly and quickly 
point to Jack's nama How many times can you find 

The teacher now takes out her package of name 
cards, chooses one and covers up Jack's name with 
it! "Now, who can tell who is to jump." Children 
read, "George be nimble," etc., the card being slipped 
down to cover Jack on each line. Then George suits 
the action to the reading. He comes out and does the 

I visited Mrs. Lileon Claxton North's connecting 
class last year and am indebted to her for this favorite 
happy device in the use of this nursery rhyme in her 
first reading lessons. The children responded with 
great glee, altho sad to relate, they were all little 
crippled children. 

Let me describe what else I saw in this same con- 
necting class in the reading lesson. 

As I entered the room the first thing I noted was 
placards on the principal objects in the room. The 
Kindergartner had written these placards very plain- 
ly in script and placed them on or near the object 
they named. Some of the words that caught my eye 
were "door," "chair," "desk.'' On the blackboard a 
row of familiar animal pictures appeared with the 
name of each animal written clearly beneath. 

Several nursery jingles were in evidence on charts 
as the book the class was preparing to use introduces 
reading with Mother Goose. 

On the table lay several primers to which the child- 
ren had been encouraged to refer as interesting pic- 
ture and story books. 

The day I observed, one child while looking at one 
of the primers exclaimed, "See, here is our story in 
the book!" "Is it there," said the teacher. "Let me 
see. I will read it all to you." Thus most naturally 
the book was introduced about the end of the second 

Another device to entice the children to active inter- 
est in letters was a large box standing on the floor, on 
the outside of which papers from a toy picture alpha- 
bet book had been mounted. Thus the children were 
learning the letters too. Some of them had of course 
been taught them at home and were proud to teach 
them to their comrades. I think there is no objection 
to utilizing this home knowledge altho it is unessen- 
tial in reading at first. 

In marching this day, each child carried a flag. 

"Wave the flag" was written on the blackboard and 
all carried out the "imperative-active" method as 
some new genius has christened an old device. 

At any rate we were impressed that this particular 
connecting class was an exceedingly active one. There 
was strict order and attention at times, but the ten- 
sion was often relieved in such tactful ways that one 
could well realize what is meant by the artist-teacher. 

No suggestion made by a child was ignored. Every 
little thought ventured, the teacher turned to account. 
The new atmosphere of a reading class was para- 
mount, but the old spirit of the kindergarten was 
there as well. 

(To be continued.) 


The Bureau of Education Committee of the I. K. U. 
has been working upon a kindergarten training course 
to recommend to the training teachers of the country. 
The course, when thoroughly discussed and completed, 
is to appear in the Bureau of Education bulletin on 
Kindergarten Training Schools. 

The subcommittee on bulletins has completed a man- 
uscript dealing with kindergarten-primary relations 
and double sessions; the subcommittee on "expert ad- 
vice'' is gathering interesting material to be made 
into circular letters and leaflets for distribution; and 
the subcommittee on literature is preparing lists of 
books for reading courses: — 

I. For mothers: — 

a. Books giving them practical suggestions as to 
the best methods of dealing with the problems of 
early childhood — physical, intellectual, moral, and 

b. Books that will acquaint them with the purposes 
and value of the kindergarten, and its attitude to- 
wards the problems of child life. 

c. Books that will acquaint them with some of the 
results of present-day child study along different 

II. For teachers and principals of schools: — 

a. Books that will acquaint them with the aims 
and methods of the kindergarten. 

b. Books that show the application of the prin- 
ciples which the kindergarten embodies to the 
work of the grade. 

c. Books that will acquaint them with the spread 
of the kindergarten movement. 

III. For graduate kindergartners: — 

a. Books on child study and its influence in re- 
organizing educational aims and methods, those of 
the kindergarten included. 

b. Books showing tendencies in present-day edu- 

c. Books on the kindergarten itself. 

In response to an earnest request, the committee 
has formulated the following question form, and sent 
it to one hundred and twenty supervisors of public 
schools and association, kindergartners;—: 



Inquiry into the Problems of Kindergarten Supervision 

I. Extent of supervision. 

1. How many kindergartens are there in your city? 
In how many school buildings are they con- 

2. What is the total number of children enrolled in 

them the current year? 

3. How many kindergarten teachers are employed? 

4. How many years have you supervised kindergar- 


5. What previous experience did you have as a kin- 

dergarten teacher? 

6. What general educational training have you 


7. What special kindergarten training? 

8. What salary do you receive? 

II. Organization of kindergartens. 

1. To what extent are you responsible for 

a. The number of sessions per day? The 

length of each session? 

b. The number of childen per kindergarten 

and per kindergarten teacher? 

c. The number of months or years the chil- 

dren remain in kindergarten? 

d. Deciding when children shall be pro- 

moted ? 

2. To what extent are you responsible for 

a. The planning of the kindergarten rooms? 

b. The provision for gardening and other 

outdoor work? 

c. The supply of kindergarten material? 

III. The work of the kindergartens. 

1. Supervisor's visits. 

a. How frequently do you visit each kinder- 
- b. How long are your visits? 

c. What is their nature and purpose? 

2. The subject matter of the kindergarten program. 

a. Do you prescribe this? 

b. If so, by what means is it presented to 

the kindergarten teacher? 

c. If not, how is the work to be done deter- 


d. ■ How do you secure originality and crea- 

tiveness on the part of kindergarten 

e. How do you judge of the results? 

f. Upon what point is your estimate of a kin- 

dergarten teacher's ability based? 

g. What written reports do you file in the 

superintendent's office? 

3. Meetings and conferences. 

a. To what extent do you hold personal in- 

terviews with kindergarten teachers as 
a means of strengthening their work? 

b. What is the nature and purpose of the 

meetings you hold with the kindergarten 
teachers as a body? 

c. How frequently are these held? At what 

what time of day? For how long a 

d. How do you stimulate kindergarten teach- 
ers to further study? 

IV. Supervision by others than the kindergarten 


1. To what extent are the kindergartens supervised 


a. The music supervisor? 

b. The art supervisor? 

c. The manual training supervisor? 

d. The physical director? 

2. To what extent do these special' supervisors out- 

line the work and set the standards in their 
respective lines? 

3. What written reports of the kindergarten work 

do they make to the superintendent? 

4. What meetings do they hold with the kinder- 

garten teachers? 

5. In default of such supervision, are kindergarten 

teachers given any help along these special 

6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of 

having the kindergartens supervised by these 

7. To what extent have the grade supervisors juris- 

diction over the work of the kindergartens? 

V. Relation of school principals to kindergarten 

teachers and kindergarten supervisor. 

1. To what extent is the principal of the school 

responsible for the quality of the work done 
in the kindergarten? 

2. To what extent does he or the grade supervisor 
instruct the kindergarten teachers in the work and 

methods of the grades for which they are 
preparing the children? 

3. How and when is such instruction given? 

4. To what extent does the school' principal or the 

kindergarten supervisor instruct the grade 
teachers in the purposes and methods of the 
kindergarten that they may know how to 
build upon the foundation it lays? 

5. How and when is such instruction given? 

6. In default of such instruction, what effort is 

made to unify the work of the kindergarten 
and that of the grades? 

VI. What suggestions can you give for improving 

kindergarten supervision? 

I look out of my window 
And see the lovely stars, 

Hope some day I'll' know for sure, 
Which is Venus — which is Mars. 

I nodded to a daisy 

And said, "How do you do," 
The daisy nodded back, which meant, 

"I'm well — hope you are too.'' 

If I always mind my mother, 
I'm sure my dolly — Sue, 

Will know that I'm doing right 
And try to mind me, too. 







(See picture, page 1.) 

Bertha Johnston. 

motto for the mother — prose rendering. 

How great the Art of Counting 

Man does not appreciate; 

He scarcely guesses how great his achieve- 
ment by which he identifies himself in 
Yes to count correctly,— 
Teaches us to choose the Right, 
Teaches us to avoid the Evil, 
And so gives us true joy. 


My thumb I count as one, 
The pointing-finger two, 
The middLe, three, 
Ring-finger, four, 
And five, this finger wee. 

Now I've put them all to bed, 
Hush! that none too early wakes! 
Sleep, until the morning breaks; 
Rest, each little sleepy-head! 


I place my thumb against the index-finger, in a 
natural position, the nail turned slightly upward. 
With the counting and naming successively of each of 
the fingers, I bend the finger named toward the palm, 
but so that (as the drawing shows) their joints do 
not cover the tip of the thumb. The hand now repre- 
sents a charming whole, in which the child imagines, 
according to the song, that each finger is a child, and 
in each nail', he sees the tiny face. The artist has 
thus conceived and drawn the hand, or rather the 
little children, which it is supposed to represent. 

The entire picture expresses rest, sleep; the poppies 
sleep, as do the five birds in the tree. But in sleep, 
the slumbering life merely reposes, as in number and 
in counting, slumber the higher meaning and signi- 
ficance of life. What is a poem without counting, num- 
ber, measure without the poet's feeling for measure 
and rhythm? What becomes of the most beautiful 
music, the sublimest oratorio, without number, with- 
out the true sense for measure, the accurate feeling, 
even if unconscious of the composer and conductor? 
for true beat, measure, rhythm. 

The miscalcultion of one day, one hour, may spoil 
your entire life, with a loss never again to be retreved, 
or but slightly; at best only at a sacrifice, even if this 
be but a small one. 

The child seems to have a premonition of this, for 
who does not know what pleasure he takes in count- 
ing and how important a part so-called "counting-out" 
games play in his later youth. 

We must therefore early seek to give true signi- 
ficance to his counting, and his pleasure in numbering, 
especially by letting him discover and comprehend 

their significance, in the structure of objects in nature 
as to number and form. 


We have now published in The KindergartenPrimary 
Magazine about 30 of the 49 "Mutter und Koselieder," 
and originally selected them upon the basis of making 
each one of a year's series coincide to some degree 
with the season's thought. But as the number is re- 
duced it becomes more difficult to follow such a plan. 
In any case, no thoughtful teacher allows herself to be 
hampered by materials, and our readers will of course 
use the pictures, verses, and practical suggestions, not 
necessarily in any one month or week, but at such 
times as a particular need will' suggest. 

As Froebel truly says, thoughtful observers cannot 
fail to notice the interest little children take in count- 
ing, and also in measure and rhythm. 

Darwin, in his "Descent of Man" and Herbert 
Spencer, in his "Illustrations of Universal Progress" 
make some interesting observations upon the origin 
of counting with primitive man, and the relation of 
man's sense of rhythm ot certain physiological func- 
tions, such as breathing. 

Anthropologists point out that the art of enumer- 
ation originated in counting the fingers, first of one 
hand, then of the other, and then the toes. Traces of 
this are seen in the decimal system, and in the Roman 
numerals, which "after reaching to the number V., 
changes into VI.,'' etc. With certain races, a score, 20, 
— stands for "one man." Certain primitive peoples 
can count only as high as four. Illiterate folk find the 
fingers useful aids in reckoning, and travelers in for- 
eign parts, avail themselves of their help in making 

In construing Greek and Latin verse, the student 
realizes the importance of measure in expressing 
poetical feeling, and altho Walt Whitman is accused of 
having neglected rhythm, the careful analysist, will 
find that even in his apparently measureless lines, is 
to be found an undercurrent of rhythm. True it is, 
that the poet, the orator, the musical composer, all 
who would awaken emotions in another, either con- 
sciously or unconsciously, employ measures whose 
beats can be counted. In his Mother Play, "the Finger 
Piano," Froebel carries out more fully, this thought 
of te rhythm that underlies all the phenomena of 

The "counting-ouf games of children, such as "ena, 
mena, mina, mo" are supposed by some, to have 
originated with the custom of barbarous warfare, 
which counted its prisoners by tens or twenties, etc., 
the tenth or twentieth etc., in each case being saved; 
the others executed en masse. 

As suggested in the Motto, counting, measuring, is 
one of the means by which man advances in know- 
ledge of the world of space, and so learns better and 
better how to recognize his place in it, how to adjust 
himself to it, through choosing the good and avoiding 
the Evil — in other words, "counting the cost" of every 
choice he makes. The present war is a frightful ex- 
ample of the ruin wrought because mankind failed to 
calculate aright the cost of settling disputes by re- 
sort to arms. A miscalculation caused the wreck of 
the Eastland. 



By Anna Mae Brady 

Children love poems because of the rhythm, the 
story, and the poetic arrangement of words. The older 
children see all three of these things in a poem while 
nothing but the rhythm may appeal to the little ones. 
They should not be asked to memorize a poem until 
they are able to give the story of it or in other words 
until they get the thought. 

There are many rhythms and jingles that the aver- 
age child is capable of comprehending when he enters 
school. These nursery rhymes are the first things he 
will memorize. Many are already known to him. 

Instead of memorizing all of them, he will respond 
to some in other ways. For instance he may tell the 
story by free hand cutting, clay modeling, drawing, 
construction work, paper tearing, dramatization, or 
by means of the sand table. 

But we do give children from the First Grade to the 
Eighth poems that we do not ask them to respond to. 
These are given to satisfy their love for rhythm and 
to cultivate a taste for good poetry. 

The poems from which we expect no response may 
be read only once or they may be read many times. 
But when we expect a response from the child in any 
way we must give the poem several times. 

If it is to be memorized, the teacher must know it 
before she attempts to give it to the children. In the 
lower grades she never reads a poem but in the upper 
grades she occasionally does. Ofter the poem has 
been given several times, she questions them on it 
and they tell the story in their own words. If there 
are any difficult words she writes them on the board 
and brings out their meaning. Then she questions 
them so they answer with a phrase or a verse. They 
are now ready to memorize it. The teacher first says 
a line or a verse and the children repeat it after 

The following is a list of poems suitable for each 
grade. There is one list of poems we expect some sort 
of response to and another for reading only . 



1. The Wind — Robert Louis Stevenson. 

2. The Wind— Christine Rosetti. 

3. My Shadow — R. L. Stevenson 

4. Foreign Lands — R. L. Stevenson. 

5. The Rain— R. L. Stevenson. 

6. The Lamplighter — R. L. Stevenson. 


1. Land of Nod — R. L. Stevenson. 

2. The Land of Counterpane — R. L. Stevenson. 

3. Wynken, Bfynken nd Nod — Eugene Field. 

4. The Land of Story Books — Stevenson. 

5. Foreign Children — Stevenson. 

6. The Shut Eye Train-^Field. 



1. Pippas Passes— Robert Browning. 

2. Ariel Song — Shakespeare. 

3. How Do You Like To Go Up In a Swing- 

4. Pitty Pat and Tippy Toe— Field. 

5. Little Gustava — Thaxter. 

6. Birdie with a Yellow Bill' — Stevenson. 


1. The Duel— Field. 

2. Owl and Pussy Cat— Field. 

3. "If"— Van Dyke. 

4. Bed in Summer — Stevenson. 

5. Sea Sick — Stevenson. 

6. When I am Grown Up — Stevenson. 



1. The Sun's Travels — Stevenson. 

2. Seven Times One— Stevenson. 

3. The Seed— Lamb. 

4. The Dandelion — Anon. 

5. Pop Corn — S. T. Newman. 

6. David and Goliath— S. T. Newman. 


1. Twenty-third Psalm — Bible. 

2. The Village Blacksmith— Longfellow. 

3. The Wreck of the Hesperus — Longfellow. 

4. My Ship — Stevenson. 

5. The Palm Tree— Whittier. 

6. The Pied Piper — Browning. 



1. From Ghent to Aix — Browning. 

2. Prayer Song — James Hogg. 

3. Prayer — Coleridge. 

4. September — Helen Hunt Jackson. 

5. October — Helen Hunt Jackson. 

6. The Wonderful World— W. B. Rand. 


1. The Mountain and the Squirrel — Emerson. 

2. The King— J. W. Riley. 

3. Barefoot Boy— Whittier. 

4. Little Boy Blue — Field. 

5. A Sleepy Song — Bacon. 

6. The Spider and the Fly— Howitt. 



1. Revenge — Tennyson. 

2. The Sea— Cornwall. 

3. The Wreck of the Hesperus — Longfellow. 

4. Break! Break! Break! — Tennyson. 

5. The Children's Hour — Longfellow. 

6. Uphill— Christina Rosetti. 


1. The Cloud— Shelly. 

2. The Night Before Christmas— Moore. 

3. The Psalm of Life— Longfellow. 

4. The Feet of the Young Men — Kipling. 

5. The Fairies of Caldon Law— Howitt. 

6. The Idle Shepherd Boys— Wordsworth, 









1. The First Snowfall— Lowell. 

2. The Bugle Song — Tennyson. 

3. A Green Cornfield — Rossetti. 

4. Tubal Cain — Mackay. 

5. The Miller of the Dee— Mackay. 

6. Lochinvar — Scott. 


1. The Blind Highland Boy — Wordsworth. 

2. The Chambered Nautilus — Holmes. 

3. The Lady of Shalott— Tennyson. 

4. Under the Greenwood Tree — Shakespeare. 

5. March — Wordsworth. 

6. The Song of the Chattahoochee — Lanier. 



1. Paul Revere — Longfellow. 

2. King Robert of Sicily — Longfellow. 

3. The Goblin Market— Rossetti. 

4. To a Waterfowl — Bryant. 

5. Abou Ben Adhem — Hunt. 

G. Breathes There a Man— Scott. 


1. One Hoss Shay — Holmes. 

2. The Explorer— Kipling. 

3. The Raven— Poe. 

4. The Man Born to be a King — Morris. 

5. The Ballad of East and West— Kipling. 

6. Each and All — Emerson. 



1. Enoch Arden — Tennyson. 

2 The Vision of Sir Launfal— Lowell. 

3. The Courtship of Miles Standish — Longfellow. 

4. The Lady of the Lake — Scott. 

5. Peter Bell — Wordsworth. 

6. Evangeline — Longfellow. 


1. The Splendor Falls — Tennyson. 

2. The Rime of the Ancient Mariner — Coleridge. 

3. I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud — Wordsworth. 

4. For A' That and A' That— Burns. 

5. The Birds of Kill'ingworth — Longfellow. 

6. Hart-leap Well — Wordsworth. 

Two little feet have been skipping all day, 
Two little hands have been busy at play, 
Two eyes and two ears, though closed for the 

With both pop wide open with early daylight. 
Rebecca Strutton, San Diego, Calif. 


Tinkle, tinkle, hear the rain, 
Falling on my window pane, 

Each flower says, "I'm glad to see 
The rain, which so refreshes me.' 

Bertha Johnston. 

We will first give a few practical suggestions for 
occupations and plays arising from the Mother Play 
"Numbering the Fingers." 

Let the children study the picture and tell what 
different things they see therein, counting the num- 
ber of children, the birds, and the poppies. 

Fold the hand as in picture and recite the verses. 
Notice, that, as the thumb is not in line with the other 
fingers, so one baby is in a cradle by itself. How 
many beds? How many children in each? 

Why need of sleep? Can we sleep in dark better 
than in light? Should we fear the dark? Is it not a 

All animals and plants have sleeping-time, but some 
rest at night and some in daytime. Farmers even let 
their fields have periods of rest and recuperation. 
Discuss the long sleep of winter that so soon will en- 
wrap nearly all vegetable life and many animals, 
such as bears. 

Notice that grown birds sleep on a branch and not 
in a nest. 

In mothers' meetings help the mothers to feel the 
importance of single beds wherever possible, in order 
that children may have most healthful sleep. Value of 
outdoor bedrooms for tuberculosis patients. 

Symbolism of the poppy, from which morphine Is 
made, which give patients sleep when painful oper- 
ations must be performed. 


Count different objects in room. Number of win- 
dows, chairs, etc. 
Count number of children singly, then by twos, threes 
etc. March by twos, threes, fives, etc. 

Bring flowers to school, that illustrate differences In 
form and structure and show how the petals, sepals, 
stamens, etc., have numerical relations, threes, fives, 




All the kindergarten children place their hands 
upon the table, and count fingers by ones, fives, tens 
and the like. 

Discuss importance of correct measurement of build- 
ings, ships, bridges. 

How wonderful that man can even measure the 
velocity of the invisible wind, and the weight of the 
atmosphere, and so foretell' the weather. He measures 
the infinitesimal atoms, the distance of the stars. 

Importance of correct weights and measures. Let 
the children play measuring games, telling how many 
inches in table, corners and sides to a cube, cylinder, 
etc. ; and cutting a ball of string into various lengths 
for future use. 

Let teacher play some marked time and the children 
beat time to it. March, skip, hop, in different 

Close eyes, and teacher tap a certain number of 
times, as children tell how many. 

Children choose five to represent birds, five flowers, 
and five children, and all go to sleep. Also, five butter- 
flies and five moths. 

Recite "John Brown had a little Indian,'' some child 
choosing and counting as he does so, ten children from 
circle, who all march around single file; as music 
plays. Then stand, and as child counts backward, and 
places hand on head of each Indian successively, he re- 

Dramatize, "One, two, buckle my shoe." 

Play Buz. Also spin the platter. 


Balls — Place all in center and ask children to 
arrange them in rows of five, six, ten, etc., first 
irrespective of color, then five red, five green, etc. 
String beads, in numerical sequence, ccording to 
shape or color. Very young children will be unable to 
count more than two or three, at first. 

Make a procession of blocks on the table, arranged 
according to shape, five of one, three of another, etc. 
Give dictation lesson, involving counting, as, a wall so 
many bricks long, so many wide. 

Let Second Gift Box represent boat, to be loaded 
with Third and Fourth Gift blocks. Who can load it 
most quickly and carefully, so as to get the most in, 
and yet have boat quite safe. Emphasize "safety first." 

Let each child place his hand, with fingers extended, 
upon a sheet of paper, and then draw a close line 
around it, giving the outline of the hand. Draw the 
nail. Name and number each finger in the lecture 
orally, reciting or singing some finger play. Let the 
children practice this until each one can draw it 
neatly; then use the drawing as first page in their 
drawing or pasting book, as it repesents the instru- 
ment with which they do their work. 

Count conspicuously the pencils, sheets of paper, 
and other things used this particular morning, and 
lot the children feel that if articles are lost or abused, 
that extra money must be used for new ones, and that 
the money thus spent, might be used in other and 
better ways. 

Cradle — Let children observe cradle in picture and 
try to cut one thus: 



First, take a piece of paper, measuring 3%xl inches. 
Fold lengthwise once, and then fold again, end to end. 
Cut outline, as in drawing; open out and fold. 

We have put into rhyme a common summer ex- 
perience, which the children may enjoy reciting: 

Birdie fell from its nest, 

In the gnarled apple tree, 
Mother fluttered and chirped — 

Oh, how anxious was she! 

So we picked up her babe, 

And we placed on a limb; 
Soon mother was coaxing, 

Encouraging him. 

"Don't be afraid, 

Tweet, tweet, tweet, 
Balance and cling, 

With your sure little feet." 

And soon he was safe 

In his nest in the tree, 
What did he tell, 

What did he tell 

To be bedfellow three? 

Explain meaning of "gnarled," and discuss different 
appearance of trees according to manner of growth — 
some gnarled, some tall and stately, like poplars; 
some gracefully curving like elm, etc. 

Let children dramatize the verses, one representing 
the fallen bird, some the kind people who pick it up. 
Another, the mother bird that flutters and coaxes it 
little by little up the tree to the nest. An inclined 
board, if available, could represent the tree-trunk and 
limb, leading up to a circle made of small chairs, for 
the next. 

The tallest and the shortest people of Europe, the 
Norwegians and the Lapps, come from countries which 
adjoin each other. 

He who loves goodness harbors angels, reveres 
reverance, and lives simply, doing good. — Whittier. 



By Elizabeth Harrison 
I. Introduction. 

Dr. Montessori's presence and addresses at the late 
meeting of the I. K. U. and N. E. A. have greatly re- 
newed the interest in the Montessori method of edu- 
cation, and we believe the following article written by 
Elizabeth Harrison a year or two ago will find re- 
newed interest ani'ong our readers. 

The educational world is still eagerly discussing 
the comparative merits of an experiment which was 
made by Dr. Maria Montessori in Rome with a few 
poor children gathered from the tenement districts 
with a model tenement house recently established by 
an association of philanthropic Roman citizens. 

Much misunderstanding prevails with regard to Dr. 
Montessori's work. Notwithstanding the fact that 
she has somewhat suddenly attained a world-wide 
reputation, she modestly claims to have established 
only one pedagogical laboratory, her idea being that 
many more must be established and the results com- 
pared before a scientific system of pedagogy can be 
worked out. She lays no claims to a new method of 
pedagogy, but rather to a method of a new science of 
pedagogy. The beginnings of this new science had 
already manifested themselves in education by the 
special attention given to physically handicapped chil- 
dren, to mentally defective individuals, and to moral 
derelicts. The same influence is observable in many 
other directions — in the attempts to provide a whole- 
some recreation for the congested sections of our great 
cities in the effort to deepen social life for the iso- 
lated workers in the agricultural districts; in the 
advocacy of farm life for boys instead of juvenile 
courts and houses of correction. It is also observ- 
able in the more scientific treatment of prisoners in 
our more advanced penal institutions. Eugenics, hy- 
giene, anthropology, and similar studies have become 
topics of general interest reserved only for special- 
ists. Better still, we are awakening to the fact that 
the efforts of "experimental psychology," although 
they have brought forth valuable by-products, have 
failed to reduce man to the laws of physics. The in- 
ner spirit of personality of man has refused to be 
reduced to the laws of mere organic matter. Dr. Mon- 
tessori's work is thoroughly in accord with this prin- 
ciple. Notwithstanding her exacting and thorough 
training as a scientist, she has absolute faith in the 
importance of the study of the child's ego or person- 
ality and claims that it will be the chief concern of 
pedagogy in the near future. 

Any estimate of Madame Montessori's work, to be 
of practical value to the mother or teacher, will nec- 
essarily involve a comparison between the Montessori 
method and that of the kindergarten, since the kin- 
dergarten is the only system of organized educational 
work for young children that has so far received gen- 
eral recognition. It is important to remind ourselves, 
however, that the welfare of the little child is of far 
more significance than the mere settlement of rival 

claims between the kindergarten and Montessori. Only 
by taking this larger view of the subject can we come 
to any just or satisfactory estimate of Dr. Montes- 
sori's education of young children, and that will be 
the chief consideration in this bulletin rather than an 
extended account of her psychological' view, which is 
not new. It will be necessary to show, however, how 
the latter has shaped the former. 

The contributions in Dr. Montessori's work that are 
of most practical value to us come largely from her 
training as a physician and a student of anthropology. 
It is doubtful if any kindergartner has made so thor- 
ough study of the physical needs of children. She 
has also the advantage of the scientific advance which 
experimental psychology has made since Froebel's 
day, concerning the effects of the bodily condition 
upon mental progress of children. Owing to her an- 
thropological studies, she has furnished us with a 
very simple and easily comprehended chart, which 
shows the average height, weight, etc., of the normal 
child, at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years of age, and thereby 
gives a standard, by means of which the abnormality 
of any child can be easily ascertained. 

The kindergarten as organized by Friedrich Froebel 
in Germany in the middle of the last century has been 
much enriched and improved by American kindergart- 
ners. Any one who visits the average European kin- 
dergarten, where the work seems to be in an almost 
hopeless stage of formalism, will appreciate this fact. 
This is not implying a criticism upon Froebel's central 
thought, however, for even in America it has not been 
fully understood, nor carried out as it some day will 
be. Indeed, one of the valuable things Dr. Montessori 
has done has been to stir up the kindergarten world 
and set its leaders to thinking of their present limi- 
tations, and how they can do better work. 

II. The Principle of Freedom:. 

The first thing to be considered in any method of 
training worthy of consideration is the fundamental 
principle on which that system is based. In Dr. Mon- 
tessori's case this is easily stated. She believes that 
the child's inner self or personality can not rightfully 
be developed unless it is free to express itself undirected 
and unguided by another person. Therefore, she in- 
sists that each child must be allowed to be bodily free 
and have as much unhampered liberty of action as 
possible, in order that he may fully express his inner 
life in outer activity. The child's liberty is to be un- 
limited, except where it clashes with the liberty of 
another person or endangers life. 

Dr. Ivfontessori states in her chapter on discipline: 
We call an individual disciplined when he is master 
of himself, and can therefore regulate his own con- 
duct when it shall be necessary to follow some rule of 
life. Such concept of active discipline is not easy to 
comprehend nor apply. But certainly it contains the 
great educational principle, very different from the 
old-time absolute and undiscussed coercion of im- 
mobility. And such technique is necessary to the 
teacher who is to lead the -child along such a field of 



discipline, if she is to make it possible for him to con- 
tinue in this way all his life; advancing indefinitely 
toward perfect self-mastery. * * * * 

If any educational act is to be efficacious, it will be 
only that which tends to help toward the complete un- 
folding of this life; to be thus helpful, it is necessary 
rigorously to avoid the arrest of spontaneous move- 
ments and the imposition of arbitrary tasks. It is, of 
course, understood here that we do not speak of a 
useless or dangerous act; this must be suppressed, de- 

In this she differs from Froebel, who would have 
the mother stimulate or help to awaken the child's in- 
stincts, even in the young infant, as shown by his 
commentary on the little songs included in the Mother 
Play Songs, wherein he states that the mother's train- 
ing of her child begins by thus guiding aright the first 
physical and spontaneous activities of his limbs. It is 
true that in the "Education of Man," written 10 years 
earlier, Froebel had said: "Education in instruction 
and training, originally and in its first principles, 
would necessarily be passive, following (only guard- 
ing and protecting), not prescriptive, categorical, in- 
terfering." This passage in Froebel's writings has 
perhaps caused more discussion than any one state- 
ment in any modern pedagogical writing. Yet even in 
the same volume Froebel modifies his statement by 
comparing the child's training to the trimming of the 
grapevine, which to bear its best fruits, must be oc- 
casionally pruned. There is also his belief in the 
need of a wise and patient guidance on the part of the 
mother, as evidenced by the Mother Play. We shall 
Lave to conclude, therefore, that absolute freedom was 
not x intended. 

Herbert Spencer exemplifies the same urging of 
greater liberty for the child: "The proper function of 
education in preparation for complete living is the 
free exercise of all our faculties." Many more edu- 
cators could be quoted as urging greater freedom in 

Undoubtedly there has been too much domineering 
on the part of the teacher in the past, yet must not 
the wisdom of the ages guide the child? Else how is 
he to find the "eternal verities" of life or the time- 
tested standards of real moral conduct? It is practi- 
cally impossible to leave the child absolutely unguided 
and undirected. To a large degree, Dr. Montessori 
substitutes for personal authority, impersonal mater- 
ials, which check and direct the child. Yet, even in 
her schools in Rome, there were times when the 
teacher's authority had to be used, and still remains a 
problem as to how far it is wise to eliminate all con- 
sciousness, on the part of the child, of intelligent 
authority, sympathetically applied, to his guidance 
and conduct. 

Dr. Montessori gives an excellent illustration of the 
stupid hinderance which untrained or unsympathetic 
teachers too often impose upon children, entirely un- 
conscious of the mischief they are doing to the young 
and growing life. 

One day the children had gathered themselves, 
laughing and talking, into a circle about a basin of 
water containing some floating toys. We had in the 
school a little boy barely 2% years old. He had been 
left outside the circle, alone, and it was easy to see 
that he was filled with intense curiosity. I watched 
him from a distance with great interest; he first drew 
near to the other children and tried to force his way 
among them, but he was not strong enough to do this, 
and he then stood looking about him. The expression 
of thought on his little face was intensely interesting. 
I wish that I had had a camera, so that I might have 
photographed him. His eyes lighted upon a little 
chair, and evidently he made up his mind to place it 
behind the group of children and then to 
climb on it. He began to move toward the chair, his 
face illuminated with hope, but at that moment the 
teacher seized him brutally (or, perhaps, she would 
have said, gently) in her arms and, lifting him up 
above the heads of the other children, showed him the 
basin of water, saying, "Come, poor little one, you 
shall see, too!" Undoubtedly, the child, seeing the 
floating toys, did not experience the joy that he was 
about to feel through conquering the obstacle with his 
own force. The sight of those objects could be of ad- 
vantage to him, while his intelligent efforts would 
have developed his inner powers. The teacher 
hindered the child in this case from educating himself 
without giving him any compensating good in return. 
The little fellow had been about to feel himself a 
conqueror, and he found himself held within two im- 
prisoning arms, impotent. The expression of joy, 
anxiety, and hope, which had interested me so much, 
faded from his face and left on it the stupid expression 
of the child who knows that others will act for him. 

There is scarcely a supervisor of kindergartens who 
has not witnessed similar pathetically injurious 
scenes. Froebel goes even further than this when he 
says : 

The child should, from the very time of his birth, be 
viewed in accordance with his nature, treated cor- 
rectly, and given the free, all-sided use of his powers. 
By no means should the use of certain powers and 
members be enhanced at the expense of others, and 
these hindered in their development; the child should 
neither be partly chained, fettered, nor swathed; nor, 
later on, spoiled by too much assistance. The child 
should learn early how to find in himself the center 
and fulcrum of all his powers and members, to seek his 
support in this, and, resting therein, to move freely 
and be active, to grasp and hold with his own hands, 
to stand and walk on his own feet, to find and observe 
with his own eyes, to use his members symmetrically 
and equally. At an early period the child should learn, 
p-pply. and practice the most difficult of all arts — to 
hold fast ihe center and fulcrum of his life, in spite of 
all digressions, disturbances, and hindrances. 

A kindergartner tells of a child about 5 years of age 
in her school, who, owing to the extreme wealth of his 
parents, had been hampered and waited upon until he 
was almost helpless. She described the effort which 



she had made to encourage him in his attempt to put 
on one of his own wraps without the aid of herself or 
his nursery maid. She led him to watch the other 
children as they wrapped and unwrapped themselves 
and gradually succeeded in having him master the 
intricacies of fitting on his rubbers, putting on his 
overcoat and buttoning it up, pulling his hat over his 
ears, and slipping his hands into his gloves. One day 
at the close of the school, while she was busy with 
other duties, she heard him shouting aloud in tones of 
overflowing joy, "I can do it all myself! I can do it all 
myself!" as he danced up and down the room in ex- 
citement and glee. In telling of this incident, she said, 
"I never saw more pleasure expressed on tne lace of a 
child. I think no present which could have been given 
to him could have possibly produced such feeling. It 
was the joy of discovery of power within himself." To 
many unthinking parents and teachers these simple, 
ordinary exercises of self-help are looked upon as 
trivial, whereas in reality they are part of the dis- 
cipline which produces men and women of power and 
resource and individuals who are fearless because 
they are independent. 

This tendency toward freedom from rigidity is per- 
haps the most distinctive characteristic of modern 
education as compared with that which has come 
down from mediaeval times, and which is even yet too 
prevalent in many of our schools. It gives greater 
freedom of bodily movement, greater ease of position 
while studying, does away with fixed seats crowded 
close to fixed desks, breaks up the machinelike 
marching to and from classes, adds relaxation of 
muscles and nerves by rhythmic exercises, increases 
coordination of muscles and control of bodily move- 
ment by well-selected games, and brings composure of 
manner and self-control by the introduction of simple, 
dramatic plays. This thought of greater freedom is 
encouraged by distributing certain duties of the school- 
rooms among the students and by letting the pupils 
formulate certain rules for their own self-government. 
It is the principle that allows greater initiative to 
pupils in discussion in the classroom; it leads to indi- 
vidual research work in the school library; it makes 
the students express themselves in their own language 
rather than that of the textbook, write out personal 
opinions or experiences, and compare information 
gained from new enterprises with that already known; 
and it encourages creative handwork, as well as 
original composition. To avoid running into caprice, 
this principle of freedom, of course, must be offset by 
giving to the pupils the ideal standards of each line of 
work by means of which they can compare their own 
work with that of experts. 

It is impossible to resist adding a few words of the 
Dottoressa's protest concerning the abominable prac- 
tice of giving external prizes and their detrimental 
effect upon the inner life. With it all true lovers of 
the real child will agree. She states that when 
we have once accepted and established these principles 
of developing power from within, the abolition of 
prizes and external forms of punishment will follow 

naturally. Man, disciplined, through liberty, begins to 
desire the true and only prize which will never belittle 
or disappoint him — the birth of human power and 
liberty within, that inner life of his from which his 
activities must spring. 

When we realize the tremendous influence which 
well-deserved praise and just censure have upon the 
child we begin to comprehend the immorality of re- 
warding self-conquest and earnest endeavor (both of 
which are spiritual' activities) by giving to the child 
mere external rewards. The mother who says to her 
little one, "If you will be good while I am away I 
will bring you some candy," lowers the child's stan- 
dard of moral conduct to the plane of physical grati- 
fication and confuses the child's ideas of the higher 
and lower standards of life. The same is true of the 
awarding of prizes and, alas, of our universal system 
of grading pupils by the marking of examination 
papers. Here again we meet with a tremendous prob- 
lem not yet solved. 

This brings up the much-discussed question whether 
we are to have in schools arbitrary discipline or no 
discipline except that which comes from the deed itself 
or from remembrance of former experiences of fail- 
ure or discomfort. The "retributory'' theory has long 
been held by many modern educators, but it is no- 
where ideally carried out, not even in these Roman 
schools. Still', they are an advance in the effort at self- 
control and self -discipline, and as such are most inter- 

This freedom, Dr. Montessori claims, is absolutely 
necessary for "auto-education," which is but another 
name for the watchword of the present-day movement 
in education, "self-activity," the central thought of the 
kindergarten, and strongly insisted upon by Herbert 
Spencer, Dewey, and other modern educational 
leaders. It is, therefore, no new doctrine; but she has 
a new method of procedure. In the first place, she de- 
mands that the schoolroom in which little children 
are placed shall have space sufficient for the children 
to move about in easily, and to allow them to sit, stand, 
walk, or lie down on the small rugs which are part of 
the room's furnishings. This is in order that their 
bodies may not be taxed by remaining in one position 
too long. The freedom thus given to the impulse to 
change the muscular strain of his body whenever the 
child so wishes (an excellent point) is an advance 
over and above the amount of freedom allowed in the 
ordinary kindergarten, which is still far short of the 
ideal kindergarten. In Rome I saw no boisterousness 
nor capricious use of this liberty to move about, not 
even when a little one chose to lie down upon the floor. 
The children were as natural and normal as any happy 
and occupied children would be in their own homes, 
and merely used the liberty to move about when the 
body seemed to demand it. Of couse, the use of small 
rugs on the floor, which the children unroll when they 
wish to use them and roll up again when they have 
finished using them, demands daily cleaning of the 
floor, a demand of common sense not always carried 
into execution in our schools. 

(To be continued.) 





While we have much to appreciate from Montessori, 
it is considered that the one most valuable lesson she 
has taught to the kindergarten world is that of free- 
dom. Not that she has presented a new theory; Froe- 
bel and others have suggested it; unknown teachers, 
perchance, have dreamed of it; but, she has taken the 
initiative and actually put in practice — be it perfectly 
or imperfectly — the idea of freedom in the kinder- 

If our kindergartens are too formal, it is the found- 
ers of our system, not our teachers, who must bear 
the responsibility for this state of affairs. If the 
teacher forms a part of a system which is supposed 
to work methodically and stiffly, she, to hold this posi- 
tion, must act according to the restricted ideas in- 
volved in the system. 

It is physical freedom which Montessori has so 
victoriously demonstrated. In this we can afford to 
watch and to learn of her. 

But mental freedom, it is, by the nature of things, 
impossible to fully extend. The mind of the child 
is limited by the materials at hand. It is here that 
the American system is more expansive than that of 
Montessori; for, we believe that the story is, as it 
were, an educational device by means of which the 
child's mental view of life are enlarged — his reasoning 
powers drawn forth and strengthened. Not only this, 
but it is evident that through the story the child's 
vocabulary is increased and his memory trained. By 
eliminating stories Montessori deprives the children 
of mental "flights," the soaring of the imagination; 
thus, she extends more freedom physically than men- 

To train the child by means of the "regulation" 
kindergarten material alone is an unnatural method 
and instead of giving freedom, is a means of retarding 
the child's progress. This we may ascertain by ob- 
serving a child of three or four years, (kindergarten 
age) at home. No matter how interesting the game 
or problem, it is soon superseded by some new and, 
perhaps, larger interest. His ambitions are limitless 
if he is provided with the proper materials to work 
with. You will often find the child perfectly familiar 
with the name and purpose of tools which his elders 
are using in his presence. 

Our kindergartens need not only freedom, but plenty 
of scope within which this freedom may express itself. 
For instance, if you will try placing in the hands of 
a child any familiar tool, you will find that he not 
only understands the use of the same, but you will 
be surprised, if not alarmed, to note the self-expres- 
sion in the ingenious uses to which he will adapt the 

For this reason, we can perceive that the country 
child, tucked back among the hills out of reach of a 
kindergarten, has his compensations; for, as he gen- 
erally lives amid the changing occupations of the 
farm, he draws his knowledge and experience from 

real life, at first hand; which is the very object our 
best kindergartens are struggling for. 

While expounding the merits of freedom, it is only 
fair to state that there are primary teachers who 
object to the kindergarten for the reason of this lib- 
erty allowed to children, their complaint being that 
it unfits the child for the formalism and the restric- 
tions of the first grade. Fortunately there is also an 
insistent cry, which is gradually being recognized, for 
more freedom in the primaries. When this normal 
condition is obtained for the primary children, the 
matter of freedom will prove self-adjusting. 

To understand the spirit of freedom in the kinder- 
garten we must think of the kindergarten as a bridge 
twixt home and the school-room, an avenue leading 
from babyhood to boyhood or girlhood. The kinder- 
garten child is entitled to the freedom of home, but 
he is equally entitled to the improvement of the kin- 
dergarten. Thus, the ideal kindergarten would be 
home-like in atmosphere, giving the freedom which 
a mother ordinarily allows, with the extra advantage 
of kindergarten training for which many mothers lack 
time or knowledge or, perhaps, in a few cases, incli- 

While the child may have freedom, especially phys- 
ically, to lie, sit, walk, or run, we must restrict his 
freedom in the form of checking wrong tendencies and 
inducing a proper "social" spirit. 

We can do much to encourage unselfishness, kind- 
ness, forgiveness and like sentiments in the tiny child. 
These subtle lessons are of more value to him now 
than the technical knowledge which is obtained more 
easily, with less mental strain, in later years. 

Above all, the kindergarten teacher should not take 
her position too seriously. If her baby pupils (and 
don't forget they are babies) do not prove to be little 
prodigies, let her be contented, in that she has devel- 
oped their thinking powers; let her hopes rise with 
the joy she has found in teaching them that a smile 
is worth more than a frown, that life is good — full to 
the brim of good things, here and yet to come. If the 
children, by your example, by your winsomeness, have 
learned to feel this they have acquired that which 
many a full-grown man — college bred though he may 
be — has failed to grasp. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

Oh! here is Miss Pussy; she's drinking her milk; 
Her coat is as soft and as glossy as silk. 
She sips the milk up with her little lap-lap; 
Then, wiping her whiskers, lies down for a nap, 
My kitty is gentle, she loves me right well; 
How funny her play is I'm sure I can't tell. 
Now under the sofa, now under the table, 
She runs and plays bo-peep as well as she's able, 
Oh, dearly I love her! You never did see 
Two happier play-mates than Kitty and me. 



By Chables H. Judd 

There are two fundamental principles which have 
guided the kindergarten in the development of its 
work. The first of these is the principle that a child's 
experience is largely determined by the sensory ma- 
terials which are presented to him. So far as the 
kindergarten may be said to aim at intellectual train- 
ing, it is guided by this first principle. Colors and 
forms are the contents offered to the child's thought. 

There is another and entirely different principle, 
however, which has operated in determining much of 
the effort of the kindergarten. It is the principle that 
children ought to be initiated as early as possible into 
organized social relations. The plays and games of 
the kindergarten, even though they deal with sensory 
materials, emphasize the social principle. 

In one sense of the word there is opposition between 
the principle of sensory training and the principle of 
social training. If one goes outside of the kindergar- 
ten movement itself, he finds many educational writ- 
ers who are disposed to look upon society and its con- 
ventions of behaviour, such as the requirement that 
one do not run and play, and its elaborate modes of 
communication, such as reading and writing, as rela- 
tively foreign to the nature of the young child. The 
kindergarten has reflected this general attitude with 
regard to social life in the fact that it has not in- 
cluded many of the social arts, especially reading and 
writing, in its subject-matters of instruction. Read- 
ing and writing have been looked upon as opposed to 
the demand that the child get a maximum of sensory 

On the other hand, we find that kindergartners have 
always emphasized spoken language. In some cases 
they have recognized the fact that a child's intellect- 
ual life is dominated by the words and ideas that come 
to him from others rather than by colors and sounds. 
What has not been commonly recognized is the fact 
that many a child reaches the stage before leaving 
the kindergarten where the one great ambition of his 
youthful' mind is to share in the more formal activities 
which characterize the society of his elders. Children 
want to write their names and they want to read, not 
because they see the uses of their arts, but because 
they see other people writing and reading. 

When, therefore, we emphasize in the kindergarten 
the desirability of making children social in their in- 
terests, we are emphasizing a very natural interest. 
But we ought to go further than we do; we ought to 
recognize the fact that this social interest will de- 
termine the types of thought and intellectual develop- 
ment which are going on in the children. Children 
do not think chiefly about colors and sounds. They 
think chiefly about people and their doings. 

If we go back in our analysis of the child's exper- 
ience to the time when he first begins to realize some- 
thing of the world outside of himself, we recognize at 
once that it is people who constitute the first objects of 

discrimination. The world with all its sounds and 
movements breaks up into people and the rest of the 
blurred background of human life. This is in no way 
a denial of the principle that the child gets his ex- 
perience through his senses; it is merely assumption 
that the child's senses are unsocial. The child uses 
his senses in learning about people. But he is from 
the first more impressed by his social environment 
than by any other facts about him. 

Even after a child has passed out of the first stages 
of infancy he is interested chiefly in people. He 
looks at bright colors, to be sure, but he looks with 
redoubled attention if some one whom he recognizes 
has the colored object. A child will drop his ov/n toy 
and demand the other toy which some one else has. 
The social interest is stronger than the purely sen- 
sory interest. 

The argument which has been presented is intended 
to show that there is no reason why some children 
should not be introduced to reading and writing in 
the kindergarten. Many a child reaches in the kin- 
dergarten the stage of maturity where he wants to do 
what he sees his elders doing. It would be a mistake 
at this early age to make him write if he does not 
manifest an interest in writing; on the other hand, it 
is a fundamental mistake to keep him from writing 
if he wants to try. Many a child has been bored be- 
yond measure in the kindergarten playing with balls 
and clubs and looking at colors and listening to 
sounds when what he has wanted most of all is to be 
like people. 

Many a child reaches the stage before six years of 
age where he wants to write his name. He wants to 
know the mystery of words. Why not satisfy him? 
He will be using his senses, and at the same time he 
will be learning one of the most important lessons of 
social life. We introduce him to the social art of 
speech; why not take the next step? 

I might express my plea in an institutional form. 
Let the wall between the kindergarten and the 
primary grades be broken down. Take the child as 
he is, and as soon as social example appeals to him 
give him the instruments of social communication. 
This may mean writing and reading in the kinder- 
garten or it may mean emphasis on the simpler social 
arts for the slowly maturing children well into the 
first grade. To a student of children, unprejudiced for 
or against either, the sharp division between kinder- 
gartens and first grades seems foolish. 

There is no more impressive contribution which the 
Montessori method has offered to kindergartners than 
the demonstration that little children often enjoy 
writing and reading as well as sensory impressions 
and games. Let us not overlook this lesson. The 
fact is that reading and writing have all along been 
in harmony with one of the fundamental principles of 
the kindergarten, namely, the principle that the child 
should become a part of the social organism. 

Perhaps one ought to be clearer in his warning that 
the kindergarten age is not the age for systematic in- 
struction of all children in reading and writing. 



There are some children who are slower in interesting 
themselves in social examples. The kindergarten is 
right in cultivating in such children only the simpler 
social arts of oral speech. My plea is for such a 
change in the administration of the kindergarten that 
there shall be no rigid exclusion of any of the social 
arts which fit the needs of the children. 

Perhaps my case will be made clearer by one 
further form in which it might be stated. Kinder- 
gartners ought to be trained in the methods of work 
commonly regarded as appropriate only to the primary 
grades. They ought to be able to teach all that is re- 
quired in these grades. At present kindergartners are 
too often content with a very limited equipment. They 
know only the narrow, orthodox procedure of their 
own isolated division of the school. They ought to 
know much more. If they knew more about teaching 
the primary subjects, they would see the opportunity 
which is often presented by the rapid development of 
kindergarten children, and they would know how to 
take advantage of this growing interest in the most 
productive way. They would treat reading as one of 
the social arts, and they would help children to culti- 
vate this art just as soon as they manifest an absorb- 
ing interest in it.— Excerpt from Address. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

If you take a walk through the field some fine day 
in September, you are sure to meet Mr. Grasshopper 
and many of his relations. If you should be wearing 
a light summer dress, very likely when you take it off 
at night, you will find that some of those insects have 
stolen a ride, and are still' hiding in the folds of it. 

But not only in the country are the grasshoppers 
plentiful, but we find them often in our city gardens. 

If you try to hold Mr. Grasshopper, he will squirm 
and twist and despite all your efforts, he will get 
away, even if he has to leave one of his legs between 
your fingers. 

So if you wish to examine him closely, catch him in 

a net, then put him in a glass jar with a net covering, 
so that he may breathe freely. Several kinds of 
grasshoppers in separate jars will be better, for the 
sake of comparison. 

First you will notice that the colors of the grass- 
hoppers differ. Those that live in bushes or on trees 
are green, while those that make their homes on the 
sands of rocks ae gray or brown. Our friends of the 
open fields are of a reddish brown or dull green. So we 

see that in each case the colors is given to them for 

The green grasshopper is a pretty fellow, but he hag 
a pair of sharp jaws so we will be careful how we 
handle him. 

We are all used to the chirp or song of the grass- 
hopper. It is caused by his rubbing one of his wing- 
cases against the other. It is really more of a squeak 
than a song. 

When Mrs. Grasshopper is ready to lay her eggs, 
she makes a hole in the ground with the end of her 

body. In this hole she deposits about a hundred tiny 
eggs. Then she covers them with a glue that soon 
hardens, and keeps them safely till they are ready to 
be hatched, which is not till the warm weather comes 

The grubs of the grasshopper are much like their 
parents only on a smaller scale. They get their wings 
later on. The babies grow rapidly and as fast as their 
jackets get too tight for them, they slip them off and 
behold a new one underneath* Six times they change 
their jackets before they become full grown grass- 

Columbus Day Greeting. 

(Boy with Spanish Flag) : 

The Spanish flag of yellow and red, 

I hold high above my head. 
(Girl with tambourine) : 

Tinkle, tinkle, tambourine, 

Spanish maidens so are seen. 
(Boy with American flag) : 

The American flag, red, white and blue, 

We will wave as a bonnie banner too. 
(Girl with white flag) : 

I gladly wave a banner of peace, 

For friendship of nations, when war shall cease. 
(Spanish boy and girl) : 

Tinkle, tinkle, we will dance prettily, 

Spanish children from over the sea. 
(American boy and girl) : 

We will extend our hands to you, 

For Columbus of fourteen hundred ninety-two. 
(All joining hands) : 

With flags of many colors, 
And tambourines so gay, 
Upon Columbus Day. 

We bow to you in greeting, 

Children are remarkable for the telling of original 
stories often as dramatic as they are brief. They love 
colors in nature and should be given opportunity to 
draw and paint. Let them sing, because they love to, 
not merely on time to a fixed programme. More fre- 
quent periods for both study and play, as in Boston, 
where one-third of the day is given to play, will leave 
the child as fresh and happy at the end as at the 
beginning of the session.— Lillian B. Poor, Boston. 



F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

Let children collect seed-pods. 

Use them for drawing lesson, 

Cutting lesson, and for nature study. 

Compare shapes of seed-pods. 

Show children how seeds get carried 

Some with wings (maple keys) 

Some by sheep (bur docks) 

Some by squirrels (acorns) 

Make necklaces of seeds. 

Alternate dark and light seeds. 

Collect melon, squash, water melon, apple seeds for 

Make flowers and borders by placing the seeds in 
patterns on paper. 

Put branches of keys or small seeds behind bluid. 
Cut from the shadow picture. 

Use seeds for counting, and teaching addition and 


Another step towards the creation of a teachers' 
college in Baltimore was taken in the recent creation 
of the degree of Bachelor of Science in Education, by 
the Johns Hopkins University. This marks a partial 
fulfillment of the hopes of the University which have 
been entertained for a number of years. As early as 
1910, the university announced its desire of establish- 
ing a department for the higher training of teachers 
as an organic part of the university. 

The curriculum leading to the new degree will be 
based on the college course for teachers and the sum- 
mer courses. The former, which were established in 
1909, are conducted during the regular session in the 
afternoons and on Saturdays. The latter hve been 
conducted since 1911. The new degree will be open to 
men and women on equal terms. The regulations con- 
cerning matriculation and the curriculum will be de- 
termined by a special advisory committee of the 
faculty. The title of director of these courses has 
been assigned to Professor Edward F. Buchner, who 
organized and has conducted both of these branches 
of the university's activities. 


J. P. E. 

When Tommy reads "Arabian Nights," 
Of Sindbad's first, and toils and frights, 
He "makes believe" to share those pains; 
And then, as stately second reigns. 
Next, over Bagdad like a bird, 
He soars upon the flying third. 
The nursery is his realm, indeed; 
A prancing whole he has for steed. 
Answer ; - — Roc-king-horse. 


Mildred Feery. 

I have a little fairy 

Who lives by me each day, 
And tells me all I ought to do, 

At work time or at play. 

When with her hands she shows the hour, 

That something I must do, 
She always seems to say to me, 

"Be good, be kind, be true." 


Anna Rheiw Leimer. 

"lick,"' said the little clock, 

"Tick-a-tock! tick-a-tock, 

"Tick," said the little clock, 

As it ticked the hours away. 

"I am small I know, but wherever I am, 

Important am I, as any man." 

"Tick," said the little clock, 
"Tick-a-tock! tick-a-tock!" 
"Tick," said the little clock 
As it stood on the library shelf. 
"There's time for you and time for me, 
To do our work and play with glee.'' 

"Tick," said the little clock, 

"Tick-a-tock! tick-a-tock!" 

"Tick," said the little clock; 

"In the world I take a part, 

And always help your tasks to start, 

With a happy and joyous heart." 


By Laura Rountree Smith 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 

The children skip round in a circle. They choose 
a child to be the Clock-Maker. He goes inside the 
circle, with an old clocklface, or pasteboard clock-face 
and hands, 



He can place the hands at any hour. 
The children skip round and sing, Tune, "Comin' 
Thru' the Rye." 

Round the circle we are going, 
"We must tell the time, 
Little hand points to the hour, 
In our simple rhyme, 
Big hand tells us of the minutes, 
Round the old clock's face, 
And both the hand from right to left, 
Are running in a race. 
They pause. The Clock-maker points to the hours 
first as, 12, 1, 2, etc., and asks, "What time is it?" 
The child called upon must answer correctly or go 
out of the game. 

The Clock-maker then sets his clock at half past the 
hour, at quarter past, and quarter of, etc., until the 
children learn to tell time. 

The song is sung and another child called upon each 

The game can be played another way, a clock-face 
being drawn on the board, and the children standing 
in a line holding hands, and skipping back and forth 
while singing. 

The clock hands can be erased and pointed at a 
new hour each time. 

By Lauba Rountree Smith 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children stand in one line. They skip and 
whirl' about as suggested in the song, with arms ex- 
tended they wave and point east and west. 

After they are familiar with the game the teacher 
may have them face south, and tell the other direc- 
tions, face east, and tell other directions, face west, 
and tell' other directions, always coming back to face 
north, and singing the song. Tune, "Lightly Row." 
Face the north, face the north, 
Back of you is south you know, 
Right hand east, left hand west, 
Skipping to and fro. 
Right about face south you know, 
Whirl again, toward north, we go, 
Right hand east, left hand west, 
Skipping to and fro. 

I'm just a brook, 
And sing my song 
In every nook 
The whole day long. 

I babble on 
O'er pebbly stones, 
And lessons con 
Of forest gnomes. 

Who ride on toads 
To their retreat, 
And carry loads 
Of honey sweet 

Thru forest glade 
Where sun-kissed leaves 
Reflect their shade 
In shadow wreaths. 

They sit them down 
And have a feast, 
Those pigmies brown 
Nor care the least. 

To have me watch 
Their games, perchance 
Some play Hop-Scotch 
"While others dance. 

Then tired out 
With play and fun 
"With noise and shout 
They start to run. 

Until they hear 
The blue bells chime 
Their warning clear 
Of sleeping time. 

Then down they fall, 
On mushroom beds, 
Nor heed my call 
Those sleepy heads. 

So on I flow 
Thru banks of green, 
"Where daisies grow 
And lilies lean. 

I sing out long 
And joyfully, 
My only song 
'Tis Harmony. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

Why do cats walk quietly and dogs not? 

Hew many toes has pussy on fore foot and hind 

How does a cat drink milk? 

How does puss clean her face? 

How does a cat carry her kittens from one place to 

What do cats like to eat? 

Why can kitty see better at night? 

What does a cat's eyes look like in the day-time? 

What kind of a noise does a cat make? 

What does a cat do when it is angry? 

Can a cat climb a tree? Why can she? 

What use are a cat's whiskers? 

Tell what a cat's meat man is? 

Write a story about a cat. 

Draw a cat from life. 

Cut a cat from black. > * i 



J. Dunlop, Craighead, Tollcross, Scotland. 

In employing the little fingers in a paper cutting 
lesson many of the ohjects can he cut from memory. 

When a particularly good object has heen cut it 
should be at once gummed into the child's kindergar- 
ten copy book. 

Young children are proverbially impatient and their 
nterest flags unless the teacher is able to thus show 
that she means to preserve their work. 

If the work is not mounted for a week later, the 
completed page arouses little enthusiasm. Another ad- 
vantage is if the children are allowed to tear several 
examples of each pattern, they may be mounted in the 
page of the book as shown at sheets 1 and 2, and used 
for the number lesson. 

The patterns chosen are all cut by folding the 
paper on the dotted lines shown and the scheme of 
models are: 




+ 1- 



no to 







(VIII) Plying birds. 

Each child as it finishes a page starts laying out the 


5 * 

■ Z=7 




1 ' 

-;- t- 


_|,_ L . 


1 ' 
— | — t- - 

I ! 










in v* 









Fishing boats. 

FIG 14- 

which the beak and legs are 

1 1 1 

1 1 1 

— +- -I--I-- 

1 1 1 

- -t - - - ,- - 



r-io io 



/ i l\ 


j i 1 



va ! \y 






various patterns in numbers which represent the 

Thus 2 on the right and 2 on the left make 4. 

With the star pattern 3 below and 2 above makes 5. 

With Fig. 8, 2 picking and 2 in front running and 2 
in the rear running makes 6. 

Children quickly master addition in this way and in 
three weeks are ready to tackle multiplication. 

Prof. R. G. Boone of the University, in an address 
at the Twenty-Second Annual Convention of the Inter- 
nationa! Kindergarten Union at Oakland, California, 
August 20th, said in part: 

"Education from the earliest years throughout the 
plastic period is an organic whole; only more impor- 
tant in earliest childhood because here are started 
the habits of future growth. But among kindergart- 
ners, as among other teachers, the disciplined minds 
have been few; they have had skill' in practice, but 
a narrow vision; a limited education, and the experi- 
ence of life that belongs chiefly to adolescents. There 
is needed a not less close sympathetic mastery of kin- 
dergarten practice, but a wider knowledge and general 
discipline to command confidence; acquaintance with 
modern science, especially biology and the social sci- 



Rebecca Strutton. 

Sister and Brother were going, with their mother, 
for a long visit, way across the country, to the Pacific 
coast. Daddy accompanied them to their first change 
of cars, in a neighboring city and then, with much 
caressing, left them to continue their journey, while 
he returned home to "hold the house down" as he 

The family had a cunning little room of their own, 
at one end of the car, with as many home comforts as 
one can find on a train and such funny little beds, 
rather like shelves, the children thought. 

Little Brother felt very badly, after riding one night 
and wished himself back with Daddy, but Mother had 
nothing to do but take care of him and that was some 
comfort, as Sister was in fine fettle and amused her- 

After several days constantly passing cities and 
towns, things out of the window began to look very 
brown and monotonous. Finally little Brother, who 
had recovered from his illness, suddenly said, 
"Mother are we never going to see anything but sand, 
sand, sand?" Mother told him that was a sign that 
they would soon be in sunny southern California, and 
he was satisfied. 

Aunties and uncles made the little people happy by 
days spent on the seashore, delightful climbs on the 
rocks and drives on the edge of the surf where there 
were lovely shells and stones to pick up. Then there 
were views of the sea through wonderful canyons and 
the towering mountains with a beautiful blue haze 
hanging over them. 

And so, up the coast they went, visiting everywhere 
and making friends all the time. 

Sometimes there was a very moist, shiny look to 
two pairs of blue eyes and once or twice those eyes 
looked red around the edges, but I'm not going to tell 
my little readers why — that is, not at present — maybe 
they can guess. However, after traveling as far north 
as Seattle, then back to San Fancisco, with several 
stops across country, the cities and towns of the 
middle west began to look natural. 

One great day, when the train pulled into the large 
station in the city from which Daddy had started them 
off, one pair of blue eyes staring out of the car win- 
dow, saw somebody looking intently at the train. 
Without a word a pair of little feet went pattering 
down the aisle, to the door. With a squeal of delight a 
little pair of arms clasped themselves around some- 
body's neck and in a minute, two big arms were full of 
! two little folks and while eyes were shiny with tear- 
drops, the smiling lips below showed that the tear- 
drops were those of joy. 

The arms in which two little wanderers cuddled 
were those of Daddy. 

the fault that lies behind the rattle. All left-handed 
people are right-brained. If born left-handed, it is a 
crime to force a child to use the right hand, for it 
injures the power to centralize and also unfavorably 
affects the speech center. — Elizabeth Ross Shaw, 
School of Mental Measurements, Evanston, 111'. 

Every teacher sliould have a knowledge of the ana- 
tomy and physiology of the brain. Then perhaps they 
: may look into the child's mental processes like a 
chauffeur examines his motor and be able to detect 


The kindergarten when introducing play as a factor 
in education released the child "from the prisonlike 
discipline of the old-time school room. Dr. Eby says, 
"Educators have never done full justice to the ser- 
vice of the kindergarten to education. Whenever the 
kindergarten has come, mechanical' teaching has dis- 
appeared." "Formerly,'' says Carus in "Our Child- 
ren," "the teacher, or school master, was a czar, the 
rod his weapon; but the kindergarten is a dispensa- 
tion of love, of voluntary good will, stimulating the 
springs that work within, which must replace the old 
dispensation of the rod, the law that enforces virtue 
by punishments and makes noble and good aspirations 
a burden. Old fashioned teachers clung to the me- 
thods that rendered lessons tedious; now the teacher 
realizes how persevering and patient children can be- 
come when interested in their work, by the use of the 
kindergarten system. By the influence of this method 
the teacher is earnest and cheerful, keeping her child- 
ren buoyant and joyful, but at the same time not fail- 
ing to Impress seriousness." 

The old method set the child to a lesson as a task; 
told him to learn it, filled him with fear that it 
would have to be recited; then tortured him in some 
way if he failed. Many uphold this mode of teaching 
by saying it prepares the child for that which he will 
meet later in life, when he must do the things he likes 
least, at command. Yes, we might gain some power 
of application; but is anything lasting accomplished 
whenever the element of fear is involved? Never. 
It is poor psychology, for it is unwise to develop a 
motive in the child that would certainly make him a 
slave in later life without any realization of freedom 
or self-development. How could the man ever hope 
to become his own master? Everyone must earn his 
living by some means, but if it be by a means in which 
he has not the slightest motive of interest or love he 
is not a free citizen and is certainly not happy. If 
we realize these facts, certainly we should appreciate 
the mode which develops freedom and happiness. 


A week ago the school board, with all members 
present, voted to call a special election for September 
1, to pass on the question of establishing kindergar- 
tens in connection with the Portland public schools. 

Yesterday, when two members of the board were 
out of the city, a special meeting of the board was 
called and Chairman M. G. Munly and Director S. P. 
Lockwood, over the protests of Director Alan Welch, 
Portand paper. 




Its Twenty-Second Annual Convention at San Fran- 
cisco and the Exposition a Decided 

Notwithstanding the great distance from the East 
in which the kindergarten has its greatest following, 
it is stated that there were over BOO delegates pre- 

The program as given in our June numher was car- 
ried out faithfully and with hut few changes. 

Among the enjoyable features was a luncheon served 
by the members of the Golden Gate Froebel Associa- 
tion, and an automobile tour of San Francisco as 
guests of the local committee. 

The Tuesday morning meeting was held at the Mu- 
nicipal Auditorium Theatre, Oakland. Among the ad- 
dresses were the following: "Kindergarten Legisla- 
tion,'' by Mrs. H. N. Rowell, Berkeley; Miss Lillian 
Clark, Los Angeles; "Reviews of Work in the Elemen- 
tary Grades and Kindergartens," by Mrs. Mary C. C. 
Bradford, State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
of Colorado; Mrs. Josephine Preston, State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction of Washington; Miss 
Lillian B. Poor of Boston and Dr. C. E. Chadsey of 
Detroit, Mich. 

"Industrial Arts and Child Study" was discussed 
by several distinguished educators, led by Dr. Maria 
Montessori. At noon the kindergartners were received 
by the East Bay Kindergartners at luncheon in the 
host section of the Auditorium. 

Mrs. Marion Thomas of Chicago, 111., was among 
the speakers on "Child Education — A Basis for a 
New Internationalism," at the 8 o'clock session. Mrs. 
May Wright Sewall of San Francisco and Dr. John H. 
Francis of Los Angeles also addressed the union. 

The "International Kindergarten Union Day" was 
observed at the Exposition Wednesday. The delegates 
met at the Scott street entrance where a reception 
was given by Exposition official's at 9:15 o'clock. The 
exercises were held in Festival Hall' at 9:30 o'clock. 
They included the presentation of a bronze medal to 
the Union. The response to the presentation speech 
was made by Mary Boomer Page, of the Chicago Kin- 
dergaretn Institute, President of the Union. 

Canada, China and New Zealand were represented 
in the morning parade, together with practically every 
state in the country. Mrs. Mary Boomer Page of Bos- 
ton, presided and among the speakers were Supervisor 
Murdock for the city and C. A. Vogelsang for the Ex- 
position. The afternoon was spent in visiting the 
Educational building and other points of interest, and 
in the evening was given a dinner at the California 

Saturday was N. E. A. day. Miss Catherine Wat- 
kins, of Washington, and Miss May Adair, of Phila- 
delphia, were the principal speakers. The afternoon 
was spent at the exposition. 

We hoped to give a more complete report of these 
meetings but information expected failed to reach us, 
even after holding the publication several days. 


Control the child's attention and the problem of his 
education is solved. Determine the proper stimulating 
agents, and let the child create and respond freely to 
develop his innate powers. — Dr. Montessori. 

The lack of respect for law, for parents and fellows, 
shown by so many modern youths, according to Gail 
Harrison of the San Francisco State Normal School, 
is due to a lack of proper discipline. Children behave 
as well or badly as they are expected or allowed to. 
In order that a child behave well before company the 
habit must be formed beforehand. Our modern youths 
need constant excitement and amusement and it is 
deplorable that they should give so little service in the 
home. Duties should be planned for the children 
of wealth, for fortunately, the poor have the joy of 
work and its discipline and therefore they are the 
hope of the nation. Working for purposeful self-con- 
trol is the end of education. — Gail Harrison, State 
Normal School, San Francisco,. 

It is a mistake to throw too much emphasis upon 
the utility of kindergarten effort, but rather more 
upon the creative processes. At first these may be 
crude, for the product does not spring forth like Min- 
erva full grown, but gradually to the final perfection. 
In fact, the activity may be an end to itself. — Cather- 
ine R. Walkins, Washington, D. C. 

Handwork does not drag down culture, but develops 
in the child not only a practical efficiency in making 
useful things, but the power to form his own judg- 
ment. It is better to make a kite which will fly, and 
have the fun of it, than to very exactly fold pretty 
papers for Christmas. When a child selects his own 
materials and tools he may blunder, but in correcting 
the error he has achieved something creative, freely 
showing his own thoughts and not merely imitating 
those of his teacher. How natural this is in the 
child's play, with dolls and the building and the fur- 
nishing of their miniature houses. It is not so much 
what the child knows, as his power to think and do 
which really constitutes education. — Marion B. Bar- 
ber, Los, Angeles. 

"The kindergarten training deals with practical 
things," said Mr. Chadsey. "It teaches the child to 
think for himself; to reason out his own little prob- 
lems; to become skillful with the hands, which, at the 
same time, teaches the youngster patience; instead of 
giving him a book and letting him take some other 
person's word for it. A child is enthusiastic over kin- 
dergarten work because it is something he can under- 
stand and work out for himself. We have heretofore 
had too much faith in the power of the printed page. 
I believe that the 5, 6 and 7-year old child should be 
trained almost solely through nature work, stories and 
hand work. The child should have more freedom of 
action," continued Mr. Chadsey. "I think the day is 
not so far distant when the stationary furniture in 
the first four grades will give way to kindergarten 
furniture," — C. E. Chadsey, Detroit. 

HINTSISESUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 


TVEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
'-'rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school -work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 

"Education commences at the mother's knee, and 
every word spoken within the hearing of little chil- 
dren tends toward the formation of character.'' 

"All that's great and good is done just by patient 

"It is true that he who does nothing for others, does 
nothing for himself." 

It isn't the thing you do, dear, 

It's the thing you've left undone, 
That gives you a hit of heartache, 
At the setting of the sun. 

— Margaret Sangster. 


"The enthusiasm of the young teacher is worth as 
much, if not more to her than the experience of an 
older one." 

There is surely much truth in the above statement, 
for whether beginners or those of years of experience 
the majority of district school teachers take up the 
work under new conditions, and we know the measure 
of success in every case will depend upon the interest 
shown, or the amount of enthusiasm manifested in the 

The first weeks of school must necessarily be spent 
in securing a general knowledge of the needs, as to the 
furnishings and equipment of the school', then a care- 
ful study of the individual cases that require special 
attention and patience. 

No teacher can measure the part played by the 
school environment in the education of a child. Often 
a single picture in the home or school' has changed 
the whole trend and destiny of a child's life. What 
then must be the influence of the furnishings and sur- 
rounding conditions of a school upon the child during 
the six to twelve years of the most formative period? 

In school's where there are cheap pictures, soiled 
and torn books, poor blackboards, scratched desks, and 
broken walls boys and girls are sent into the world 
with inferior ideals, which must tend to lower the 
quality of the homes, and the standards of good 
society and citizenship. 

Insist that the school house and surroundings are 
in perfect sanitary condition, and that you are pro- 
vided with a good dictionary, a globe, a set of maps, 
erasers, and good crayon, also busy work for the be- 

Toys are considered a necessity in every home. 
Then why send little tots to school with a book and 
slate to pass from six to eight weary hours? Insist 
upon drawing pencil's, drawing paper, boxes of num- 
ber and alphabet cards, and sewing cards, New 

material may be added to this from time to time. 

Start a library if there is none, or see that a few 
good books are added to the one already started. 
Michigan teachers are urged to study the list dis- 
tributed by the county commissioners, and to select 
those best suited to the needs of the district. 


People generally consider the study of color harmony 
as a subject to be considered by the painter, the decor- 
ator, the designer, and the artist, not considering the 
part color plays in every individual's life. 

Recently a teacher related an incident in her own 
life which emphasizes the fact that color does affect 
unconsciously even the smallest children. When in 
the primary she and others of her playmates disliked 
to see their teacher in a particular blue dress, as at 
such times she was unusually cross. Blue is a cold 
retiring color which doubtless accounts for the psych- 
ological' effect mentioned. 

See that the colorings in your room are shades of 
green, yellow, and tan. These are the colors in nature, 
sunshine and foliage of which we never grow weary. 

Decorate your walls with a few copied paintings of 
the masterpieces, in colorings of rich browns, or black 
and white. Let all colored pictures be used for illus- 
tration and often changed. Pupils' own work may be 
displayed, but never left till soiled or tiresome. 


The value of games as a factor in education cannot 
be overestimated. Children who are slow to think, to 
see, or to act may be entirely transformed by playing 
the right kind of games. 

Their sense of perception may be quickened by a 
game of ball, watching to catch it, or to escape a hit if 
he fails in so doing. 

In many games the child is on the alert to hear his 
own name called, or to respond quickly to a tap on the 
shoulder. Clumsy awkward pupils become more 
active, less self-conscious and are able to move about 
more quietly after engaging in running games. 

Some children, especially in country districts, have 
had few playmates and lack the power through tim- 
idity, selfishness, or other peculiar characteristics to 
co-operate with others. Playing with others develops 
self control and unselfishness, and these qualities are 
seldom found in children brought up alone or with few 

It is as much your duty as teachers to oversee the 
games both on the playground and indoors as to do 
your regular routine of school work. 

See that all children play. Much of stubborness and 
sulkiness on the part of peculiar temperaments comes 



from the feeling of neglect. The child should he pre- 
vented from thinking of himself apart from others. 

"Come, let us play with the children," says Froebel. 

Arrange for sliding boards, swings, and bean bag 
games in the yard. Regular games of ball may be 
played by the boys, and girls will enjoy the many in- 
door forms usually played. 


After the children have read several stories, copy 
them on cards, and cut into separate words. Put all 
sentences pertaining to one story picture in envelope. 

For seat work give each child an envelope telling 
him which lesson story his envelope contains, and ask 
him to make the story with the words given him. 
Envelopes may be exchanged from day to day till 
each has made all the stories. Regular boxes of sen- 
tence builders may be used for this work, the teacher 
selecting the words needed for special lessons studied. 


If possible provide yourself with boxes of number 

Besides these make sets of number cards using all 
combinations making 9, 10, 11, etc. {Jive these cards 
to the children, and from the boxes they are to make, 
examples like the ones given, and place the answers 
below each group. 

For class work show the different combinations and 
have the answer given, or cover up one figure and 
have the missing figure given to equal the result. 

Divide the class, sending them to the board, have 
them write all the combinations making 10, 11, etc. 
The side completing any set first receiving a star. 
The largest number of stars on either side declared 
the winners. 


The golden rod is yellow, 

The corn is turning brown, 
The trees in apple orchards 

With fruit are bending down. 

The gentian's bluest fringes 

Are curling in the sun, 
In dusty pods the milkweed 

Its hidden silk has spun. 

The hedges flaunt their harvest, 

In every meadow nook, .."'. 

And asters by the brookside . , 

Make asters in the brook. 

From dewy lanes at morning 

The grapes' sweet odors rise, 
At noon the roads all flutter ..^ . . . :, 

With yellow butterflies. 

By all these lovely tokens, 

September days are here, 
With summer's best of weather, 

And autumn's best of cheer. 

— Helen Hunt Jackson. 

Teach the above poem. Have each pupil make a 
booklet, a folder, or a calendar using something men- 
tioned in the poem for decorating. 

Older pupils may make illustrated booklets using 
the entire poem. 




By Susan Plessneb Pollock 

In the sitting room stood a cabinet, in which all 
sorts of beautiful things were kept. When the mother 
unlocked the door, the children usually ran quickly 
to look inside. It was always kept locked and the key 
lay in a hidden partition in mother's sewing table. 
Every Sunday morning it was opened, that was cer- 
tain, for then the mother took out the hymn books 
which were used when one went to church in Lerum; 
they were nicely bound and must not get dusty. There 
were valuable things preserved in the cabinet. There 
was father's Bible, which, as a boy, he had received 
from Mr. Pessumehr's; it was bound in rtd russian 
leather and had a golden clasp. The other Bible, from 
which father read aloud daily, lay on the bookshelf 
that it could be easily reached when it was wanted. 
In the cabinet, were besides, gilded cups and coffee 
pots, several fine cut glass goblets and tumblers, pretty 
little baskets and a little wax angel. These were all 
presents and remembrances. In a particular division 
though, were the things that belonged to the children; 
the dear little cap and crocheted sack which Gertrude 
and Herman had once worn, when each had been bap- 
tized; and there stood the little bottle, from which 
as little ones, they had drank, before they understood 
like grown-up people to drink from cups and glasses. 

"The bottle shall never be used again," had always 
been said, "It shall, as a happy remembrance, remain 
standing among the beautiful things in the cabinet;" 
but a new Heart-leaf had come, so the bottle was again 
brought from the darkness of the cabinet, to the light 
of day. As grandmother fetched the key and unlocked 
the cabinet, there was great rejoicing. The children 
kissed their dear old friend and danced with it all 
about the room. While grandmother washed the bot- 
tle thoroughly with clear, fresh water and poured in 
milk from the large milk crock, the children ran out- 
side and picked violets, for Spring had come. They 
wove them into a small wreath and tied it with a bow 
from the pink ribbon of doll Lizzie's sash and hung 
it about the little bottle's neck. Thus they celebrated 
the day on which it was again brought into use; it 
looked like a birthday child. Little brother however, 
knew nothing of the bottle story. "Just look at 
him!" said Herman, "He grabs with both tiny hands, 
right into the flowers.'' Drink, could little brother 
tho! this magic he did not have first to learn, as soon 
as he felt the rubber stopple between his lips, began 
such a sucking and soft grunting, with a wrinkling 
of his forehead and small nose, as if no one knew 
what hard work it was. That was another grand 
rejoicing. Now however, that other baby in long 
clothes, doll Lizzie, must also have her little bottle, 
that was a decided necessity. The dear grandmother 



ent immediately into the lumber room and searched 
jmong the many old things that were stored there 
ind sure enough, found a tiny bottle, just the size 
lat was suited to doll Lizzie; it had once held Lily- 
f-the- Valley perfume. Grandmother washed the pret- 
Y little bottle and it received a violet wreath, tied 
rith a bright bow, and doll Lizzie drank. Everything 
ras just the same as with little brother, except that 
oil Lizzie gave no soft little grunts, nor did she 
/Tinkle her small nose, but she laughed for joy, Ger- 
rude saw that plainly and Herman believed it, for 
nyone may well laugh who receives sweet milk to 
rink from a little bottle. 
Sent from Gotha, Germany, May 18, 1915. 




Long ago there lived many great men who were 
ailed giants. They were called giants because they 
vere so large and strong. 

I But, these giants did not love God. They were so 
trong that they thought they could live without God. 

They forgot that God made the land, the water, the 
lowers, and the soft, green grass. They were so busy 
it their work that they did not pause to thank God for 
he pleasant world and all the beautiful things in it. 
iVben God did kind deeds they only laughed and sang 
ind forgot all about Him. 

They were wicked people and so God said, "I do 
lot want these bad people in my beautiful world. I 
want only the good people in the world.'' 

So God looked all over the world until He found one 
5ood man. The good man's name was Noah. Noah 
oved God and tried to do just what God wanted him 
:o do. 

Noah knew that God was very kind; he knew that 
3od made his garden grow so that his family could 
oe fed, he knew that God watched over him, and so 
Noah loved God. 

God told Noah to build a very large boat or ark; 
ae must build it very strong for he would have to live 
on the water many days. 

It took a long time to build the ark. The other 
people did not believe that God would send a flood; 
but, bye and bye, down came the rain. Day after 
day the rain fell from heaven until the water became 
very high upon the earth. Oh, how the people wished 
that they had built an ark, too, but it was too late for 
them to do so. 

Higher and still higher the water rose, until every 
house was covered. But the rain did not fall upon 
Noah and his family, for they were safe in the ark. 
He was glad God had told him to build it. 

Noah had many animals in the ark; it must have 
kept him busy feeding them all; and no doubt the 
birds became so tame that they perched upon his 

Bye and bye the rain ceased to fall. The world 
looked just like a large lake! There was no land in 

sight, for even the mountains were covered with 

Noah sent a bird out of the ark. This bird did not 
return; then Noah sent a dove out of the ark. The 
dove flew away, searching for a tree where it could 
build its nest, but as it could find no land nor trees, 
the dove returned. 

Later Noah sent the dove out again. This time the 
dove returned with an olive leaf and then Noah knew 
that the water was not so high as it had been. Some 
of the water had sunk into the ground; some of it 
had been drawn back into the heavens by the sun. 

For the third time Noah sent the dove out of the 
ark and this time the dove flew away, never to return. 
Noah was glad, for he knew the dove had found dry 
land at last. 

When God had taken the water away, Noah and his 
family went out of the ark. Noah opened the door 
and let all the animals come out. They were glad to 
be out-of-doors and to breathe the fresh, pure air. 

God told Noah, "I will never flood the earth again. 
I will make a beautiful rainbow; and when you see 
this bright bow in the sky, remember my promise that 
I will never send such a flood on the earth again. 

Have you ever seen the pretty rainbow which God 
made in the sky? 


The Pestalozzi Froebel Kindergarten Training 
school, of Chicago, closed its 18th year June 3rd, by 
graduating a class of 49. The exercises were held at 
the Chicago City club. The large student choruses 
and the graduation address on "International Ideal- 
isms" by Dean Shailer Mathew, of the University of 
Chicago, were the features of the evening. The 
alumnae banquet preceded the exercises. The toasts 
and class songs were spirited and enjoyed by all. 

The training school has just finished the first year 
in its new quarters on the lake front. The important 
features of the year has been the successful launching 
of the new Playground Workers' department, which 
grants a separate diploma and requires two years' 
training. Another feature was a course of lectures on 
the "Masterpieces of Literature" by Prof. Richard 
Moulton of the University of Chicago. His graphic 
interpretation of Job and searching lectures on 
Goethe's Faust were specially illuminating. 

VOLUME IV, June, 1915. 187 pages. Over 70 illus- 
trations. Francis W. Parker School, Chicago. 
This volume, prepared by the faculty of the Francis 
W. Parker School, Chicago, deals with "Education 
through Concrete Experience — A series of Illus- 
trations.'' It is a distinctive contribution to literature 
on education, and presents in a variety of phases the 
work which has been carried out in this school. Those 
who have read Volumes I, II, and III will' welcome the 
present volume. Those interested in the vocational 
aspects of education will find the book particularly 




Carolyx Shekwin Bailey. 

Let the child string various objects sufficiently large 
to obviate all danger of eye-strain; spools of all shapes 
and sizes; the large wooden kindergarten beads; balls 
made of clay or Plasticine; large seeds which have 
been previously soaked to make them pliable, and 
buttons or button molds. As he grows expert in 
stringing these larger objects, he may be allowed to 
string articles which involve a greater degree of hand 
and eye co-ordination, but that which has the same 
quality of directness; the colored paper discs alter- 
nated with straws, which are to be found in the kin- 
dergarten supply shops; the small wooden and large 
glass beads. In all of these stringing plays the thread 
used should be so stout that it will not break easily, 
causing discouragement and nervous strain to the 

Fitting objects into openings corresponding in size, 
or matching them according to shape, is an important 
and interesting play occupation. This includes fitting 
together nests of picture blocks; putting stoppers and 
corks of various sizes into empty bottles; taking off and 
putting on the covers of boxes; putting large colored 
pegs into the holes of a peg board to form different 
color combinations and symmetrical designs; laying, 
one upon another, the geometric wooden tablets that 
may be found in the kindergarten supply shops; hand- 
ling with neatness and care knives, forks and spoons, 
cups, saucers, plates and other table appurtenances, 
and placing together those of similar size; piling to- 
gether books and magazines that are of the same 
shape and size. Nearly all of these exercises may be 
carried on by the child blindfolded after he has 
attained perfection in doing them with his eyes open. 
This increases the educative value of the plays, because 
the muscles must respond to the memory of the visual 
impression instead of to the direct impulse of the 
visual sense. 

Measuring objects is another valuable play occupa- 
tion. Give the child various receptacles, such as 
boxes, tin cans, bottles and pails of different shapes 
and capacity, which he can fill and empty with sand, 
water, beans, dried peas or other small seeds. Give 
him also the colored sticks used in kindergartens and 
let him measure them, putting those of the same 
length together. He may also measure lengths of 
string, ribbon, tape and paper and compare the 
relative heights of his toys and the furniture of the 

Sorting objects according to their main qualities of 
color, size or texture is an engrossing and instructive 
play. Colored seeds, the white, red, brown and 
mottled beans, red and yell'pw kernels of corn and 
squash or melon seeds may be used; or the same exer- 
cise may be carried on with the smaller colored 
wooden kindergarten beads and with pieces of paper 
of various colors. Small' pieces of cloth of different 
quality, linen, cotton, silk, velvet, satin and wool, may 

be cut in equal sizes and placed in a box or bag, the 
child taking them out and sorting them in piles, 
according to texture. Pebbles may be sorted for 
shape, color and size, or nuts, grasses, flowers and 
leaves may be gathered and arranged according to 

The next step is to offer the child constructive play 
occupations, in which hand and eye must co-ordinate 
in more complex activities. To thread a bead upon a 
string involves a primitive kind of muscular reaction. 
To make a paper chain, the links of which are of equal 
width and length, involves the co-operation of eye and 
hand in original construction, comparison and judg-i 
ment. This is the kind of play that may lead to in- 
vention in later life. At least, it will help the indivi- 
dual immeasurably in carrying on those activities of 
adult life that involve complex muscular co-ordin- 
ation; the manual arts, outdoor sports, such as golf, 
tennis and polo, and all forms of mechanics. 

Building with blocks affords valuable hand and eye 
training if the child endeavors to copy and reproduce 
in his play some forms or types of architecture with 
which he is familiar; the home furnishings, his house, 
the schoolhouse, the city hall or church. There are sets 
of stone building blocks so constructed that certain 
forms, pictures of which are given as a working basis, 
may be copied. Allow the child to mold small bricks 
from clay or Plasticine and use them for building 
houses, walls and other forms. Putting together pio 
ture puzzles belongs also in this important building- 

Outline handicraft that develops the child's appreci-i 
ation of form and design follows the building occupa- 
tions as a natural development of hand and eye play. 
This includes cutting out and coloring paper dolls 
with paints or colored crayons; cutting and mounting, 
pictures in a scrapbook or upon cardboard mounts; 
outlining pictures with kindergarten sticks; filling ini 
outlined pictures with color; tracing simple outlines 
of animals, cutting them out and coloring them; free 
designing with the wooden or paper kindergarten' 
tablets; cutting art forms, leaves and flowers from 
colored paper and mounting them to make borders; 
filling in stencil design with color; sewing very coarse, 
simple cross-stitch pictures on gingham or linen 
crash; free-hand drawing or painting of pictures with 
a carpenter's pencil; coarse paper or loom weaving, 
making blue prints and mounting waxed and pressed 

Making toys involve, no doubt, the most complex 
and important kind of control of the child's muscular 

Large cardboard boxes lined with wallpaper, with 
windows and doors cut in the sides and with a floor 
covering of cloth or woven paper, are transformed into 
doll's houses. The outside may be covered with brown 
wrapping paper and colored to represent shingles. 
Curtains to partition off the rooms may be made of 
fine paper chains, strings of glass beads or straws. 
Smaller cardboard boxes may be made into dolls' beds, 
bookcases, tables, chairs and sofas by cutting them 



own to the right shape and fastening the parts to- 
;ether with glue or paper fasteners. Spools glued to 
hese boxes make the legs of chairs and tables. A 
ill box in combination with a spool may be made 
nto a little round table, a sundial or a seat for the 
oils' garden. The garden itself may be made in a 
irge box-cover lined with green crepe paper. Tissue 
aper flowers and trees may be glued to spools and 
laced here and there, and paths may be made by 
prinkling sand upon a coating of mucilage. Spool 
oxes may be made into toy farm wagons, trains, milk 
arts, dolls' buggies, automobiles and express wagons 
y using spool's or milk-bottle tops for wheels and at- 
aching them with meat skewers. Berry boxes may be 
sed for summer bungalows for dolls; they may be 
Ined- to make their cradles and work boxes, and 
latch boxes may be glued together in various ways 
nd upholstered to make furniture. 

An attractive paper doll can be made with a button- 
lold head upon which features are painted, fastened 
p a cardboard body. Large nuts, such as English 
plnuts, hickory nuts, al'monds and horse-chstnuts, 
jan also be made into character dolls by gluing a roll 
k white cloth to the nut to make the body and attach- 
pg two smaller rolls of white cloth to make the arms, 
p the case of a small, light nut such as an almond 
r pecan, white crepe paper instead of cloth can be 
sed for the body. Worsted or yarn, or even raveled 
wine, can be glued to the nut for hair, and the fea- 
pres may be inked or penciled on. 

Among the new toys that are valuable for child 
lay, because they stimulate hand and eye, is a set of 
japer dolls, which includes patterns for garments of 
jarious^ styles, as well as rolls of paper in dress de- 
Jigns, little paper buttons and other paper trimmings. 
The books of cut-out dolls and their f uniture, animals 
jnd other toys are educational, for they involve the 
jiuscular co-ordination of cutting to line, folding and 
lasting to complete each object. The child welfare 
lable and sand box are important play devices from 
he point of view of construction. The table is, at will, 
I play table or a blackboard, and contains materials 
br all kinds of home work, including mny of the edu- 
iationa.1 occupations of the kindergarten. The sand 
ox, which contains sand and sand tool's, is used for 
'utdoor, plastic play. 

There are sets of cut-out birds and animals which 
pay be used as patterns from which innumerable 
ther birds and beasts may be constructed. There is 
Llso a picture book which consists of an equal number 
j'f pages of colored pictures and pages, with merely 
;he outlines of the pictures upon them. The pictures 
Ire to be cut out, mounted* neatly in their respective 
futlines and the history of each written on the back 
j'f the page. When finished, these can be bound to- 
gether to make the child's own book. 
I The old-fashioned toy knitting spool is also valu- 
able for hand and eye training. Then there is a toy 
Tillage made of cardboard sections to be folded and 
jitted together according to an accompanying ground 

plan, showing the laid-out streets, flower beds, lakes 
and parks. 

There is also on the market a practical cart-builder 
having wooden sections and small wheels, by means 
of which a child can put together a wheelbarrow, 
coach, gig, machinery wagon, brick wagon, baby doll's 
go-cart and many other wheeled conveyances. There 
are twenty-five varieties of carts possible with this 
toy, all of which train the small builder's hands. A 
set of interlocking blocks allows of intricate con- 
struction that cannot be attempted with ordinary 
bocks. The set includes over two hundred blocks of 
various shapes, including curved peices for arches, 
doorways and windows, which may be fastened to- 
gether by means of interlocking strips that allow for 
great variety in intricate and tall building. — From the 
Mothers Magazine. 

The Montessori movement, considered by many a 
radical departure from traditional educational 
'methods is reviewed by Miss Anne E. George in the 
annual report of the U. S. Commissioner of Education 
recently issued. The method is summed up as "free- 
dom for development of the child under best con- 
ditions, disturbing as little as possible but helping by 
every means this development." 

Dr. Montessori's particular contribution to the 
world, according to Miss George, has been that of 
applying the methods of experimental science to the 
study of man. The Montessori's "didactic material," 
it is explained, tends to replace the teacher at the 
earliest stage of education and to make it possible for 
the child to accomplish his first work independently of 
a mature mind. "Out of such experiments and the 
environment that Dr. Montessori establishes,'' de- 
clares Miss George, "she confidently expects others to 
bring fresh facts, and to build up the content of 
scientific pedagogy through a method Of research, 
limited by no personality, allied solely to human 
beings who develop in liberty." 

As an instance of the crystallization of sentiment 
and effort in connection with the Montessori move- 
ment, Miss George describes the organization in May, 
1913, at Washington, of the Montessori Educational 
movement based on the principles and theories of Dr. 
Montessori, and to assist in the establishment and 
maintenance of schools for children, and schools of 
observation and practice conducted accrding to these 
principles." This association now numbers approxi- 
mately 700 members. 

"The false ideas of nations as to what constitutes 
peace must be torn to pieces, and the average teacher 
can be instrumental in bringing about universal peace 
by teaching its doctrine in the schoolroom to the 
rising generation." — Fannj r Fern Andrews. 

The many friends of Dr. Jenny B. Merrill will learn 
with sadness that she has been called upon to part 
through death with her aged mother, with whom she 
has been an almost constant companion for years. 



By Olive Wills. 

No doubt the kindergarten teachers all over the 
country who visited the California expositions at San 
Francisco and at San Diego, looked for the exhibits 
of school work, hoping to see what California and 
other western states or other countries had done in 
any line of school work. But we were all much dis- 
appointed for only a few of the California schools had 
made any exhibits and of these few very little kinder- 
garten work could be found. Of this work here are a 
few notes made while wandering thru, that may be 
of interest to those who did not go this summer. 

One school showed careful arrangement in their 
written work that is in language or arithmetic papers, 
for example: 


School Name 

Grade Date 

All this means so much in the general education of 
the child. It is a lesson in design as well as in neat- 
ness and thoughtfulness. 

In the paper mat weaving interesting baskets were 
made, one, fold the mat one way then lace up the sides 
with raffia and leave long ends to tie together for a 
handle. Another cut the corners on the diagonals 
about 1 or 1% inches down toward the center, lap 
these corners and paste. 

The American flag, made by using strips of red, 
white and blue paper %x4 in. Roll these, lap a trifle 
and paste linking one in the other. Make six white 
strips about three feet long and six a little less than 

Thruout the exhibits there was much stress laid oft 
the physical training of the child and the hygenit 

conditions of the school. The San Fanclsco Exposl 

two feet. Carry out the last six strips as long as the 
first six with blue links, these for the blue field. Then 
make a strip of red links same length and finish out 
with the blue links. These six strips of red the full 
three feet. All' the red and white stripes will be two 
links in width. Paste these on a large card and on the 
blue field paste tiny white stars. This would be a 
good problem for class work. 

I also visited some very interesting doll houses 
made of pasteboard boxes and furnished with the 
children's work in construction and mat weaving. 

Some pleasing surface covering design work might 
be interesting to little ones; was made like the well 
known snow flakes — purely abstract design. A four 
inch square fold on the diameters then again on 
diagonals leave folded as a triangle and cut out a 
form that seems to fit that square. Cut several alike 
then paste in rows on a soft colored back ground. 

There was one moving picture exhibit there showing 
a model kindergarten which was interesting, but I 
think nothing particularly new was observed. 

tion is very large and handsome particularly, flni 
electrical display, while the exposition at San Dlegi 
is small but an artistic gem with its white building 
of exquisite beauty set in a perfectly arrange! 
wealth of tropical foliage. 

In Los Angeles, California, they have an exhibl 
this summer which is wonderfully fine and full 
showing all lines of school work from the kindergartei 
thru the grades and high school. The walls ar 
covered with the drawings and the manual trainin 
work. The sewing, cooking and shop work are item 
of the Sloyd of the fourth and fifth grades; particularl 
noticeable were the well made wooden toys, figures c 
girls, boys and animals cut out of thin board, colore 
and glued onto an oblong piece so they would stan 
up. The spelling and arithmetic papers, the con 
positions, etc., were well arranged in booklets lyin 
on tables. A few interesting kindergarten booklet 
designed as a help in the use of words learned weii 
made of brown wrapping paper the pictures and wore 
were cut from old magazines or catalogues and pastej 
in the booklets. There were gardens, both flower anl 
vegetables, books, birds and animals ; people with the 
wardrobe, homes with furniture, each page a roor 
All these clippings were to be arranged and to nan 
and become familiar with. The covers too had simp 
well' arranged designs. 

The evolution in transportation was another inte 
esting problem in cardboard and paper work for your 
children. The old stage, the ore wagon, carriage ar 
the automobile, the sail boat and the great steame 
This might be carried further as a historical' study 
the modes of travel in the various countries. The: 
were many, many more things perhaps even mo 
worthy of mention but not of immediate interest 
the kindergarten teacher. I have seen many scho 
exhibits but I must say never one more complete 
every topic nor more beautifully arranged. 



I'll be a little sunbeam true, 

A tiny ray of light. 
And try in all I say and do, 

To make the world more bright. 

I thank thee, Fathr, for the care 
Which fills my life and makes it fair, 
The sunshine and the pleasant rain, 
The seeds which grow to golden grain, 
The tender love surrounding me 
For all these gifts so sent to me 
I thank thee. 

God made my life, 

A little light 
Within the world to glow, 

A tiny flame that burneth bright, 
Wherever I may go. > 

At work: or at play, 

In darkness or light, 
Be true, be true, 

And stick to the right. 

Whenever I fly 

From my own dear nest, 
I always come back, 

For home is the best. 

Politeness is to do and say* 

The kindest things in the kindest way. 

Kind hearts are the garden, 
Kind thoughts are the roots, 
Kind words are the flowers, 
Kind deeds are the fruits. 

Good-night, slep tight, 

Wake up bright, in the morning light, 

To do what's right, 

With all your might. 

Which ever way the wind doth blow, 
Some heart is glad to have it so. 
Then blow it east, or blow it west, 
The wind that blows, that wind is best. 

All things bright and beautiful, 
All creatures great and small, 

All things wise and wonderful', 
The good God made them all. 

Golden apples hanging high, 
Golden bees a-buzzing by. 
Thirty golden days that fly, 
That's September! 


Randall J. Condon. 

How are we to relate more closely the work of the 
kindergarten and that of the elementary schools? 
Not by attempting to bridge the chasm which has 
separated the two, but by abolishing it; by bringing 
the kindergarten and the first grade into closer, more 
intelligent, and more sympathetic relations. This can 
best be done by giving the teachers of each a common 
point of view, through common training and frequent 
conferences; and, better still, by making the super- 
visor of kindergartens the supervisor of the first 
grades. The kindergarten teacher should receive some 
training in primary methods — the primary teacher, in 
kindergarten methods. 

"The kindergartner should know what the primary 
teacher expects to do and how she is to do it, the 
primary teacher should know what the kindergartner 
does, and why she does it. While the kindergartner 
should take into account the work of the primary 
school and should without doubt modify her work to 
some extent from that point of view, yet we must 
strongly oppose any movement which tends to make 
the kindergarten simply a preparation for the first 
grade. In the largest sense it is distinctly such a prep- 
aration, but the kindergarten ha,s its own life to live, 
its own function to perform, its own work to accom- 
plish, and it must be left reasonably free to do that 
work in its own way. 

"If the kindergarten does its work well, it will 
afford not only a valuable preparation for the first 
grade, but for all subsequent grades. The kindergarten 
should be considered the foundation upon which all 
the other grades build. There should be a kindergar- 
ten in- every elementary school. It should be taken 
for granted that this is the way a child is to begin his 
school. The kindergarten should modulate from the 
homo to the school in the most natural and helpful 
manner, and in addition it should begin that educa- 
tional development which has a beginning but no 
ending. While the kindergarten has its own field 
and methods, and should be reasonably free to live its 
own life, it does not exist for itself alone, but as a part 
of a system of education that is incomplete without it. 
As such, the 1 kindergartner and the primary teacher 
should clearly and sympathetically understand the 
other's point of view, to the end that both by working 
together at the common task, may so unite the kinder- 
garten and the elementary school that the practice of 
one may help the other." — Excerpt from address deliv- 
ered at meeting of Department of Superintendence, at 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Children in the public schools of Chattanooga, Tenn., 
draw maps of South America on which they indicate 
by marks all places where goods manufactured in 
their city are sold. 

The literature of an age is but the mirror of its 
prevalent tendencies. — Nation, 


Filmless, plate- 
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out. Amazing in- 
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Hubbard says: 
"The ease, facil- 
ity, fun and frolic 
the ''Mandel-ette" 
supplies, exhausts 
my adjectives." 
Finished pictures 
made on the spot 
in a minute's time. 
No plates, films, or 
dark room. No 
fussing. No ex- 
perience needed 
to operate. 


A one minute camera. Takes pic- 
tures direct on 2Vfe x 3% inch paper 
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As a Pioneer in Modern 

By E. R. Murray 

The purpose of this book is to 
show that Frobel's educational the- 
ories were based on psychological 
views of a type much more modern 
than is at all generally understood. 
Most educationists have read The 
Educa on of Man, but few outside 
the kindergarten world are likely 
to have bestowed much thought on 
Froebel's later writings. It is in 
these, however, that we see Froebel 
watching with earnest attention 
that earliest mental development 
which is now regarded as a distinct 
chapter in mental science, but 
which was then largely, if not en- 
tirely ignored. 

The major part of the book Is in- 
tended to show the correctness of 
Froebel's views on points now re- 
garded as of fundamental impor- 
tance and generally recognized as 
modern theories. 

224 pages. $1.25 delivered. 

Warwick & York, inc. 

Baltimore, Maryland 



From $8. 00 to $25.00 

From $25.00 to $125.00 

Write for free 




Northville, Mich 


By Dora II. Stockman 

152 pp 21 Excellent Exercises 




Jolly, Catchy, Snappy, Happy, Easy, Pleasy, Popular, 
Inspiring, Varied, Character-building. 


Such heart-warmers as "The Golden Wedding," "A 
Master Stroke," "The Bird's Convention," "The shadow 
on the Home" and "The Old and New Santa Claus." 
Then the nerve-thrillers like Neenah's Gratitude "A 
Modern Hero," "A Patriotic Party" and the brain de- 
veloper and educators, such as "Guessing Game of the 
Trees," "Michigan Playing Fairy," "Stunt Corn-stalk's 
Lesson." Can be put on in an ordinary schoolhouse, or 
will grace an opera house. Address — 


By Dora H. Stockman. 
Seventy Sprightly Jingles full of nature lore. A 
Mother Goose recall to the farm! 

"Farmerkin, Farmerkin, 

In wonder-world of joy. 
Who would not wish to be 
A little farmer boy?" 
Ethical lessons subtly veiled. 

Fine supplementary reading for first three grades. A 
beautiful present. Good for the school library. 

Handsomely and durably bound with a three-color 
artistic paper cover. 

Price, 40c postpaid; $3.60 per dozen. 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL. Lansing, Mich, 

Are You Interested In 


The Hawaiian Islands (formerly Sandwich Is- 
lands) have been since 1898 an autonomous Territory 
of the United States. The School System is thoroly 
modern thruout, from the numerous kindergartens 
to the Territorial College of Hawaii. 

For any information regarding the schools or 
educational work of Hawaii, address 




devoted to the Teaching of Agricul- 
ture and other Rural-School Subjects 
County, District, and Village Super- 
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is the National Organ for Rural 
Teachers. . Send 2-ccnt stamp for 






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(See page 54) 




Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
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Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

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October, 1915. 



It must have been some cynic who said "The only 
difference between a groove and a grave is the depth." 

The Kindergarten-Primary Magazine and any dollar 
publication in America both for $1.75. 

Blessed is that school of whose teacher it can be 
said "Age can not wither, nor custom stale her in- 
finite variety." 

The little German boy in recounting his attain- 
ments upon entering school said: "I can't English 
very well." There are others. 

Remember, we will club the Kindergarten-Prisaary 
Magazine with any dollar publication, sending both 
for $1.75 per year. 

If you wish to subscribe for any publication in 
connection with the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine 
we will give you reduced rates. Write for particulars. 

The word "capacity" should never be applied in an 
educational sense. A cistern has capacity — a mind 
capability. There are minds like cisterns, filled to 
their brims with dates, rules and facts. A mind 
should be a spring, a living well of refreshing, live- 
giving inspiration. — Dr. Gunsaulus. 

There has come into the parlance of schools the 
word "repeater" but we have limited the application 
of the word to pupils who are repeating the work of 
last year. We have not thought to apply it to those 
teachers who are doing their work this year exactly 
the same as they did it last year with "neither va- 
riableness nor shadow of turning." Blessed is that 
school whose teacher is not a repeater. — Ohio Edu- 
cational Monthly. 

Several articles intended for this issue reached us 
to late and will appear next month . 

A little girl of twelve had seen a statement in 
Ruskin to the effect that everybody ought to have 
some knowledge of Greek and acting upon the sug- 
gestion, was poring over the Greek alphabet when a 
lady remarked to her that she was getting on well in 
her education. Whereupon the girl replied, "Why, 
this isn't education, this is fun." There is a moral 
very near the surface of this happening that school- 
teachers will do well to ponder. 

The combined wisdom of superintendents and 
boards has not yet devised a salary schedule that gives 
due consideration to real teaching ability and real in- 
fluence in the school. Some young teachers are worth 
more to the school than some older ones; some women 
teachers are more valuable than some men; and some 
teachers are worth far more than others because of the 
extra duties they assume. An alive teacher is worth 
far more than a "dead" or mechanical one. The 
dynamic teacher is worth many times rs much a« the 
static teacher. 

The Propaganda Committee of the I. K. U. in a 
recent report relative to statistics relating to kinder- 
garten progress in America shows that the growth has 
been entirely satisfactory. The comparison is made 
between 1912 and 1914. In 1914, reports of public 
school kindergartens were received from 1,135 cities 
as compared with 867 cities in 1912. The number of 
children enrolled was 391,143 as against 311,970 in 
1912. Of kindergartens other than public 1,571 re- 
ported to the bureau as compared with 994 in 1912, 
and the enrollment was 74,725 as against 52,219 in 
1912. The total number of children enrolled in both 
public and other than public kindergartens according 
to 1914 reports was 465,868, as compared with 364,189 1 
reported in 1912. Thus the total gain in the number 
of children enrolled is 101,679. 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D.. New York City 

Froebel reminds us of "the trinity of time," the 
past, the present, the future, in order that we shall 
;hink connectedly in our work with the children. 

Every time we sit down to prepare our outlines for 
i month, we should glance backward and also for- 
ward, in order to help us secure continuity. 

October, just now, stands for the present. 

September, for the past month. 

November, for the future. 

Our October program to be well organized must 
ecall September experiences, and also look forward 
o "November, at the end of which month we reach 

sort of climax in a great holiday — Thanksgiving 

During September we have succeeded in organizing 
ur new kindergarten fairly well. We have learned 
ach other's names. We have almost forgotten that 
t'e were ever strangers to each other. 

We have played and sang and worked together. 
Ve have been out to the park or the woods to- 
ether . 

We have shared each others' toys, the ball, the 
lock, the doll, the wagon, together. 

We have sat in a ring and talked about our homes, 
ur fathers and mothers and their loving care of 
We have told each other of our brothers and 
isters — of "our baby." 

We have talked about the days of the week, and 
tie work each one brings at home. We have told 
ach other about our pet bird, or our pet pussy. 

We have all become interested in our own school 
ome. We like to play in the sand. We like to 
raw on the blackboards. We like to walk around 
le room and look at the pictures on the walls. We 
ke to help take care of the flowers and water the 
lants in our kindergarten room and we have picked 

few flowers and gathered a few seeds in our gar- 

What a busy, happy September we have had — and 
ow comes a new month and teacher says it has a 
ew name — October. 

When we came to kindergarten this morning, we 
ere sure something had happened, for there were 
retty, bright leaves all around the room. 

It looked like the park. There was a pretty new 
Icture on the blackboard, 

It was a squirrel climbing a tree, and there was 
aother squirrel on the ground. There was a hole 
i the tree and another little squirrel was peeping 

out. In the ring, teacher told us a nice story. She 
said the little squirrels all had names. They were 
Frisky, Bushy and Gray. They all have gray fur 
and they all have big, bushy tails, and they all can 
frisk about. They are like those we saw in the 
park, and we are going again today to see if we 
can find them. 

Right in the center of our ring there was a little 
basket of nuts. 

We didn't know at first because there was a cover 
on the basket. 

Teacher let us guess what was in the basket. She 
let each one of us go up to the basket, peep in and 
take a nut, just as if we were squirrels. Mine was 
a hickory nut, Annie's was a chestnut, Eddie's was an 
acorn. Squirrels love to eat nuts but teacher says 
they always hide some away for when it gets very 
cold there are no more nuts on the trees. Then they 
hunt for the nuts in their hiding places. 

She let us play we were squirrels and told us to 
try to find a good hiding place for our nuts. I put 
mine in my pocket. John put his in the teacher's 
drawer. Teacher put hers down in the sand because 
she said squirrels often dig a hole and hide their 
nuts in the ground. Many children hid theirs in the 

Sometimes squirrels put nuts in a hole in a tree. 
I guess that is what that little squirrel is doing in 
the picture. 

After teacher had told us all about Frisky, Bushy 
and Gray, she asked us how little children could play 
a squirrel game. I said we could run fast. George 
said he could climb the pole. Mary said she could 
play she was eating a nut. Teacher said she knew 
a song about a squirrel and would sing it for us if 
we would all come quietly and quickly like little 
squirrels and stand around the piano. This was the 

"Let us chase the squirrel 
Up the hickory, down the hickory, 

Let us chase the squirrel 
Up the hickory tree." 

She sang it two or three times and we all listened 
because we liked it. 

Then we tried to sing it. Teacher said, How will 
you play it? We said, Two children could chase each 
other around the room and they did and it was great 
fun. Teacher said, "They are not very much like 
squirrels because they are noisy!" 



Now see who can run as quickly as squirrels and 
we tried very hard. Then we played we were all 
tired little squirrels and went to sleep in our chairs. 

While we were resting, teacher sang another sleepy 
song about a squirrel. 

"The squirrel's coat is a coat of gray, 

Sleep, darling, sleep, 
He wears it always by night and day, 

Sleep, darling, sleep." 

After we were all rested, teacher said we could go 
to the tables and draw pictures of squirrels and trees 
and nuts. She said we could draw a basket too, like 
the one the nuts were in. She said we could take 
our nuts out of their hiding places if we wanted 
to and look at them, so we could make good pic- 
tures of them. She said she was coming round to 
count how many nuts we made, and see if she could 
tell whether they were chestnuts or acorns. 

We couldn't draw very good squirrels so teacher 
gave us each a little picture of a squirrel after we 
came back from the park and we pasted it on a 
little white card and took it home. Here it is: 

NOTE — During the first week of the month, con- 
tinue with other stories and songs about this exquisite 
little creature, so familiar to the children even in 
large cities. 

Secure as many pictures as possible. Make a 
chart, or border, or stand them on the blackboard 


Have several periods of clay-modeling. The child- 
ren love to model animals tho the results prove 
crude. Many succeed well in modeling a squirrel, 
particularly our little Italian boys. The chestnut 
with its pointed end and flattened sides is a good 
model, too, also the rounder acorn. 

If convenient place oak and chestnut leaves on the 
tables while the children draw, paint a model in 
order to bring nature and nature's beautiful forms 
and colors near them. 

If the children see these objects in school they 
will note them with added interest in their walks. 
If they live where they never see them outside, it is 
more imperative to show them in Kindergarten deco- 
rations and in pictures. 


Nature interests are paramount in October. It is 
not possible to decide for each teacher the exact order 
of nature topics. Much depends upon environment, 
but the Kindergartner may make the environment 
in part by well chosen decorations and pictures. 

Suppose one decides to interest the children in the 
flight of birds this week or later. Then a group of 
flying birds should be prominent. 

All the bird books and bird pictures may be brought 
forward. Have a good time looking at them, telling 
the bird's names, their colors, their songs, where each 
one builds his nest. Review or re-tell the wonderful 
story of the egg, and how birdie grew in it, broke the 
shell at last, how mother-bird and father-bird cared 

for it. Now it is as big as the older birds. How 
quickly birdies grow as big as Mother! 

It takes little children a long time to grow as big 
as their mothers and fathers. 

It is getting colder now than it was. I see some 
of you have new warm coats. Our janitor has started 
the fire to keep us warm. What keeps birdies warm? 
Yes, their feathers do. 

But when it is getting cold, some of them fly 

Do you know where they fly to? 

They go South, where it isn't so cold. They make 
new nests and sing to the people down South. But 
when it gets warm here where we live in the North 
they will fly back to us. 

It will be easy to find an appropriate bird song. 

Let the children work on the problem of a dra- 
matic game and accept their crude suggestions, grad- 
ually modifying if necessary. Do not accompany these 
games always with song or piano. Introduce these 
formalities after the development of the game. 

Perhaps telling a story, as "The Crane's Express" 
first, will help the children in developing a game. 
We want to have the children to think by encourag- 
ing them (1) to have a purpose, (2) by using their 
own ingenuity or initiative, (3) by letting them or- 
ganize the game. 

This is very different from teaching a set game at 
once that some one else has formulated. Try to ap- 
preciate fully the difference. 

Many find it difficult to see that there is a vast 
difference, not in the result but in the training of 
the child to become a self-active being. 

NOTE — Build bird-houses. Draw nests, trees, feath- 
ers of pretty colors; cut feathers; color them; model 
birds' nests and eggs. Blow a feather for lung exer- 


According to locality, the teacher must decide 
which week will be given to falling leaves. Gathei 
them all thru the month but especially note when the 
colors are most brilliant. Interest the children ir 
the rustle. It is educative thus to note attentivelj 
the rustle of leaves. It is educative thus to note 
dainty sounds and to teach poetic words relating t(; 

"Come, little leaves" said the wind one day, 

"Come o'er the meadow with me and play, 
Put on your dresses of red and gold, 
For summer has gone and the days grow cold 

The following are a few of the pretty ways I hav 
seen Kindergartners use leaves during September att 

1. Children encouraged to gather leaves and brin 
them to Kindergarten to fill a large box. Leaves ma 
be gathered also on Kindergarten walks, each chil 
bringing back a handful. The box of leaves is to t 
emptied frequently on the floor during the mornin 
circle to keep the falling leaves and their rustle I 



The children play they are the trees and the leaves 
are falling as they sing their fall songs. Children 
day by day led to those names of trees, as "I am 
a maple tree," "I am an oak tree. I have acorns." A 
few acorns may then be thrown among the leaves on 
the floor, etc., and the oak leaves shown. 

Changes of this slight nature from day to day may 
be suggested by the children or Kindergartner, which 
will prove both interesting and instructive, as "Play 
we are an apple orchard." Hang the red and green 
balls on the trees, letting them fall as the song ad- 

Gather the apples in baskets or barrels or aprons. 
If children know an orchard well as in the country, 
then the fruit and leaves may well be imaginary 
in this game but in cities, this realistic work is essen- 
tial and should also be supplemented by pictures of 
orchards or if possible, an orchard should be repre- 
sented simply in the sand table. Twigs may be se- 
cured and red beads or tiny balls of tissue paper 
fastened on them for the fruit. Paper dolls and bas- 
kets may be added and a ladder made of splints. 

2. Raking up the leaves, and carrying them off in 
a toy wagon if someone will furnish it, gives great 
pleasure, and solves the problem of "clearing up." 
This is just as much fun if not more than playing 
"falling leaves" or "orchard." 

Appoint workmen to bring the tools, another for 
the driver, etc. 

Encourage the workmen to talk a little to eack 
other, thus developing an embryo drama. Repeat 1 
and 2 as many days as convenient for it delights the 
children and gives as real an experience of fall as 
city children can have. 

3. Some Kindergartners end with a nut party 
or hunt, hiding chestnuts among the leaves and let- 
ting each child find three or four. I once saw this 
hunt for nuts, but was sorry to see that the children 
were allowed to eat them without washing them. The 
floor was dusty and it seemed to me a fine opportunity 
to introduce a hygienic lesson by having the nuts 
washed, either by each child or by dropping all into 
a basin and then distributing them again. Do not 
count the time spent in such a way lost. It is on 
the contrary "well spent." We are learning that 
"schooling" is to help us live wiser and better lives, 
cleanliness of food and hands being one of the most 
needed practical lessons in kindergarten days. 

Leaves may be strung by the children into chains 
and festooned for decoration. 

4. Leaves may be mounted on the window frames. 
These should be very carefully selected for their 
color and form. Let a few older children help in 
choosing and mounting them. 

5. If plates of extra glass can be obtained, mount 
the leaves between the window pane and the extra 
plate of glass. If transparent paper is furnished, let 
the children imitate by making a little window with 
one or two pretty leaves between two sheets of the 

I have seen a simple frame devised and these 
mounted leaves held for a Christmas gift. 

6. Children are often allowed to trace leaves and 
then color them or cut them out. They may be cut 
out first and then colored. Those well done may be 
used as a border around the room. 

7. In clay work, a flat, circular plaque is mod- 
eled, and a pretty leaf pressed on it. Choose a leaf 
with prominent veining. The children love to see 
the veins and it gives them a new mature thought. 

Let them hold the leaves up to the light and find 
the veins, then look at their own hands for another 
view of veins. Note that some leaves are shaped like 
our hands! They have five fingers! Try to find a 
sweet-corn leaf where the fine points are very marked. 

8. Have the children make designs with leaves 
on the tables. Mounting leaves is not very satisfac- 
tory, rather use them as tabltes. 

9. Note that the -curled leaf is natural and artistic. 
Do not press all the leaves. Have them in bunches for 
decoration. Train your own eye to see beauty in a 
dried, curled up leaf. Twine a string of dried leaves 
around a post if there is one in the room. 

It is another practical life lesson to use what oth- 
ers throw away as useless. 

NOTE — The leaf work may well be introduced in 
September and early October, or scattered thru the 
month rather than concentrated in a week. 


Fall fruits and fall vegetables are so interesting in 
taste as well as in color that children will not let you 
wait until the last of October to talk about them. 
Make much of those the children bring. 

Here is a red apple Bennie brought. Y/hen he 
brought it, was the day to tell the story of "The 
little red apple" — it will fit in with the song of the 

Count the seeds in Bennie's apple after you have 
carefully cut it and shown the pretty star in the 
middle. Have you ever cut a very thin slice, held 
it up to the light and discovered the blossom form? 
You must cut at right angles to the stem. 

Train the children to find nature's secrets in such 
ways and to enjoy an apple in more ways than by 
eating it. Tie a cord to the apple stem and twirl it 
to see it spin. This is a good play for home and 
baby. Tell of it at a Mothers' Meeting. 

Later in the month tell a realistic story of "Grand- 
pa roasting the apple," or "How I saw Mother make 
an apple pudding." Make apple sauce right in Kin- 

Go to the kitchen if there is one or have an im- 
promptu one. 

Have an apple party. A quarter or even half a 
quarter of an apple will make a little feast. 

And an animal cracker if you can. 

Let the children cut plates for the party and fringe 



Let them begin to work towards Thanksgiving day 
by starting the hymn 

"For the fruit upon the tree, 
For the birds that sing of Thee, 
For the earth in beauty dressed, 
Father, Mother and the rest, 
Father, we thank Thee." 

The children have by this time had enough experi- 
ence with the materials at hand to suggest what they 
can use to make apples. Divide into groups accord- 
ing to their choices, as: 

1st table. Making apples of clay. 

2nd table. Cutting apples out of red paper. 

3rd table. Stitch outline of apple. 

4th table. Painting apples. 

Next day choose again and change occupations or 
improve on the same. 

The peach, the plum, a bunch of grapes, the pear, 
may be made each in turn a center of interest. 

A fruit stand may be devised. Playing sell fruits 
is a favorite game with balls or beads. 

The children may build a little fruit stand with 
blocks, have a few colored beads and be happy, or 
a big stand may be built if there are big blocks and 
the children may play buy of each other. It is well 
known that children love to play store and sell. 
Much useful knowledge is acquired even tho all this 
play is crude. 

First. The store-keeper must know the names of 
all the fruits. (Enlarges vocabulary.) 

Second. He must decide prices. 

Third. He must wrap up well his packages. 

Fourth. He must be polite to his customers. He 
must not forget the change even tho it all be make- 
believe money. 

NOTE — The youngest children are perfectly con- 
tent with the "motions" of pretending to give money 
and take change. They put their hands in their 
pockets, (1) hand the money, (2) take the change, 
(3) put it away, (4) — four movements. Older child- 
ren tear up bits of paper. Older yet they like to cut 
out several sizes in circles for coins or have printed 
"toy money." It is not wise to use real money in 
such play. It may prove a temptation. 

During this month and in early November, concen- 
trate in hand-work upon painting nd modeling, fruits 
and vegetables, first one and then another. It is pre- 
ferable not to introduce many kinds of handwork at 

The tomato, the pepper, the carrot, the apple, the 
pear, the peach, a bunch of grapes, all make interest- 
ing models for both painting and clay work. 

After making large single forms, the children love 
to make a basket or dish and fill it with little apples, 
or have a dish or basket of all the different 

Let them follow their own lead, suggesting only 
to insure a little progress from day to day. The dish 
of fruit may be added to dolly's house. 

If other handwork is desired, it may well be free 

cutting. Furnish paper of appropriate color occasion- 
ally or cut from white and afterwards crayoning. 
Mount in a scrap book made of a few sheets folded 
by the children. 


At the close of October comes the hallowe'en cele- 
bration. The children bring it into the kindergarten 
with its humorous side. We must meet it and raise, 
the grotesque from a lower to a higher level. 
' The pumpkin makes a fine showing in paper. There 
is no objection to cutting eyes, and mouth as country 
boys do, and as city shops show in imitation. 

Tell the story of the boy who was frightened by 
the pumpkin head on the fence, but it was only a 
lantern after all. Children suffer much from unnec- 
essary fear, and many ghost stories are being brought 
to our country by foreigners. This may be a time to 
have a little fun to help dispel the fears. 

Let children make big pumpkin masks of paper. 
Tie one on the leader and have a pumpkin march. 
Let each in turn be leader. Do not have more than 
one masked at a time. 

If it is possible to have a real pumpkin, let the 
children see you cut it, wash the seeds. If you put 
in the candle, be very careful. All use of matches 
and open fire is questionable in a school room. I do 
not approve it unless it can be done in the open 

One Kindergartner connected a pumpkin with Cin- 
derella's coach as the children already knew the 

It is not a story I should tell children of this age, 
but mothers tell it, and the toy picture books present 
it in pictures at an early age. We may press the 
lesson of kindness to sisters. 

Maud Lindsey once told me of giving every child 
a tiny glass slipper which became a great treasure 
under her skillful hand and advice. We must not 
expect to avoid some of these partly objectionable 
stories. They have survived too long to be neglected. 
They are classic, but we must sometimes modify them, 
as in letting Red Riding Hood escape — just in time. 


These have been suggested thru the week's work. 

Review those of September as the children call for 

Work up a story sequence in games and songs as 
one given in "Games and Songs," a selected list pub- 
lished by the N. Y. Public School Kindergarten Asso- 


Orchard. Holiday Songs — Poulssen. Songs and 
Games — Walker and Jenks. 

Wagon. Song Echoes. Jenks and Rust. 

Train. A Baker's Dozen. Valentine and Claxton. 

Selling Fruit — cart or store. Songs and Games. 
Walker and Jenks. 

Spend game time in the open air all during this 
month if at all convenient. Keep aiming for out-of- 
door Kindergartens. 



Dk. W. N. Hailmann 

The open door to self-active life is interest, a sense 
of worth wnHe concerning things of environment and 
our activities as affecting fancied or real, momen- 
tary or more or less permanent well-being, inner and 
outer conduct. 

Interest has emotional phases insofar as it relates 
to feeling, intellectual phases insofar as it is related 
to some more or less definite aim or object, aDd voli- 
tional phases insofar as it directs attention and stim- 
ulates effort 

Interest and effort are mutually sustaining factors 
of developing mental life. Effort reveals or estab- 
lishes what interest sraks; and interest grows, is en- 
riched, expands, deepens with the gains of effort. In- 
terest finds content in instinctive needs and in the 
lcs3or>s of experience and, in turn, furnishes content 
to effort. Effort, on the other hand, builds the ladder 
by which interest ascends from caprice to prudence, 
from prudence to duty, from desire to aspiration. 

The art of the teacher consists in guiding interest 
and efTort in such a way that they may continuously 
serve tfce needs of unfolding, enlarging life, and in 
correlating them in such a fashion as to secure in- 
creasing scope, sense of power, self-reliance and good 
will. To confine the child to unguided interest jeo- 
pardieizes development; and constrained effort, not 
held in tension by natural interest, arrests develop- 

Artificial incentives that lie outside the legitimate 
purposes of the mental acts involved can never take 
the place of natural interest. They appeal to other, 
usually lower motives, divert legitimate interest, 
breed envy and untruthfulness, suppress conscience, 
and thereby retard and pervert moral development. 

According to Froebel, the will is born in the deed 
according to Ziller, it is born in the thought. "With 
reference to will as the fundamental unconscious in- 
stinct of life to be and to become, both are wrong; for 
both thought and deed are children of this will. But 
with reference to will as conscious deliberate volition, 
both are at least partially right; for volitions are 
conceived in thought and have their full birth in the 
deed. In due time, under the influence of repetition, 
they may enter subconscious life as a habit; or sub- 
sequently, under the control of judgment, become es- 
tablished in character. In this form, will creates a 
permanent conscious attitude in life and in the utter- 
ances of life, makes of life a harmonious unit, and, 
properly guided, guards against temptation and de- 
livers from evil. 

The will may be conceived in its conscious phases 
as desire to which have been added the conviction of 

its attainability and the resolve to attain it: I wish — i 
I can — I will. 

In a deeper sense, we find the will permeating every 
phase of mental life. The self wills its sensations, 
its percepts, its concepts, its laws and principles; it 
TviHs its feelings and emotions; it wills its desires, 
its purposes, ideals and their realizations. 

In intellectual work, involving chiefly attention, 
concentration and the like, the will is mainly inhibi- 
tory, keeping down other appeals to interest, holding 
down other motive; but in productive and creative 
activity the will becomes mandatory, seeks new re- 
sources, new motive, etc., for the enlistment of the 
whole man in the work in hand. 

The liberation of the will means the elimination 
of ignorance, the establishment of insight, of ideals; 
the subordination of all these to reason and love. The 
enslaved will seeks the temporarily pleasing; the lib- 
erated, the permanently good. 

Play is neither a mere means of recreation, nor the 
result of surplus energy, nor an echo of atavistic 
tendencies. All these things may be found in certain 
phases of it; but, essentially and always, it is the 
indispensable concomitant and stimulus of growth and 
development of the organs and tendencies involved. 
It is not, indeed, so much a preparation for serious 
life, certainly not a deliberate preparation for such 
purpose, but rather the in itself serious life-function- 
ing of the organs and tendencies involved, for the 
sake of further development. 

It is spontaneous drill under more or less instinct- 
ive impulse in the child, under deliberate purpose in 
the adult. Always its end is the development, main- 
tenance or recovery of inner power. 

The specific end of work is consciously sought 
achievement, the adjustment of environment to re- 
latively inner need.of inner ability to the requirements 
of the task in hand. In its broadest sense, work is 
projected thought, is the purpose and completion of 

Play means progressive self-realization; as it cul- 
minates in art it becomes highest self-expression. 
Work enters as a factor into play, whenever play 
deals with resisting environment or inner lack of 
skill or power. Similarly, play enters as a factor into 
work, whenever this stirs sense of growing power or 
developing ability. 

On the achievement side of thought, method should 
begin with play and lead the child gradually to pro- 
ductive and creative work, vitalized by the progres- 
sively higher phases of the play spirit. This implies 
a gradual transition in the chief motive of the activ- 
ity from a sense of pleasure, thru a sense of necessity 
and corresponding duty, to the joy that attends obed- 
ience to the inner urglngs of more or less ideal aspi- 



ration. More and more, idealism in aim should be 
Iconnected with the realism of work. Only as this 
is done, can work bring joy which is the humanizing 
factor of work. All joyless work brutalizes and en- 

With expanding thought the vital force of one iso- 
lated individual becomes inadequate for the purposes 
of complete life, and social union in purpose and 
action as well as sympathy in experience and thought 
become indispensible. Henceforth, full mental life 
is found not in the achievement of individual ends, 
but in sympathetic co-ordination of individual pur- 
pose with that of others in common social endeavor 
and in active mutual devotion to common worthy 

Mutual adjustment to common purposes is the su- 
preme law of social life. Education, therefore, whose 
chief eoncern is to secure such adjustment, must con- 
sider not only the exigencies of social environment, 
but also the individual capacities of each pupil, seek- 
ing to harmonize the interest of the individual pupil 
with that of the group. For the most precious thing 
that comes to a social group is a strong, self-reliant, 
generously sympathetic and aggressively helpful indi- 
viduality, and to lead the young to such is the privi- 
lege and responsibility of education. 

For this the school needs constant opportunity for 
social work in which the pupil, as leader or follower, 
can give himself — and the best of himself — in con- 
scious intra-ordination to common effort in tasks 
which he cannot accomplish alone, yet in whose ac- 
complishment he can feel and see that he is indis- 
pensable, that he amounts to something in his world. 

Then came Autumn with her color box. She passed 
through the orchards giving a touch here, and a 
touch there, and when she had finished, behold! yel- 
low apples, red apples, russet brown apples, and parti- 

J. M. Niven 

Last spring when the apple trees were covered with 
their coats of pink and white blossoms, every one was 
delighted with them. They were so beautiful that 
many people took trips to the country to see what 
a whole orchard of trees in blossom looks like. 

How proud the trees would have been could they 
have heard all the nice things that were said of them! 
There they stood waving their blossoms at the boys 
and girls, and sending their perfume broad-cast. 

When you picked the blossoms you did not know 
that you were robbing Mother Tree of some of her 
children. Think of it, each, each blossom holds a 
baby apple. All you thought was that you would have 
a fine bouquet to take home with you. 

Later on when the petals fell to the ground, you 
were sorry, but their time had come to drop off. Al- 
ready the young seed, so small that it could not be 
seen, had begun to grow inside the flower at the 
bottom of those little yellow threads with the round 

Yes, the baby apples began to grow. Little green 
things were they, "not much bigger than pills," as a 
little girl remarked. 

Sunshine and rain came during the long summer 
days, and the apples grew and grew, till the branches 
bent towards the ground with their weight. 

colored apples. Many apple trees she left as she 
found them, knowing that the color of "greenings" 
could not be improved upon. 

At last came the day when men with ladders ar- 
rived. They climbed the trees, picked each apple 
with the greatest care, and paeking them in baskets 
and barrels to send to all parts of our country. 

Then one evening your father brought home a bas- 
ket of fine red apples. "See children," he exclaimed, 
"these came from the orchard you saw in blossom 
in Spring, we shall see now if they taste as fine 
as they look." That night you found out many 
things about an apple that you had never known be- 
fore. The first thing was that there is a difference 
in the skins of apples, some being tougher and oilier 
than others, thus serving as better winter protectors. 

At one end of the apple was seen a deep dent 
holding the stem. It was a strong stem, and needed 
to be strong to hold the fruit firmly to the tree, 
through many a gale and rain-storm of the sum- 
mer. • ,: 

At the other end was something black and dry. 
This was all that was left of the pretty blossom. 

With a knife you soon cut open your apple, and 
father told you that the core is the seed box, and 
that all the rest of the apple just served as a house 
to keep the seed box safe. 

He told you to cut another apple across the middle, 
and you -saw that the seed-box had five rooms which 
cut in this way, formed a star. In each room lived 
a seed wrapped in a brown coat. 

Perhaps you found a worm in your apple, and 
father explained that an insect had laid its eggs on 
the blossoms, and they had hatched out worms in the 
seeds when the fruit had formed. 

He told you that Mother Tree is glad when you 
throw away apple seeds. If they fall where there 
is good soil and lots of sunshine, they will take 
root and in time become big Mother Trees them- 

"Down in the dear old orchard 
Where the ruddy apples grow, 
See how the trees are spreading 
Their branches gnarled and low. 
Oh! the orchard, the dear old orchard, 
Is a merry, merry merry, merry, place, . 
Oh! the orchard, the dear old orchard, 
Is a merry, merryy merry, marry, piace." 



Velvalee Blueher Duke 
When thinking of the innumerable influences of 
Froebel and his kindergarten upon our present day 
3ducational system, I find it a task to confine myself 
:o a specific phase. Mr. Dutton, in characterizing the 
['Modern School' and what it Owes to Froebel and 
Herbart," says: "In a complete statement of what the 
kindergarten undertakes to do for little children, it 
i(vould probably be found to contain the germ of every 
(reform now being developed in a greater or less de- 
gree during the entire school life.'' Through the in- 
fluences of the kindergarten, primary work has been 
Completely transformed. Other educators before may 
have recognized such need, "But," says Professor 
Boone, "for its effective presentation as a working 
principle in the schools, educational practice is in- 
debted to the founder of the kindergarten/' Yet mo- 
dern primary teachers berate the kindergarten, and 
ippear totally ignorant that they are indebted to the 
founder of this institution for all progressive methods. 


"The nature study in our schools today," says Dr. 
Charles Eliot, is based entirely upon that principle 
munciated by Froebel: and, moreover the kindergar- 
ten introduced these studies for little children before 

he American schools introduced them for children of 
larger stature and greater age." He also states, that 
ifter attending the best schools in Boston, he was un- 
able to study a single branch of natural science until 
liis second year as a student of Harvard. The initial 

fforts^were very crude, not at all for the purpose of 
extending the field of knowledge, but merely a dis- 
ciplinary method of learning and a basis for future 
reflection. All knowledge was obtained from a book, 
pr from technical lectures. Specimens on the lec- 
turer's desk were the only attempts at object-teaching. 
Laboratory practice and excursions, or field-trips for 

nquiry of things themselves as to their behavior 
xnd habitation, was unthought of. Since these con- 
iitons were existing in the highest institutions of 
learning, could any enlightenment be expected in the 
elementary grades? Why has the introduction of this 
been so comparatively recent? Because Froebel's 
teachings were neglected until brought to our atten- 
:ion by the kindergarten. It was the kindergartner 
who first introduced the excursion with beneficial re- 
sults. Through this the child gained a more vital' ap- 
preciation of the activity and beauties of the world 
ibout him. Now it is a common sight to see child- 
ren of all grades accompanied by their teacher on 
such trips. These observation trips may also be uti- 
ized for the realization of the civic improvement, 
which is a splendid training for future citizenships. 

The kindergartner was the first to realize the nec- 
essity of the child's having the real experience of 
slanting seeds and caring for plants. This form of 
lature study spread very quickly; thus we have the 
school gardens as a direct outgrowth. They are now 
'ound in almost every school, and their import- 

ance is so greatly appreciated that the agriculture 
department of various governments, including our 
own men, will gladly send seeds and other necessary 
material to any teacher for promoting this work. It 
has been a very successful means of instruction be- 
cause the children enjoy it. I recall, while a student 
of the University of California, observing the gardens 
of the public school children on the campus. Their 
remarkable results were certainly due to their per- 
sonal interest in the work. This element of interest 
was long ago recognized by the kindergartner as nec- 
essary for success in all instruction. 

A device first used in the kindergarten for teaching 
the natural development of the country is the sand 
table, which is now used in the elementary and se- 
condary schools is teaching geography as well as 
for nature study. Thus we realize, as Paul Monroe 
states, that "nature study retains a place in elemen- 
tary instruction as influenced by Froebel, altogether 
aside from either the value of the facts taught or the 
symbolical' spiritual import. As suggesting material 
for reading, writing, language work, constructive 
work, and number work, nature study has come to 
have an important function in the schools. Even 
when all of these ideas concerning the functions of 
nature study are rejected, Froebel has influenced fun- 
damentally the conception of this study as it is con- 
ducted in all grades.'' 


In "The Relation of the Kindergarten to the Pri- 
mary School," Emma Newman says, "To Froebel be- 
longs unquestionably the honor of flinging tradition to 
the winds and successfully placing such materials in 
the hands of the teacher and child as makes possible 
development through self activity." This has always 
been one of the chief objects of the kindergarten. Its 
hand-work and gifts are an outlet for the child to 
reproduce his knowledge and experiences in his own 
inherent way. The demonstration of this phase in 
the kindergarten led many teachers to realize that 
such work would be beneficial to the children of the 
elementary grades, interesting them for the present 
and preparing them for future development. Initial 
attempts by those who knew nothing of the possibi- 
lities of the material, developed into the objectionable 
"busy hour" work, which was a "pacifier" for the 
child— employing his hands rather than exercising 
his brains. These erroneous practices were corrected 
by adhering more closely to Froebel's principles. Now 
we find the child of the elementary grades skillful in 
making with scissors free-hand cuttings to illustrate 
some mental' picture of his story. Paper folding, and 
weaving paper, cloth, and yarn are the useful forms 
of hand work now practiced. 

Among the greatest resources of the primary teacher 
for gaining expression are now the sand table and the 
clay modeling of the kindergarten. The latter has 
been introduced into the schools for the blind, deaf, 
and dumb. 

In turning to the influences that have developed 
handwork a« a uj&anB of self expression, we find also 



an extension into manual training. This idea, Samuel 
Parker states, "owes its development to relatively few 
influences, among which that of Froebel may he count- 
ed as one of the most important." H. C. Bowen con- 
firms this fact also and says that when we consider 
manual training as hand-work for the sake of head- 
work, "it is a direct outcome of the kindergarten ex- 
ercises and as a future development of part 

of the kindergarten activity and creativeness, has its, 
place as a necessary part of generl eduction." Fur- 
thermore Paul Monroe says: "On distinctly educa- 
tional ground, Proebel gave to all manual and indus- 
trial training and to all forms of constructive work 
the place which they are coming to occupy in modern 
schooling.'' Discussion is not necessary as to the 
success this subject has met, not only for itself, but 
also for its influence for vocational and domestic train- 


One of the greatest gifts of the kindergarten to the 
elementary school is that of beautifying the school 
room. I believe that this of all' the great gifts from 
the kindergarten is the least acknowledged and ap- 
preciated. Once we had a barren room, with perhaps 
a picture of some kind, but always far beyond the 
child's interest or understanding; occasionally a few 
flowers broughtby the child and stuck in any sort of 
a jar, to get them out of the way. 

Conipaxe this with our present schoolroom. Our 
pictures are the best art can produce, chosen with 
much care so that they appeal to the child's interests 
and every day experiences. These are hung on the 
child's horizon for his benefit and enjoyment only. 
Flowers and greens artistically arranged add beauty 
to the surroundings. But these are not all; we also 
find gold fish, birds, and in the proper seasons we 
even find bunnies, baby chicks, and silk worms. 

An example of just what the kindergarten has given 
the elementary school is well illustrated by the pri- 
mary department of a certain district. A lady, who 
had many years of kindergarten experience' told me 
of her visit to that department when the first kinder- 
garten was established in the district. The school 
room walls were innocent of giving any aid to produce 
a pleasing interior. With the exception of a few old 
weaving mats, the occasional flowers on the teacher's 
desk were the only aid in this direction. 

Now we find a decided change. The sunny rooms 
are decorated carefully with choice flowers and hang- 
ing baskets of greens. Such pictures as "Feeding Her 
Birds" by Millet, "The Age of Innocence," be Rey- 
nolds, and the "Five Senses" by Jessie "Wilcox Smith, 
grace the walls for the child's pleasure. Seasonal 
blackboard borders also give a cheerful effect to the 
rooms. We need not go far to find the cause of the 
change from the cheerless school room with its atmos- 
phere of a workshop to a cheerful room that gives joy 
and delight, and becomes at once a source of pride 
to the child. The cause certainly is the establishment 
and example of the kindergarten. The emphasis which 
kjndergartners place op the making of conditions and 

environment for gaining better application and ex- 
pression from the child is at once seized upon by the 
primary teachers and stamped as their own. 


Elizabeth Harrison in an enumeration of "What the 
Kindergarten Has Done'' says, "Music, which has 
played so important a part in the kindergarten is 
slowly but surely becoming a part of the daily exer- 
cises of the average school room." Once our primary 
children, if taught any songs at all, were taught those 
far beyond their interest and understanding. They 
screeched these, occasionally hitting a correct word. 
That the correction of errors made for a deeper appre- 
ciation in music was unheard of, as singing was then 
only designed for making a noise. 

But when the kindergartner gave to the child a 
song of simple wording adapted to his interest and 
understanding, including a pleasing melody, action j 
and dramatic elements, we find a decided awakening j 
in primary music. Now we hear the children softly, 
singing songs of their own experiences to the airs ol 
worthy compositions. The learning of a few songs; 
well, as advocated by the kindergartner, gives oppor; 
tunity for developing a true musical appreciation. Of j 
ten the songs are dramatized and costume suggestions! 
used to add to the effect. The kindergarten use ol 
music for disciplining and musical rhythms for relax 
ation is widespread. 


The morning talk, which has always been such at 
important feature of the kindergarten, is the bast, 
of the Language work now given in the grades. "Tft| 
value'' of informal conversation with children upoi 
topics in which they are interested and concernin, 
which they have some definite knowledge, is realize 
by all progressive teachers, says Elizabeth Harrisoi 
She also states that "The morning stories of the kii 
dergarten have led to the establishment of a regula; 
story hour in each week's program in our more a< 
vanced schools, and have developed 'The Nations 
Story Tellers League.' The value of the story as 
broadener of the interests of the children and as 
means of increasing their sympathy in other mods; 
of Fife than their own, has caused a supply of suppl 
mentary readers to be found in all our best schools." 

This change from the old method of book studyin 
to the active method of conversation and retellic 
stories is certainly an outgrowth of the kindergarte, 
For the purpose of language work use is also mat 
of the kindergarten excursion. As a means of teac 
ing language, the dramatic game is employed alsj 
"The dramatic game," says Lucy Wheelock, "to whit 
Froebel first gave form as a means of developing ini'i 
ative, freedom, sympathy and social feeling, may 1J 
seen in any primary school today, and the spirit j 
the kindergarten rules in the schools." 


The teaching of arithmetic once regarded as a mea: 
of formal discipline only has undergone many changt 
These changes were, certainly clue to fcincjergartgn, j 



fluence. Adelia Hornbrook in "An Open Letter'' says 
'Educators generally agree that formal arithmetic is 
lot suitable for children of the first and second grades. 
For this reason it has been taken out of those grades 
n many of the best schools. But number games and 
xxupations skillfully guided, are not only pleasing to 
ittle children but rightly used they lead to a realiza- 
ion of number that cannot possibly be gained by the 
>ld fashioned routine drill and enforced tasks. Each 
jame and occupation has a specific purpose — is in- 
ended to lead the pupils to grasp some particular 
dea. The skillful teacher knows definitely what re- 
mits she wishes to obtain in giving it, just as the 
kiflful physician administering a drug, knows the 
esults he desires to effect by its use. All the games 
md occupations are carried on in the most leisurely 
vay, to prevent overstimulation of the children's 
ainds and nervous system. Awful things used to be 
lone to the nervous systems of children in school- 
ooms before practical school work was influenced by 
he kindergarten movement and the child study 


The Moslem schoolmaster demands that his pupils 
epeat aloud sentences from the Koran dictated by 
imself. Not only were religious and civil laws In- 
ulcated in this way, but also memory and power of 
pplication were trained. Was this knowledge gained 
y personal interest on the part of the pupils? No. The 
choolmaster always held a rod long enough to reach 
veryone in the class. The fear of its application was 
is personal aid to assist their interest. The Moslem 
sed exclusively this system of education and his peo- 
le were thereby unprogressive. To the kindergarten 
re are indebted for the greatest of all gifts — for rescu- 
pg us from the intellectual bondage of the Moslem 
eople, and directing all grades of instruction in the 
ath of freedom and progress. 

Therefore let us teach a child to apply himself by 
iteresting him, "so that" as Dr. Charles Eliot says, 
he cannot help but apply himself to accomplish his 
esire. Interest the child; win him; win his atten- 

on; win his interest in you and his task Ap- 

l'ication trained through keen desire to apply oneself 
fill become a mental habit." 

We appreciate Froebel's laws of discipline more 
ince Dr. Montessori repainted "his sign-board'' by 
laking this thought of interest the basis of the discip- 
ne of her praiseworthy educational system, a system 
hich has met the approval of progressive educators, 
'r. Montessori would consider the person irrational 
ho advocated the theory of breaking the child's will 
ither than securing effort through interest. 
It was the kindergartner who, as a true student 
t human nature, first realized that more is gained by 
lort periods of application to a subject, with inter- 
ils of relaxation to relieve and rest the mind than 
7 long periods of sustained attention. Now we have 
ie guessing and gesture of the kindergarten con- 
antl'y used in our elementary grades for relaxing the 
lental strain upon the child who is just "entering 

the realm of the text book.'' The kindergarten method 
not only applies to the children of the elementary 
grades, but also to those of a larger growth. We now 
have the short period in the Grammar and the High 
School curriculum and intermission in the concert, 
play, opera or dance. The wise clergyman, orator, or 
professor now holds the attention of his audience by 
an occasional story or poem. The church services are 
now an alteration of scripture reading with hymn, 
chant or prayer. 

Yet with all of these examples about us in our every 
day life, I fear the majority of teachers do not recog- 
nize or appreciate the value of interest as the kinder- 
gartner does. 


Madam Maria Montessori the now famous kindergar- 
ten teacher of Rome, Italy, was in California this sum- 
mer and with the help of intrepreters gave lectures 
and lessens both in the San Francisoco and San Diego 
expositions. In San Diego the summer normal school 
— Dr. E. L. Hervett, dean — was conducted in one of 
the buildings of the exposition. Here Madam Mon- 
tessori had some of her classes. Her system of kin- 
dergarten training differs considerably from the Froe- 
bel methods. The following are a few notes gathered 
by a visitor in the classes: 

The Montessori motto is watching, waiting and long 
patience in teaching. Do one thing at a time until the 
child is well drilled, for instance, first the little one 
even as young as two and one-half years is told to 
walk a given line daily, for a certain number of min- 
utes — often as long as two weeks — when this is well 
done the teacher will emphasize lifting the head — 
later walking in rhythm to music, then skipping. At 
first no songs are given, in fact throughout few songs 
are taught and no fairy tales, she declares all must be 
truth and real — quite a revolution from the ideas of 
the ancient Romans who so lived in the atmosphere of 
mythology. She scorns some of our action songs, like 
the Farmer song, Jack Frost, etc., etc. There is also 
no constructive work, which is made so much of in 
our schools. 

The strong emphasis in the Montessori system is on 
sense training, for instance by the use of sand paper, 
the child learns the comparative degrees, rough, 
smooth and so on. An interesting lessen observed 
was that with the insets, two boards some 18x20 ins. 
were fastened one on top of the ether; the top one has 
several geometrical forms cut thru it, the square, 
triangle, circle, semi-circle, star and diamond shaped 
figures. The child blind folded is seated in front of 
this block and has placed with in easy reach corres- 
ponding forms exactly fitting into these openings. 
By the sense of touch they are to recognize the forms 
and set them in place, being timed in the process ; thus 
by many other similar exercises is the child trained 
in smell, taste, hearing and so on. 

All common usages such as home and garden work 
are strongly urged for lessens in acquiring new words 
and placing them correctly, for example, washing, 
sweeping, dusting the home articles or seed planting, 
weeding and watering the garden. 

In these kindergarten rooms there is no circle work 
and all the tables are small to accommodate just two 
Watching, waiting, and long patience. 



Olive Wills. 

Of all the seasons of the year perhaps October is the 
most inspiring for landscape study. This is the month 
when nature has been so lavish with her paint pots 
splashing and dashing the brilliant riches on every 
thing within reach of her brush. The gorgeous sun- 
sets, purplish hazy atmosphere, the brilliant flowers, 
and the reds, yellows, greens and golden browns of the 
autumn foliage not forgetting the wealth of coloring 
in the ripened fruits, vegetables and grains. 

Let our first lessons be a talk about the flowers, the 
weeds and grasses of the skies of a warm day, a cold 
day, a rainy or a windy day and of a sunset and sun- 
rise. Now we will paint a sky and the lake of a clear 

ground, green grass or a sand hill — following this we 
will introduce a tree, do not, of all things, say a tree — 
let us awaken more interest by attempting a distinc- 
tive tree, the poplar, pine, maple or apple tree, calling 
attention to the relative height and width. Perhaps 
contrasting the poplar and apple tree, the first tall, 
straight and strong soldier, the other the knarled 
twisted and bent old man. The placing of this tree is 
an interesting lesson — not to cut the picture thru the 
middle yet not too far to one side. If it is far to one 
side a small tree or brush must be placed on the other 
side to give a balance. Lastly we will introduce a 
stream or road and perhaps a house in the distance. 
Here our problems are multiplied. The house and 
trees must not be on the same level either top or 
bottom. The road must narrow as it approaches the 
horizon. A straight road thru the center is un- 
pleasing— yet it must not cut from corner to corner. 




warm day in autumn, noting carefully the shape of 
our picture, oblong, not square, and the placing of the 
horizon line a trifle below or above the middle, never 
cutting the picture plane thru the center. Some few 
artists have succeeded in making this into a good 
composition but there are many other elements intro- 
duced to make this pleasing. With this same pro- 
portion let us paint the cold or rainy day sky and 
lastly the sunset with its blending of blues into the 
golden and crimsen. Now a picture of sky and 

The child will readily see that Fig. VII is more pleas 
ing than Fig. V, VI. Notice in our landscape how th< 
colors in the sky dominate the entire picture. Foi 
much of this work I would urge the teacher to tak< 
walks with the children, pointing out this tree, 01 
bush, this or that color in sky and foliage. Much cat 
be acomplished in this way to insight the child to ai 
appreciation of the beauties of nature; even if thej 
cannot do a perfect picture they will have the lessor 
in the head and heart if not in the hand. 



J. Y. Dunlop, Graighead, Tollcross, Scotland. 

Naturally pictures are very generally used to con- 
nect the story lessons, sometimes pictures already in 
the school — often others drawn for the purpose by the 

This is undoubtedly good but the plan suggested 
now is to have the pictures made by the class, and 
the story to be one form of expression of the subject 
of the picture. 

Of course the teacher knowing the lesson, will be 
able to decide how the story is to be illustrated. 

Sheet 2 shows a picture lesson on a visit to the 

Fig 2 shows the folds for the door. Fig. 3, 4 and 5 
for the windows. Fig. 7 and 8 the folds for the roof. 

After mounting draw the ends and ground line of 
the house. 

Fig. 6 and 9 shows the folds and pattern for the 

Fig. 10, 11 and 12 the folds and patterns for the 
stalks of hay and corn. 

Fig. 1 shows the drawing complete. • 

Fig. 13 shows a group of cottages which would re- 







~1 ' ' 






\ / 







I '■• 

















FIG-IO FlCrll Ft&IZ. 

quire to be mounted as in the picture of the farm and 
the drawing added. 

For quite young children the stories must appeal to 
them but for older children it is wise to vary the sub- 
jects as much as possible that many new ideas may be 
gained and that the vocabulary may be enlarged and 
several fresh mind pictures given. 

Starting with the study of a story or a visit to the 
seaside a suggestive picture is shown at Fig. 1. The 
patterns for combined boat and sails are shown at 
Sheet 1, Fig. 2,_ 3, 4 and 5. 

The patterns for the main sail Fig. 6 and 7 and the 
fore sail Fig. 8, 9 and 10. 

After grouping those patterns as shown at Fig. 1, 
the underbody of the boat should be drawn in with 

Fig. 10 shows a fringe of sailing yachts and Fig. 11 
a similar border in which the whole work of the class 
might be used. 


Mrs. C. G. Hubbell of Bridgeport and Miss Mary 
Mills, principal of the Connecticut Froebel Normal 
Kindergarten Training school, have returned from a 
six weeks' trip to the Pacific Coast. They visited the 
Yellowstone National park, viewed the Canadian Rock- 
ies, saw the Great Lakes, and one of the other great 
wonders of America, Niagara Falls, and made stops 
in the principal cities both on the transcontinental 
trip to the Golden West and on the way home. 

Would you know the baby's skies? 

Baby's skies are mother's eyes; 
Mother's eyes and smiles together 

Make the baby's pleasant weather. 

Saucy little bluebird 
Singing, off he flew; 

With his pretty brown vest 
And his suit of blue. 



Maboaeet D. Plyjiptox. 
As soon as there has been a frost heavy enough to 
Bend the nuts groundward, plan to go to the woods, 
and gather enough acorns and cups so that each child 
may have one or two of each to examine and finally 
own. Also gather small breakings bearing leaves and 
nuts, and place them about the room that the children 
may observe from day to day what takes place. 

Observing these branches will prepare the small 
people for the patient observation which will be 
brought into action throughout the winter. 

By degrees develop thought of the acorn specimens 
and oak leaves and compare them with other nuts 
and leaves. 

On walks to park, or fieldward during the beautiful 
autumn weather call attention to the way in which 
the leaves are piling in layers over the ground and 
filling the saucer-like depressions here and there. 
Carefully push away some of the leaves and show the 
nuts which had been safely covered, before telling the 
children that something wonderful happens to the 
acorns when snugly tucked away as these were. 

Seven or eight weeks after the beginning of the 
school year there is pretty certain to come a warm, 
rainy, or warm, dog-day like "spell o' weather" which 
will be th8 signal for another trip fieldward. Just as 
soon as the sun shines again go to the saucer-like, leaf 
filled places near the oak trees. With care remove the 
top layers of leaves until the sodden lowest one is 
reached. With careful fingers move away these damp 
leaves and find the just-sprouting acorns that lie in 
the "sweating warmth" of the leaves and earth. 

With what questioning eyes will the children look 
to you for an explanation of the miracle of the 
sprouting nut; and with what interest and pains- 
taking will they gather such nuts as have not yet be- 
come firmly attached to the earth and lay them upon 
moist leaves in your basket. 

Surprise and delight will shine in every childish face 
the next day when the time comes for planting (lay- 
ing upon the surface of the earth) their gatherings 
in window-box, or flower pots. 

Day after day throughout the winter as the stout 
sprouts grow firm in the earth the children are keen 
to water, and report just what is taking place. When 
at length the "baby-tree" bud thrusts its point up- 
ward, and little by little unfolds to be followed by the 
gradual growth of the "to-be trunk" and first green 
leaves the lessons learned will have been of unques- 
tionable value. 

And to this mental gain has been added moral de- 
velopment through constant and regular observation; 
the assuming of responsibility for care of the growing 
things; the anticipation of what will next be dis- 
closed, and the practice of self control which is ever 
guarding self against the temptation to touch, or pull 

If it is not possible to take the children afield, the 
specimens may be brought in by the teacher, who will 
have had the joy of a trip fieldward, plus that of tell- 

ing all about the experience to the children who will 
regard her as something a little short of marvelous 
lor being able to obtain such wonder-treasure. 

As the examination of the acorns and cups pro- 
gresses, horsechestnuts should be gathered and con- 
sidered too 

After the acorns have been planted, and before the 
earth is frozen hard, plant the horsechestnuts in the 
school garden, being careful to place them five, or six 
inches deep. Mark the part of the garden-bed where 
the planting has been done, so that early spring culti- 
vating for the general sowing will not desturb the 
germinating nuts. When the ground is "fairly open" 
in the spring establish regular observation periods 
and expect a joyous time when the "baby tree" peeps 
through the ground. 

But the climax is probably reached when upon 
Arbor day the small people have trees in miniature of 
their own raising to set out in the school, or home 

It is needless perhaps to mention the pride the chil- 
dren display in the drawing, painting, cutting and 
modeling done to illustrate as one bright child re- 
marked "what I sawn all by own self." 


"Which came first, the house or the tree?" We 
were standing before one, in the shade of the other, 
a group of youngsters and I. They gazed at the inter- 
mingled roof and limbs, walls and branches, medita- 

"The house did," one asserted positively. 

"Why do you think so?" 

Two voices chimed "Cause you can see it did. 
Look there!" 

A cluster of little hands pointed upward. Tommy's 
voice carried conviction. 

"See that place where the tree growed itself right 
into the house and up through the roof? And there 
where it's growed right 'round that balcony?" Yes, 
I could see that. 

"And look where it's gone all over the house," the 
five-year-old girl exclaimed. "Course the house had 
to be there first." 

That question seemed settled. The two, house and 
tree, were of equal importance as a residence. One 
held a room in the branches with tables and chairs 
between and around the roots; the other had rooms 
for storing furniture and books when unused, cots 
lor sleeping or when darkness came and another place 
for eating in when out-of-doors, was less pleasant. 
But the place where birds and bees worked and 
played (not knowing which was which) — that was 
the place to really live and learn. And as long as 
both house and trees were equally necessary to the 
purpose, and both apparently made for children, what 
mattered which came first. 

School now began and groups were gathered around 
the tables under the huge live-oaks, shading the 
smooth, clean, brown earth; teachers were bending 
above the rosy cheeked kinder, arranging picture- 
books, beads, blocks, clay, raffia. But Tommy sat in 



lib small chair unnoticed. He looked at the house 
is tho speculating on Its age; his eyes wandered to 
he children's flower-garden where hollyhocks, pop- 
)ies, bluebells, mignonettes, flourished together, paths 
.vandering through the labyrinth of bloom— then to 
he teachers, absorbed in the tasks they were out- 

"I want something to do," he muttered impatiently. 
\n instant of waiting, then louder, "I want some- 
.hing to Do," capitalizing his verb. 

No attention; evidently the teacher knew Tommy. 
Setting on his feet, with reddening face, and in sten- 
torian tone, the six-year-old shouted, 

"Woll! I don't think much of a school that don't 
jive me something to Do!" The teacher turned her 

"Tommy, do you see that bird?" indicating one 
pecking where the children's luncheon-table had re- 
cently stood. "Go quietly and watch it. Then come 
and tell us the color of its back, its feet, its head, 
Its wings, (under and on top) and tell us whether it 
wears a crown or not." 

With an air of supreme importance, Tommy walked 

"It may look like a mistake not to employ Tommy 
iirst of all," the teacher remarked quietly, "but the 
most important lesson for him to learn is patience." 

I watched the urchin as very quietly and slowly 
he approached the bird, -which apparently unafraid, 
continued devouring the ants in the pathway Then 
with a jump he yelled, "Shoo!" But the bird also 
know Tommy and settled down on the narrow plat- 
form before the hive, where the honey gatherers were 
passing in and out. 

To my amazement the bird began to pick up and 
swallow the bees, one by one. 

"He just takes the drones; he don't catch the work- 
ers," Tommy calmly assured me. "They'd sting him 
quick'n a wink." As the bee-catcher flew away, Tom- 
my returned to his seat. 

"Why did you say 'Shoo!' to the bird?" inquired the 
teacher. "So's I could see under his wings; they're 
brown on top and yellow under, and his tail is part 
! black and part white; and his head's gray with a red 
J patch; and his nest is right up there," pointing to 
the limb of a tree not far from the ground. There, 
sure enough we saw it, woven of twigs, stems and 
rootlets. It was also lined with hair, strings and bits 
of paper, with cbicken feathers sticking up all around 
the sides, as Tommy afterward discovered, by climb- 
ing the tree, and hitching out on the limb, to a point 
! above the nest, the mother bird sitting close with ruf- 
[ fled plumage and open beak, the mate calling every 
i kingbird in the neighborhood to the rescue, as several 
kindergartners followed Tommy's example. 

The long, level limbs of all the oaks were worn 
smooth by the children hitching along them. 
"Isn't that dangerous?" 

"Yes, that is why we encourage their doing it. Life 
I is full of dangers for the weak and timid. To learn to 
' be brave and strong, cautious, not cowardly, is, we 
I think, the best teaching we can give," said Miss Ada 
| Mae Brooks, the founder and head-worker of the 


Doha A. Moxdoke. 


Long aso the men of the earth gathered together 
and planned to build a beautiful city. There were not 
so many men in the world at that time as there is 
now; but there were enough men to build a very nice 
city and a wonderfully high tower. 

Perhaps you have seen a tower or a high church 
steeple. These men wished to build their tower 
higher than any church steeple you have ever seen. 

They wanted this tower to reach so high up above 
the clouds that men could climb up to heaven by 
means of it. 

Heaven is a beautiful city up in the sky. God lives 
in heaven. The streets in heaven are made of gold. 
A beautiful river flows through the city. 
It is always day time in heaven; they do not have 
any night there. 

Do you wonder that those men were trying to build 
a tow r er so high that it would reach to this beautiful 

They thought, "How nice it will be for our children 
to play by the cool river! How pretty the streets are! 
How baby's eyes will shine when she sees the golden 

You see, in heaven people never cry, for God wipes 
away all their tears. 

Of course these men wanted to go to this happy 
city. I think I would like to live in such a place, too, 
don't you? 

The first thing these men did was to make brick. 
They burnt the brick so it would be firm and hard. 

Then they laid one brick upon another, pasting 

them together so that they could not slide or fall over. 

Have you ever seen men build a brick house? If 

you have, then you know just how these men started 

building their large city and their high tower. 

One day God came down from heaven and looked at 
the city and the tower. 

How high the tower reached! But, the men did not 
have it nearly completed, yet. 

God looked at the tower; but, He was not pleased. 
God was very angry about it. 

"These people can't get to heaven by climbing up a 
brick tower. I do not want them to try to do such 
foolish things!" 

So God caused the people to talk in different langua- 
ges. Some talked in one manner, some in another. 
After this they could not all talk alike. 

Of course they could not build the tower, then; for, 
the workers could not understand what they were 
told to do; so they went away, scattering far and 
wide. They did not care to stay in this place any 

God did not want them to try to build a tower to 
heaven. He wanted the people to be good, so that 
after a while He could come and get all the good peo- 
ple and take them up to the beautiful city called 



(See Frontispiece) 
(Translated from the German of Friedrich Froebel.) 
By Bektha Johnston 
Motto for the Mother (prose rendering.) 
"What the child feels in his soul, 
He expresses gladly in play. 
Just as the pigeon flies into the distance, 
So children love to go abroad; 
As the pigeon returns to the dovecote, 
The child soon turns his glance homeward 
At home let him find care taken, 
To bind into a bright wreath, 
All that has been found. 
What was found isolated 
May be bound together by narration: 
So life will become one Whole. 

My pigeon-house I open wide, 
And glad the pigeons fly outside; 
As o'er green fields and woods they fly, 
How much they see with each bright eye. 
When home they turn to rest once more 
I close again the little door. 
And hear in each wee home, they're seeming 

to say, 
"How lovely it was, out-of-doors, this bright 


Coo, coo, coo, coo." 

(Exercise for arms, hands and fingers.) 
The position of the hands is shown tolerably clearly 
in the drawing, altho they are somewhat too mascu- 
line. The left arm in the picture (as if you saw your 
own in the mirror) represents from its more vertical 
position, the pole or post; and the hands, joined 
together, in a cubical, rather than a spherical shape, 
form the pigeon-house proper, resting on top of it. 
The free and freely-moving forefingers of the right 
hand, indicate by opening and closing, the door of 
the pigeon-house, and by moving themselves in dif- 
ferent ways, represent the pigeons. To exercise 
equally both arms, hands, etc., the right arm may 
represent the post and the fingSrs of the left, the 
pigeon-house door. This little play gives great pleas- 
ure both when done for little children, or when imi- 
tated by them, when they are old enough to do so. 
For, the child early enjoys watching all active life, 
especially that of Nature; he yearns to move himself, 
more or less freely out-of-doors, or at least to be 
able to breathe freely, the fresh, pure air of free 
Nature, as a means of developing and strengthening 
his life; and this longing and his joy therein, is de- 
cidedly expressed. 

Mother, nurturer of childhood! grant him this 
when you can, but do not rest there. Consider, that 
the spirit of your child, even if quite unconsciously 
to himself, seeks ever to find in the phenomenal and 
the transitory, what is abiding and enduring; in the 
external, ever an internal; in the particular, ever a 
deep-lying universal; in the isolated and the separ- 

ated, ever a unity; and finally, even if quite uncon- 
sciously to himself, yet as a human being, as a child 
of man, as a spark of the Divine Unity, God, he seeks 
also this Unity — that which in itself is Oneness, God. 

Therefore, foster this presentiment, wherever you 
can, that it may become an impelling, even if to him- 
self incomprehensible, impulse, ever more active; that 
it may become an ever more lively perception in his 

Mother, and you who take her place, do not say: 
but for my little child this is all too early! — too early? 
Do you know when, where or how the spiritual un- 
folding of your baby begins? — Where and when may 
be the boundaries of the not-yet existing, and the be- 
ginnings thereof? and how they announce them- 
selves? — In God's world, just because it is God's 
world, and through God came into existence there 
speaks a continuity, an unbroken progression in de- 
velopment, in and through all. Carry always in your 
heart, this nurturing spirit, that it may occur to 

"As you carry it silently in your heart, you express 
it in deed." 

Not the When, the time for nurturing the spiritual 
life, is too early but alas, too often, the How, the 
manner, the way. 

Your babe, learns to step before he learns to walk; 
he seeks to stand before he tries to step forward; he 
tries to develop, to strengthen, his legs, his entire 
body, before he stands easily and with pleasure on 
his little legs. If, because your child has legs, you 
would make him stand or walk immediately, his limbs 
would become weak and bow-legged. But behold, 
oh, Mother, in the laws of bodily development, the 
laws of the spiritual are expressed. If you are too 
late, your child will be clumsy in body, and blunted 
and coarse in spirit; if too early — alas, do we not 
meet too many going through life, because of this, 
with natures weak and deformed, like children with 
weak, bow-legs! — Oh, Mother, Mother! and you, her 
representatives, do not forget to nurture in your little 
one, a sense of life's coherency and this, in accordance 
with its simple laws. 

In order not to forget this, help memory with this 

The child's earthly destiny and goal, 

Is, that Life shall become to him as one Whole. 

But we must not forget our pigeon-house and that 
law of life which it expresses so simply. 

The mother, with the baby on her arm, and indeed, 
all here, appear to be activity alive in mind and spirit. 
The wee, lively, healthy infant, resting so securely in 
his mother's arms, does not turn his eyes from the 
three pigeons below; it is as if he would seize them 
with his eyes and take them home with them. The 
boy there, in front of his mother, stands as if chained; 
he sees there, on the stump of the hollow branch, the 
little titmouse, which was about to slip in to its 
little ones, but now, in order to betray neither nest 
nor young, sits there with averted head, as if it had 



nothing to do with either. The hoy, in looking at 
it, forgets so far the apple in his hand, that he 
almost lets it fall. "Stop, mother!" he says, scarcely 
audibly, in order not to scare the bird entirely away. 
"See there, there on the broken branch, the one with 
the hole!" Sympathetically the mother checks her 
step and turns also to glance toward the anxious little 

The two homeward-bound children must also on 
their walk in the open, have observed something of 
importance to their lives, for they approach entirely 
absorbed in their conversation over it. 

"Now tell me, my dear son," says the mother, 
there to the right, to her child, "where have you 

"In the yard." 

"In the yard, the garden, the field, in the meadow, 
by the pond, by the brook." 

"And what beautiful things has my child seen 

"Pigeons, chickens, geese and ducks; swallows, 
sparrows, larks and finches; ravens, magpies, wag- 
tails, and titmice; bees and bettles, butterflies, bum- 

"Where did you see the pigeons and chickens?" 

"In the yard, mother, they picked up the kernels 
and ate them; the chickens could run fast, when they 
found anything, or when the cock called that he had 
found something for them. But the pigeons could not 
run so fast, nor the ravens, that I saw in the field. 
One raven ran almost like a pigeon, and one black 
pigeon ran so that I thought it was a raven. But 
the ravens and magpies could hop, tho you might 
not believe it, and the wagtails and sparrows, could 
too; how jolly it is when they hop around on their stiff 
little legs. Ah, mother, you must go with me, so that 
I can show you them, and how the ducks and geese, 
swim, and dive under the water. And just think, 
too; they flew right over my head, on 
the way to the pond, so that it frightened me!" 

"See, my child, ducks and geese, too, are birds, like 
the pigeons and chickens, the swallows and sparrows, 
the larks and finches." 

"Why mother, are pigeons and chickens birds, too?" 

"Have they not feathers, my child? Have they not 
wings? Have they not two legs, like all birds?" 

"But the pigeons live in pigeon-holes, in the dove- 
cotes, and the hens do not fly." 

"Yes, they can, just a little. But see, they have 
lost tho power, because they have done it so little. 
If we don't want to forget how to do a thing, we 
must practice it. The sparrows and swallows are 
birds, too, and they live in houses, and under roofs." 

"Then are bees and butterflies and beetles, birds 
also, mother? They, too, have wings, and can fly, far 
higher than the ducks and hens." 

"But see, they have no feathers, build no nests, and 
many other things they have not, that birds do have 
They are indeed animals, like birds and other crea- 
tures for they can move themselves about, as they 
will. But they too, have some things which birds 

have not. Just look at that beetle there, this fly here. 
See, they have notches, here one, and here one. These 
divisions we call segments, and the creatures them- 
selves, because of these, insects." 

"Mother, you must go walking with us, out-of-doors. 
Everything is so much more interesting then." 

"Child, I cannot. I must make your clothes, cook 
something for you to eat, and keep the house in order- 
Look, how orderly is everything, when left to Nature. 
Everything is in its place; each does his part so well 
and cheerfully. As I look upon it, it is as if I heard 
the dear God who made all so beautiful, say to me, 
'Wife, mother, in your little home, too, all must be 
in order, and each do his part and receive his share 
at the right time.' He says much more besides, to 
me: Each must do what is right, in his place. Now 
your child may flutter about, to exercise his strength, 
like the birdlings. Later, he must stay in one place, 
like an apple-tree, in order that he may bear healthy 
fruit, like this one. I cannot go walking with you, 
my child, for I must stay at home, like the apple-tree 
in its place. But look at everything attentively, and 
when you come home, tell me what you see." 

"I will go out again tomorrow, mother, and will 
again tell you about it, and then you will help me see 
and hear all that the dear God says, out-doors." 

Postscript: Teaching and learning proceed through- 
out the entire life of man. The oldest teacher has 
something still to learn, and the oldest educator must 
let himself be taught. So it was with me and the 
pigeons. A visiting trip brought me to a pigeon fan- 
cier. My room there, was in the neighborhood of the 
pigeons. I heard then, how often, and especially after 
the return home, they held dialogues, as it were. So 
I came to complete my little pigeon song, thus: 

"And hear, in each wee home, they're seeming 

to say, 
How lovely it was out-of-doors, this bright day: 
Coo, coo, coo, coo!" 

That the pigeons should tell of their flights, gave 
the children great pleasure, and thereafter, they did 
it themselves more joyously. 

Mother, an effective tale, especially when told at 
the right time, holds a mirror before your child. 


Two weeks ago a young woman enrolled with the 
State Employment bureau for a position as kinder- 
garten teacher. 

To-day came this letter from her: 

"Dear Sir — I am married and do not care for kinder- 
garten work." — Syracuse Herald. 

Miss Annabelle Lewis has just completed the course 
in kindergarten methods at the Bay View (Mich.) 
Summer University, and will open a private kinder- 
garten on September 13. Maysville is justly proud 
of her educational facilities and with this long-felt 
need of the children too young to enter first grade 
work, supplied, congratulates herself. — Maysville, 
(Ky.) Public Ledger. 

HINTSInESUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 


F\EAR RURAL TEACHER— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
*-' rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material aslikely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, -what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 

OCTOBER, 1915 

"Every one is sowing 

Both by word and deed, 
All mankind are growing 

Either wheat or weed. 
Thoughtless ones are throwing 

Any sort of seed." 


How do we sow good seed? Bad seed? 

Show the results of sowing good and bad seed on 
the character in later life. Ask the pupils to mention 
noble characters in history who have sown good seed, 
and the benefits we are deriving from their good 
deeds. Do not dwell upon the horrors of war, but 
emphasize the advantages of peace, and give much 
credit to those in authority who are keeping us from 
engaging in war. 

Make use of the books in the school library for 
morning exercises. Allow the pupils to read the 
books at their homes, and report some especially in- 
teresting features of the book, or they may even be 
allowed to select and read a chapter or more which 
they found most enjoyable. 

In this way many pupils become acquainted with a 
variety of literature, and it affords an opportunity 
of reading something which each pupil does not have 
before him. 


Clay may be used to advantage in all grades, but 
as it is by far the best method of teaching form, 
should not be disregarded by teachers of primary 

It develops the sense of touch and thus gives to the 
child the most correct knowledge of the real thing 

Plasticine may be used for this purpose, which may 
be had in five beautiful colors, but very good results 
may be obtained by the use of artist's clay or a cheap- 
er quality of common clay. 

M2.ny of the disagreeable features may be elimin- 
ated by arranging the time for the work just before 
recess or noon hour, and allowing older pupils to 
take charge of the material. The desks may be cov- 
ered with a heavy cardboard, light board, or oil cloth 
which may be removed quickly. 

Allow the beginners to start the work with fruits, 
vegetables, and nuts round in shape, then cups, plates, 
baskets, still keeping to the round. Let them as an 
occasional lesson model some toy or tool which is 
of special interest. 

Some of the best work should be saved, but it will 

be necessary to destroy most of the work that the 
material may be used again. 


Squirrels — Landseer. 

Sir Edwin Landseer was the mcst popular animal 
painter of his period. His animal pictures are the 
best known of modern times. 

Landseer was so kind and gentle and loved animals 
so well that he is said to represent them too nearly 
human in feelings and intelligence. 

Let the children find out what there is in the pic- 
ture. Have them tell stories about the picture. 
Bring out all possible as to the habits of the squirrel, 
its covering, sharp eyes, claw-tipped feet, sharp teeth. 
His preparations for winter and manner of life in the 
hollow tree. 

This picture shows the home of how many squir- 
rels? Two. 

What is perched on the branch of the tree? Do 
the squirrels appear to enjoy the song? 

What is peculiar about the position of the squir- 
rels? What are they eating? Bring before the child- 
ren the thought of preparation for winter. 

"He prayeth best who loveth best, 
All things both great and small, 

For the dear God who loveth us, 
He made and loveth all." 


Place a long row of cards on a chalk rail in view 
of the class. 

Call several pupils by name, and give a number, 
as 10. The different pupils select quickly two of the 
number cards which added together make 1.0. Each 
is called upon to give the number selected, and if 
correct, the cards may be kept, otherwise returned 
to place on chalk rail. 

Use a number of different combinations in the same 
way. The pupils holding a certain number of cards, 
showing correct results may be given stars on the 
roll of honor. 

2. Select two leaders as in the old form of spelling 
match. Simple combinations may be used as 5 and 
3, and 4. The problem is stated to a pupil on one 
side, and if he fails, and the pupil on the opposite 
side in turn gives the correct answer, he may draw a 
pupil from the other side. 

It may be continued for a definite period as a half 
hour, at the close of this time the side having the 
largest number of pupils is declared the winner. 


It is very profitable for the work in spelling, read- 
ing, and numbers to spend ten minutes daily in sight 



work. Write a word on the board, and let the pupils 
have time to look at it for an instant, then erase and 
call on one of the pupils to spell the word. In order 
to spell correctly the pupil must be on the alert and 
grasp quickly. For the reading drill more difficult 
words may be used, testing the ability to recognize 
the words quickly, or short sentences may be placed 
before them, giving more time to grasp the thought. 
Rapid drill in number are of even greater practical 
value than the others, as there are few places where 
boys and girls are employed that rapid figuring would 
not be to their advantage. 


Coloring — Outline cards of fruits, flowers, animals, 
or simple objects may be purchased for this purpose, 
or may be made by tracing, and a number of copies 
of each made by the use of carbon paper. The child- 
ren may use water colors for this work, crayolas, col- 
ored crayons, or even ink for a few specimens. The 
most satisfactory silhouette work in primary grades 
is done by using the black paper in paper cutting 
and folding work. 

To be polite is to have a kind regard for the feel- 
ings and rights of others. 

It is not discourteous to refuse to do wrong. 

Never laught at people but with them . 

"Kind hearts arc the gardens, 
Kind thoughts are the roots, 

Kind words are the blossoms, 
Kind deeds are the fruits." 

How can a little child be merry 

In snowy, blowy January? 
By each day doing what is best, 
By thinking, working for the rest. 
So can a little child be merry 

In snowy, blowy January. 
Whenever a snowfiake leaves the sky, 

It turns, and turns to say, "Goodby, 
Coodby, dear clouds, so cool and gr;iy, 

Then lightly travels on its way. 

Hear the school-bell's noisy cs.ll 
Calling loud, calling clear, 

Teling to each bay a>d girl, 
Study time is near. 




Mary E. (Dotting. 

Motto: "Try, try again.'' 

Just look at that dear baby! What do you think he 
wants to do? Do you suppose he can do it? 

I think he can; you see Mother is steadying him so 
he will start just right. Father is holding out his 
arms to encourage and show him exactly where he is 
to go. 

What do you think will happen when Baby reaches 
Father's arms? 

the garden; but when he saw them coming you can 
see just how he got ready to help Little Son learn to 

It is a beautiful day and very likely wben Little 
Son has walked back and forth a few times Mother 
will leave him to rest where Father can keep watch as 
he works. Mother will go back to the house to do her 
work. Can you think of any work she may do? 

By and by she will come out again. She and Father 
will help Little Son again to walk alone. This time, 
maybe, they will let him walk a little further. Do you 
suppose he will get any tumble downs? 

He is such a strong little person I do not believe he 
will. I think he will chuckle and laugh over being 
able to walk so far "all by himself." 

Pretty soon — in a week, maybe — he will be able to 


Father will talk to him and snuggle him while he 
rests for a moment. Then Mother will call softly, 
"Come, Baby, come!" Father next will gently turn 
Little Son around and help him to start on the jour- 
ney back to Mother. 

It doesn't look very far to us, but for Little Son it 
is a long, long way back to Mother. You know he has 
never taken a walk out-of-doors before: he has always 
crawled and rolled upon the floor, or ground, until a 
few days ago, when he tried to pull himself up so 
that he could stand alone. Then Mother knew her 
little-little baby was gone and Little Son had come for 
at last the baby could stand alone. 

She and Father planned to help him just as the 
picture shows they are helping. Father was busy in 

go about the yard and play with the dog that lives in 
the big barn behind the house. O, he will just have 
a fine time, won't he? 

As many children have assisted at a family exper- 
ience like the one which the picture represents they 
may easily be led to tell about the just how of "my 
baby's" first attempts to walk. This individual ex- 
pression will lessen the feeling of strange atmosphere, 
connect the home and new surroundings, arouse a 
friendly interest and establish companionship and 
somewhat of understanding between children and 

From time to time direct attention to the various 
objects represented in the picture and encourage the 
little folks to describe similar ones which they have 



em at home or elsewhere, thus establishing a closer 
nnection between past and present experiences as 
:11 as laying the foundation for intelligent, conscious 
servation and a desire to give expression to newly 
eated thought. 

Throughout the consideration of the picture thought 
ay be developed concerning the meaning of the 
otto, and there may also be brought out ideas about 
e possibility of applying this to the problems of each 
lall person's daily living. 

When the spirit of the picture has become their 
m suggest to the children, — Wonder if anyone 
uld make a "play-game" about the picture? 

From the volunteers select the most capable to 
an who shall' be father, mother and baby; and what 
ight be used to represent the various objects to be 
en in the picture. Often the dramatic ability dis- 
ayed in expression of tender solicitude and ease of 
tion is surprising, and throughout all the play there 
brought out thought of what are the attributes most 
isirable for a father, mother and their children to 

When the time comes to represent with the kinder- 
irten material the various buildings, furnishings and 
her possessions of Little Son and the family, the 
lildren will show much invention and cleverness in 
cecution; and whether the exercises are carried on 
; the tables, or sand-garden there is fine opportunity 
t the teacher to discover what her small people know 
! nature and homelife, and the labor that makes its 
pkeep possible. 

This picture like most of Millets' appeals to chil- 
ren because of the familiarity of the subject, its 
mplicity of action, true construction, tender senti- 
ent, and forceful, rugged technic. 

Whether much, or little, be told about the artists' 
fe and work must be determined for she only is in 

position to know if, just now such information 
ould be seed falling upon fertile soil, or the con- 

There can at least be given the thought that the 
kist was able to plan and paint this picture so that 
ittle folks would love it because he loved children and 
lie country where he lived with his brave, good wife 
,id their children. 

Teachers will find helpful thought in Miss Estelle 
:. Hull's books titled "Millet," and "How To Show 
ictures To Children." 

By Maky E. Cotting. 
Of course you know what this is a picture of? 
j r here did you ever see any? Was there a whole 
jnily as there is here? Were those which you saw 
i a nest like this? 0! those squirrels "went in a 
Dor in a big tree." That was the right thing for 
lem to do. 

What are the little squirrels doing in this picture? 
hey surely do look pleased, and they're much sur- 
rised to aee those nuts which. Father Squirrel has 

brought home in his mouth. Mother Squirrel is sur- 
prised too; she had no idea that hazel nuts were 
ripe. Such nuts are a great treat for squirrels, and 
those little ones have never seen any nuts in their 
coverings before. 

"Which of the little ones will Father Squirrel give 
them to?" Well, I think he will give them to Mother 
Squirrel. She will teach the little one,s to tear oft 
the crinkly coverings and gnaw an opening in the 
shell so the delicious nut-meat may be taken out. 
While they are doing this, Father Squirrel will go 
to the hazel bush hedge and cut off another bunch 
with his sharp, strong teeth. 

When all have eaten enough they will wash their 
comical faces much as pussy does hers, and then 
they'll be ready for a jolly game of "Cross-tag" with 
one another. They do not know perfectly all the 
games their mother and father are teaching them, 
but as they grow stronger and stronger they will 
play beautifully, all the squirrel games that look so 
very much like those which children play, and are 
called "Follow the Leader," "Leap-frog," "Dance with 
me," and they will wrestle too, quite like real, truly 

When they are tired of playing they will scurry 
back to the nest. What do you guess the nest is 
made of? I'll tell you. Layers of tiny twigs and 
leaves, one upon the other, and in the inside a lining 
of the squirrels' own soft hair. Small branches loaded 
with shiny, green leaves form a fine roof which pro- 
tects the home from the heat of the sun and a wet- 
ting from showers. It's just the cosiest home pos- 
sible, and how the squirrels love it. 

Perhaps you think all squirrels have to do is to 
play; if you do you're very much mistaken. Squir- 
rels have a great deal of work to do — hard work, 

They must search for food, and store away enough 
to last for a long time in safe places where bluejays, 
or nobody or nothing can find it. They must learn 
to know of whom and what to be afraid, and to be 
able to plan how to jump from the tips of the branches 
of one tree to those of another. To be able to do 
this without slipping or falling often saves his life, so 
every squirrel must persevere until he can do this 
kind of jumping perfectly. They must practice cut- 
ting nuts from their stems and catching them quick- 
ly; also to carry food to the storehouses without 
dropping any along the way. You know if food were 
dropped in the squirrel paths it would help other crea- 
tures find the storehouses. 

Mother and Father Squirrel do their best to teach 
their children all they need to know before the cold, 
storm-winds of autumn begin to blow; and of course 
the children try so very hard to learn quickly, that 
when it is time for the family to move into a winter 
home in a hollow tree, they are as good at work as 
at play. 

You may be sure it is a most happy and satisfied 
family that leaves the cozy nest where it has had 
such a pleasant time all summer^ 



When, here and there, during the winter, warm days 
come, perhaps some of the squirrels will wake up, 
and run out to see what is happening outside their 
home; but they will soon run back to stay till the 
sunny springtime calls to them all to start off to 
make new homes in which to spend another sum- 

(o please the individual worker's taste and neatl 
mounted. Also there may be cut out the prepare! 
drawings of squirrels on two toned paper. Thes 
drawings which are copies of the squirrels found i 
the paintings of renowned painters, when well cut an 
mounted offer more in value artistically than tl 
work, ordinarily done in cutting. 

There are so many charming stories, songs and 
games descriptive of the life of these little "creatures 
of fur" it will not be difficult for each teacher to 
select those best adapted to the understanding of her 
particular flock of little folks. 

Supplementary to the study of it the units of the 
picture may be modeled; outline pictures of the same 
may be filled in by using crayon, or brush, a.nd pic- 
tures of trees and animals "cut to the line," arranged 


When opportunity offers there may be repeated 
the little folks the verses given below: — 

(Arrx Thoex) 

"Where the oak-trees tall and stately 
Stretch great branches to the sky, 

Where the green leaves toss and. flutter 
As the autumn days go by, 



Dwell a crowd of little people, 

Ever racing up and down; 
Bright eyes glancing, gay tails whisking, 

This is known as Squirrel Town. 

"Bless me, what a rush and bustle, 

As the happy hours speed by! 
Chatter, chatter! chatter, chatter! 

Underneath the azure sky. 
Laughs the brook to hear the clamor, 

Chirps the sparrow, gay and brown. 
'Welcome! Welcome everybody! 

Jolly place, this Squirrel Town! 

"Honey bees the fields are roaming; 

Daisies nod and lilies blow; 
Soon Jack-Frost, the saucy fellow, 

Hurrying, will come, I know. 
Crimson leaves will light the woodland, 

And the nuts come pattering down; 
Winter store they all must gather, 

Busy place, then, Squirrel Town! 

"Blowing, blustering, sweeps the north wind; 

See! the snow is flying fast; 
Hushed the brook and hushed the sparrow, 

For the summer time is past. 
Yet these merry little fellows, 

Do not fear old Winter's frown; 
Snug in hollow trees they're hiding, 
Quiet place is Squirrel Town." 
Note — The first picture study given above was in- 
tended for the September number but the material did 
not reach us in time. 

Fryer. Cloth. 175 pages. Seven full page colored 
illustrations, by Margaret G. Hays. Individual dec- 
orations in color on every page by Jane Allen Boyer. 
Published by the John C. Winston Co., Phila., Pa. 
Price, $1.25. Postage, 20 cents. 
This is a unique and most clever and entertaining 
cook-book, dedicated to "all girls who love to help 
mother." Mary Frances' Mother writes out some re- 
cipes for her little girl and when called away from 
home for a rest, one by one the little housekeeper 
learns them all, being assisted by advice from the 
different friendly kitchen utensils, who give useful 
hints not contained in the recipes as given. Boys as 
well as girls will read the book for the sake of the 
adventures among the kitchen people," which are told 
in a lively and interesting manner; every page of the 
book being enlivened by portraits of Tea Kettle, 
Saucepan, Big Iron Pot, Auntie Roller Pin, Toaster 
Man, and many others, all of whom are cleverly indi- 
vidualized. Mary Frances gets up delightful lunches 
for Brother Billy and Father, a doll's teaparty, and 
other repasts. The book is practically useful; Forty 
recipes are given, with definite instructions, easily 
understood by little girls. 

Laura Rountree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children choose a boy to stand inside the circle. 
Each child is given a ribbon, one of the primary 

They skip about in a circle and sing, Tune "Yankee 

Oh violet and blue and green, 

We bring today for you Sir, 
The yellow, orange too and red, 

We all will wave for you, Sir. 

See the rainbow colors bright, 

As we all are dancing, 
Skipping so with footstep light, 

You'll see us all advancing. 

The boy now names any two colors rapidly, and the 
children holding the ribbons of these colors must 
change places, in the circle. If they fail to know 
their colors when called they sit down inside the 

To close the game the boy waves a flag which he has 
kept furled saying, 

"Rainbow colors, three cheers for you, 
But hurrah, hurrah for the red, white and 

Laura Rouxtree Smith. 
(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children skip round in a circle waving their 
arms to and fro. They are named by the teacher, 
robins, blue-birds, etc. At the close of the song each 
time, the birds named, run outside the circle, and re- 
main out. 
The game continues until none are left in the circle. 
Any bird name may be inserted into the song. 

Song. Tune "London Bridge." 

Robin's singing merrily, 

In the tree, in the tree, . 

Robin's singing in the tree, 

Singing merrily. 

Blue-bird's singing, 

In the tree, in the tree, 

Blue-bird's singing in the tree, 

Singing merrily, 

Levity of behavior is the bane of all that is good 
and virtuous. — Seneca. 

Sleep, baby, sleep! 

Thy father watches his sheep; 
Thy mother is shaking the Dreamland tree 

And down comes a little dream on thee. 

Jenny B. Meebill, Pd. D. 

As we indicated last month one of the subjects, 
in fact the subject of greater interest in early primary 
work is reading. 

Many children who enter the primary school have 
not attended kindergarten, but we want them as well 
as the kindergarten child to approach reading with a 
desire to learn to read. If the little ones have older 
brothers and sisters, the desire to imitate them often 
arouses the desire to read. There is also the desire 
to please parents who have perhaps struggled to teach 
a few letters to the baby. 

But the real motive for learning to read may be 
awakened by showing picture books, and musical 
books, by speaking of the stories and songs in them, 
by letting children handle these books freely as the 
child did who found that a book on the teacher's table 
had a certain nursery rhyme in it. (See Sept. Kin- 
dergarten Magazine.) 

I once showed a primer which began with a few 
familiar Mother Goose stories to a little boy who 
could not read. He found "Old Mother Hubbard" and 
said, "I know that one." "Let us read it," I said. 

As we said it, I guided his finger from word to 

Of course he did not really read a single word, 
but he received his first impression of moving the 
eye from word to word, along the line from left to 

He "read" rapidly as he knew the story, and he 
"read" with expression as the thought of the story 
was uppermost. 

These are two great points in later work, and first 
impressions count much. 

I have after many years' experience, reached the 
conclusion that there is no better way to begin read- 
ing than with these nursery rhymes. 

This method makes a very happy connection for kin- 
dergarten children who generally can repeat and dram- 
atize several Mother Goose rhymes. They meet old 
friends in the new reading lessons, as "Jack and Jill," 
"Baa-baa, black sheep," "Jack be Nimble," "Rock- 
a-by Baby," "One, two, button my shoe," etc. Mother 
Goose is the children's classis. 

If there are children in the first grade who do not 
know these rhymes, let those who do, tell them 
as stories and also act them out as they did in kin- 

If few or none know them, the teacher should tell 
them at first in story fashion, then have the rhymes 
memorized and played too, if possible, for several days 
before beginning reading at all. 

This play arouses the mind and begets an active 
state rather than a passive one. 

If there are no reading charts, prepare two or three 
in script on large sheets of heavy paper, or write 
the rhymes on the blackboard. Teach the "pointing" 
by use of a pointer, guiding the child's hand at first 
from line to line, not attempting to stop at each 

This is, as I have said, only "make-believe" read- 
ing, but it is a serious and important step, because 
it leads to rapid use of the eye in following a line 
rather than the halting method of naming words or 
letters. Some doubter says, "But it isn't reading" — 

Wait for a few days, and some bright eyes, and 
active brains, will begin to notice resemblances, as 
in "Jack's" oft repeated name. Let a child count how 
many times Jack is written. Then write Jack and 
another name on another part of the board. Ask 
which is Jack. Let child after child come up and find 
Jack's name anywhere on the chart or blackboard. 
Draw a line under Jack, and at last let Jack run 
away, by erasing the word. Shall we call Jack back? 
Here he is — 


Let us keep him with us all day so we will know 
him tomorrow. Write any other name as Fred, and!] 
ask, Is this Jack? O, no. You do not know this j 
boy, but you do know who this is? Who is it?T 

If any teacher begins in this playful spirit, she will 1 
find herself moving on from sheer interest as well as 
the children. It is a playful method and so it truly 
connects with the kindergarten. 

If any one is interested to pursue this method, a 
Teacher's Manual can be secured which works this 
method out more fully than possible in a Magazine. 

The teacher will naturally choose the strong words, 
particularly nouns and verbs, entirely neglecting 
others at first. 

This method is the sentence or story method and 
places stress upon "content" in early readings. 

The child reads to get a thought, not to call words 
or letters. 

But of course words and letters cannot be ignored. 
These are taken up in "Word and phonic exercises" 
apart from this play reading. Phonic exercises are 
invaluable, in putting the child on the road to help 
himself in accordance with the principle of self-ac- 




These exercises may be easily connected with kin- 
dergarten work, or if the children have not had kin- 
dergarten training, the exercises may be started as 
we do in kindergarten by arousing interest in the 
sounds of animals. 

This is not only a kindergarten method but was 
used many years previous to Froebel by Comenius, as 
may be seen in his "Orbis Pictus," which has the 
honor of being the first child's pictured text book. 
(Try to find it in the public library if you have never 
seen it.) 

Children love from babyhood to hear mother imi- 
tate pussy and doggie, the cow's moo-moo and the 
hen's cluck, cluck. 

The fortunate ones know several others as Baa-baa, 
Quack, quack and cock-a-doodle do — possibly gobble, 
gobble, gobble and buzz, buzz. 

You see we find in these animal sounds the sug- 
gestions for m in moo, moo. 

b in baa, baa. 

g in gobble, gobble. 

z in buzz, buzz. 

k in cluck, cluck. 

d in doodle-do. 

The sound is impressed on the child's ear and the 
sound is the real thing, the letter is only the sign 
or symbol. 

If we want to follow Pestalozzi, Ronsseau, Froebel, 
Comenius and a host of other educators, we want to 
teach the thing before the sign or symbol — not show 
the letter and then name the sound. 

First ■play with the sounds of anihials, then play 
with other sounds little children can make, for little 
children can make a great many more than animals! 
such as ch, ch, sh, sh, f, f. 

What sound do you make sometimes when you see 
something you like? I have heard little children say, 
Ah! What sound do you make when you are sur- 
prised? Oh! When you are hurt? Ou! ou! 

Let a bright child try to find the sound at the 
beginning of his name. 

After the interest is well aroused in sounds, not 
in sounding letters, but just in sounds, you may 
begin to make connections with letters by writing 
several words that begin with the same letter in a 
column, as: 





s ing 
s ong 

s ix 

s it sit 
b at sat 
s and sand 


s even 

s up sup 

Taking the words as far as possible from the Nurs- 
ery rhymes that children are reading or will soon 

Have them say the words slowly, drawling them a 
little until a few bright ones catch the "s" sound. 
Then you can put the letter by itself below the col- 
umn of words and the association with the sign will 
begin to be made. The idea of this letter meaning 

a sound will not be clear at first, but after writing 
several more columns, the idea will gradually be de- 
veloped, and the association which we aim to make 
will be made, that is when a letter is seen, it will 
suggest a certain sound. This will gradually lead 
the children to discover new words by applying this 
knowledge of sounds. 

Experience has led many teachers to begin with 
sharp consonants as s, f, p, c, k, which the children 
seem to catch most easily, and a few softer sounds 
as m, 1, r, n. 

Experience has also led many to decide that it is 
better at first merely to break the word into two 
parts, namely the initial sound and the rest of the 
word, not an attempt to separate all the sounds in a 

The children are led to apply the knowledge gained 
by building new words. The following columns will 
be sufficient to indicate what is meant: 




fall f all 

f at 


four f our 

f an 


five f ive 

f in 


fair f air 

f arm farm 

f f 






m ouse 

m at 



m other 

m eat 



m e 

m ice 



m et 

m old 







p ie 

P Pit 



p enny 

p at 



p ail 

p Jan 



p oor 

p in 


This making of words is a kind of building and the 
children soon learn to love it. Building is surely 
related to kindergarten work. Now if you can secure 
a box of letters, or better make them yourself so as 
to keep to script for a time, you can have real build- 
ing exercises for "busy work." 

Write, for example, "it" on slips, providing 
several pieces for every child. Then give them on 
other slips, s, m, 1, m, f, and let them put first one 
and then another letter close to "it" and tell what 
word they have built. 

Try to write the slips so that they will fit well to- 
gether as all these little details help in making first 
impressions. Let this be repeated with print letters. 
(Boxes of such letters are cheap.) 

It pays to work slowly following the action of the 
mind of the child. 

Do not expect all children to catch the idea readily. 
Some children are eye-minded, others are ear-minded. 
The former will learn quicker by the word method, 
the latter by phonics. 

The question is often asked, shall we tell the names 
as well as the sounds of the letters? 



If children know the names let them tell you. They 
like to do so. 

Parents and older brothers and sisters will teach 
letters. Children's toy-books contain them. It seems 
so hard to get away from the old abc method, that 
there must be some good in it. Children love names, 
as we have said and while I should only use names 
of letters incidentally, I should not wholly suppress 
them as some attempt to do. The reason for sup- 
pressing them is that the name of the letter really 
contains two or more sounds, and in several letters 
there is no connection between the sound and name 
as in h, y, and w. 

To note some of the difficulties little children meet, 
just make a new alphabet for yourself some day, but 
do not say anything about it to the children. I sug- 
gest it because it will give you a new sense of the 
difficulties arising from our irregular naming. 

Suppose for example, instead of being called "ach," 
the letter h was named like b. 

What would its name be? 

If w were named like b or d, what would we call 

If b were named like f, what would it be called? 
Just note the following new names and it will clear 
up your own knowledge of the way the names of 
letters might have been made: 

b--be j--ge q--ke y--ye 

c— se k-ke r~re z-ze 

d-de l--le s-se 

f-fe m--me t-te 

g-ge n-ne v-ve 

h--he p--pe w--we 

Or taking f for a standard, we would have: 

b-eb j-eg q--ek y-? 

c--es k--ek r— er z--ez 

d-ed 1— el s-es 

f-ef m--em t--et 

g-ej n--en v--ev 

g-eh p--ep w--? 
If you have never studied phonics, a consideration 
of these two lists will give you excellent practice. 


Our Mrs. Heller wrote a letter to Mrs. S. on teach- 
ing a little child to pray, and laid emphasis upon the 
importance of encouraging affirmation instead of sup- 
plication. Mrs. S. replied: "The same question 
of affirmation instead of supplication came to me as I 
began to teach George to pray, so he has never had 
any but our own worded prayers and I welcome both 
your interest in this very thing and the blessed work 
your good lines suggest and will accomplish. Thank 
you for them. I like them so much. At three years 
of age, when my sister arrived, was the time I selected 
to throw off the bondage of orthodox prayer. Secret- 
ly, I remember resenting saying, 'I pray Thee, Lord, 
my soul to keep. If I should die before I wake, I pray 
Thee, Lord, my soul to take.' Sister had just beeu 

launched into this world, and grandmother was put- 
ting me to bed. I recollect clearly that I thought, 
'Here is a person who will not know if I change this'; 
so when I was invited to say my prayers, I said, 
'If I should die before I wake, I pray the Lord to let 
me take my soul to bed with me.' I wanted it myself. 
I can still distinctly feel that I was afraid of being 
separated from myself and not waking up. Grand- 
mother and I were both firm, and it went to a higher 
court. Mother laughed, and I said my prayers to her 
after that as I felt inspired to say them." 

In October Mrs. S., ever willing to be helpful, wrote 
us of her little plan of nature study: "For days we 
have had fascinating minutes at lunch time, and 
many references to our nature manual, because we 
have the chrysalides of both a Monarch and a Black 
Swallowtail transferred from their outdoor jars to 
our fernery. They probably will be butterflies this 
week, when we shall free them." 

In regard to George's prayer worked up gradually 
Mrs. S. said: 

"George's prayer, worked up gradually almost entirely 
by himself, has been growing to its present length and 
condition for two years, and he wishes me to send it 
to you as an exchange for your bed-time verses. He 
picked up thoughts for suggestion in it from Steven- 
son's 'A Good Child,' Van Dyke's 'Footpath of Peace,' 
and from 'Wisdom.' 

"'Dear God-Father: I thank you for this beautiful 
day. Please fill me with rest, and thank you for 
strength. Please never let me say an ugly word, but 
smile and stick to play. I'll be happy, I'll be gay, I'll 
be kind in all my play, and keep on the footpath to 
good. Please help me to hurry, and to mind.' 

"This last sentence he added last spring, when he 
was making a special effort to improve in very prompt 
obedience. He says it helped him. We refer to this 
often during the day, and every night he asks if I 
think the day has been beautiful. For many months 
every day has been 'beautiful.' " — Child Life. 


. The Dallas Free Kindergarten Training School will 
open tomorrow morning, with Miss Louise Whitney 
as supervisor. During the last week the arrange- 
ments incident to the opening of school have been 
made and the officers of the school report that pros- 
pects are for the coming session very encouraging. 
The North Dallas Kindergarten is at 1925 Cedar 
Springs road, with Miss Emma Ewing, director, and 
the South Dallas Kindergarten is near Cockrell and 
Corinth streets, under the direction of Miss Kittie 
Belle Blair. — Dallas News, Sept. 19. 

Owensboro's first Montessori school will be opened 
early in October by Miss Sue T. Kirk, who during the 
past year has been in training for that work in the 
great Montessori school at Washington, D. C. 

'-Owensboro, (Ky.) Messenger 
















Bertha Johnston. 

We will first give a few suggestions for carrying out 
the thought of the Mother Play given in this issue 
of the Kindergarten-Primary Magazine. 

The teacher will naturally discuss ahout this time 
of the year the migration of the birds to distant and 
more summery lands altho some birds fly North, and 
can dwell upon the marvelous powers of flight de- 
veloped in some birds and the wonderful "homing" 
instinct of the pigeons. Tell of the carrier pigeons 
and how in war time they have been used to carry 
messages, it being well-known that a bird taken from 
its home, hundreds of miles, when set free will find 
its way -back. Pigeon-fanciers train them thus: they 
set the birds free for half an hour daily, and do not 
let them settle until they have exercised for a con- 
siderable time. To train a young bird they carry 
it in a basket a short distance, perhaps a few miles 
in a train, and then let it loose, to find its way back. 
Another day they carry a longer distance or perhaps 
express it to an agent of a station asking him to set 
it free. Thus they increase the distance each day 
until the bird learns to return in a very short time 
from a very great distance. A tiny tag is attached 
to its leg with the owner's name and address. Any 
message sent is attached to the upper part of the leg. 
Before starting homeward, the bird always flies to a 
height, and circles around several times till it sees 
some known landmark and then makes off. 

Tell the children that the wild pigeon from which 
our common one is descended was the rock pigeon 
that originally lived in crevices in the rocks and the 
dovecotes arc the apartment-houses made for them by 
man which still bear a resemblance to their early 

There are many varieties of pigeons and it was 
Darwin's studies of what man has accomplished with 
these by careful selection that led him to many of 
his conclusions about natural selection. 

Both the father and mother bird feed the young 
with a curd-like substance that forms in their crops. 
Emphasize the fact that the father-bird does his share 
in giving this nourishment. If deprived of its par- 
ents during its first week of existence, the young bird 
will die. 

Let the children follow somewhat the imaginary 
conversation between mother and children as given 
by Frocbel, and ask them to name birds that hop, 
swim, run, and the like. 

Let all teachers lay to heart Froebel's hint, that 
the teacher should always be a learner and hold your- 
self open to instruction from all quarters; from the 
children, their parents, the neighbors, the trades 

Morning Circle arid Game Circle. 

Have the children relate anything seen on the way 
to school. 

Tell them to remember when they return home to 
tell their parents what they have seen and done in 
and out of kindergarten. 

Let them show on circle the different ways by 
which birds and insects move — hopping, flying, walk- 
ing, and the like. This is an opportunity not only 
to train observation but to exercise different parts of 
the body. 

Play "Welcome Little Travelers." 

Make a dovecote by arranging chairs along the wall 
short distances apart. Put two children in each one; 
let other children call them and scatter imaginary 
grain. Then let all fly away, to return later and re- 
hearse what they have seen. 

Boys and girls in the upper grades will appreciate 
Bryant's great poem "To a Waterfowl." 

A little talk about the various kinds of homes made 
by animals, nests, burrows, caves, dens, hives, will 
be timely as many of the children are having their 
first experiences away from home. 


First Gift. Let balls represent birds of different 
kinds and colors and let them hop, circle around the 
head, and do other birdlike actions. Let each relate 
an appropriate tale of what it has seen. Would the 
green parrot have something to tell different from the 
red flamingo, or the yellow canary, or English city 

Second Gift — Let box be post of pigeon-house, place 
cylinder and cube above for house itself, and the I 
sphere may represent the pigeon. What will it do 
if it finds the door closed? Second cube may rcpre-j 
sent watering-trough, or bench. 

Third and Fourth Gifts — Make pigeon-house andj 

Also, make homes of other animals, barns, kennels,! 
and houses where people live. Single and apartmentf 

Tablets and sticks — Make pictures of pigeon-housel 
and dovecotes, kennels, etc. 

With sticks make pictures of things seen by birds 
and aviators during flight. This would include houses,:! 
fences, trees, ponds, rivers, etc. 

With lentils represent foliage of different trees! 
seen, by different arrangement suggesting the char-, 
acter of the tree, such as weeping-willow, elm, apple 1 
tree, etc. 

Sand — Make landscape such as birds and aviators.u 
would see in flight. 

Clay — Make pigeons, and other birds. Also nestil 
of different kinds. Also mold leaves of different 

Observe picture and make of clay the stone found; 
ation of a post on which rests the pigeon-house. Plac< 
on it two cylinders and then cube for house. 

Cardboard — Cut out simple square as picture o: 
pigeon-house; next, advance on this by cutting a flg 
ure with three sides at right angles and two other: 



laking a triangular roof. After child acquires con- 
dence by cutting simple figures, then ask him to cut 
ut pigeons. First attempts will be crude, but it is 
ood practice for eye and hand. 

Look at picture and try to model pigeon-house of 
aper or cardboard. 

October is usually so brilliant with the colors of 
he fruits, flowers and leaves that the children cannot 
ail to notice it and country children can bring in 
;aves of various shapes and hues to draw and color 
dth crayons and paints. City children will notice 
olor of fruits and vegetables. 

Apples, pears, bananas, grapes, red peppers and 
ther fruits may be brought in for comparison with 
ach other. 

Game — Make compartments on table out of Second 
tift boxes. In one place several red balls ; in another 
everal blue ones and so forth. Let one child be 
rocer who sells the fruits and vegetables. A child 
pproaches to buy red apples. Ask him to select from 
our store. Another wants a green pepper, purple 
lum, or grapes, yellow banana, orange orange, blue 
lueberries. Let child take home what it selects, to 

child who represents its mother; if it has made a 
listake it will have to go back to the store to make 
; right. Before beginning, let children suggest list 
f fruits and vegetables of different colors, so that 
hey will not be at a loss when they make their im- 
ginary purchases. The Second Gift beads may be also 
sed, affording a variety in size as well as in color. 

Let grade children write lists of the many fruits 
nd vegetables with the colors of each, and the coun- 
ties or States from which they come. 

Stories — The story of Daedalos, the first legendary 
ttempt at imitating the flight of birds. Also the 
tory of Phaeton. The story of the Three Bears is 
uitable. Also the fable of the Dove and the Leaf. 

In "Norwood," by H. W. Beecher, are the stories 
f "The Anxious Leaf" and of "Coming and Going," 
hat are good autumn stories. The latter sums up 
he bird experiences of the year and thus gathers all 
ato a Whole, as Froebel suggests. 


"The most likely lasting result of a better acquaint- 
.nce with the Montessori ideas of child training will 
ie the addition, to our present kindergarten system 
>f pre-grade training, of such of them as prove de- 
irable and the rejection of the rest." 

This practical rejection of the Montessori method 
,t least in its entirety, is made by Miss Bessie Locke, 
hief of the kindergarten division of the United States 
lureau of Education, and corresponding secretary of 
he National Kindergarten Association, coming as an 
mswer to the question put her as to the relative va- 
ues of the kindergarten and Montessori methods. 

Many parents who are planning to send the four 
>r five-year-old to some sort of a school this fall have 
>een in doubt as to the difference between the two 
lystems, many think they are the same, and still 

others, giving the choice little or no thought, have 
been willing to place the child in any kind of a school 
provided that it was "amusing." 

Just how harmful such an attitude is to the child 
himself, Miss Locke did not state, but she did draw 
even a broader conclusion, saying that "with the 
mixed peoples of this country, it long ago became evi- 
dent, that there was a need of a careful training, or 
subtle influence to insure that freedom was not 
abused; that liberty was not made license, and that 
every one had a serious respect for the personal ob- 
servances of laws and customs established for the 
benefit for all." 


This careful training is not accomplished by the 
Montessori methods, and is the very heart and core 
of the kindergarten work. Miss Locke's definitions 
of the two systems will demonstrate this at once. 

"The kindergarten, "she said, "encourages indivi- 
dualism by developing self-reliance, initiative, and ori- 
ginality. It discourages all forms of selfishness, and 
begins the development of the 'group' sense when the 
mind is most plastic, thus making easier the transi- 
tion from home to school discipline and sowing seeds 
of mature good citizenship. 

"The Montessori method evidently has a basic prin- 
ciple and purpose; the development of the child's ego, 
of its self-sufficiency, of its character as an individual 
rather than as a member of a group, like the family, 
the neighborhood, the local community or the nation. 

"The conditions Dr. Montessori undertook to meet 
in Rome," she continued, "are so different from those 
in any American city. The inherited mental tenden- 
cies and personal characteristics of the single race, for 
which she shaped her methods are, obviously, so dif- 
ferent from and so much less complex than those of 
a conglomerate nation like ours that most American 
educators are still in doubt as to how much of her 
system is valuable for permanent introduction here. 

"They point to the fact that the 'House of Childhood', 
as the laboratory in pedagogics is called in Rome, has 
not been in operation long enough to give a basis for 
sound judgment of what it lastingly accomplishes. 


"The ultra conservative profess to be nervous lest 
the enthusiasm which grasps at a new idea because 
it is new, may lead to our too hasty adoption of 
things which, in the end, will prove not advantageous 
to Americans — a waste of time, money, and energy. 

"The history of our development in training the 
young indicates that the most likely lasting result of 
better acquaintance with the Montessori ideas will be 
the addition to our present system of 'pre-grade' train- 
ing of such of them as prove desirable and the rejec- 
tion of the rest. 

"That is the way the present-day American kinder- 
garten at its best had come to be the most efficient 
school of its kind in the world. Based on the funda- 
mental principles laid down by the great child-student 



Froebel, it has modified and expanded, studied and ex- 
perimented till it became now what it is — the best 
suited means to an end, because created especially to 
meet American needs. Whatever it lacks among the 
things which the Montessori provides, it will no doubt 
take on when it is sure of what it is doing. 

"The purpose of the Kindergarten Association is to 
see that, ultimately, every child in the United States 
has an opportunity to get the best possible equip- 
ment for later life by insuring it the benefits of certain 
kinds of training not given in grade schools — ethical, 
social and moral training particularly. 

"Dr. Montessori does not claim that she originated 
the theories from which she started. She evolved 
them from those of others, which were already being 
applied to teaching feeble-minded and subnormal 
children. In practice she modified the methods thus 
used by an older physician, until she had suited them 
to her idea of the best way to teach the normal aver- 
age child of the Roman tenements. Apparently its 
original source accounts for the basic principle of her 
plan: the development of the child's ego, of its self- 
efficiency, of its character as an individual rather than 
as a member of a social group, like the family, the 
neighborhood, the local community, or the nation. 


"Here arises the first question in the minds of 
American educators in considering the Montessori sys- 
tem. While it is necessary to develop the individual- 
ity of a child of less than normal intelligence, in 
order to make it less dependent on others and more 
efficient mentally, the belief grows steadily stronger 
in this country that the great lesson that children 
must learn, to make the highest success for them- 
selves, and to be the best members of the community, 
is that of the requirements of living in a democracy 
with proper respect for others as well as for self. The 
kindergarten has been invaluable, it is universally 
recognized, in providing the influences which form a 
child's character and habits in this direction. 

"It is natural that educators accustomed to look 
at all schemes of pedagogy in the light of American 
conditions, needs and experience, should at least im- 
agine that they see in Dr. Montessori's method traces 
of a heritage from a plan for instructing feeble minded 
children. For instance it begins with teaching the 
children to button an unbotton, hook and unhook, lace 
and unlace, put on and take off their own clothes, to 
wash their faces and hands and perform the general 
personal care which according to the American idea 
should be learned at home. Dr. Montessori makes 
these things not merely matters of personal neatness, 
but means of mental development. Her theory is that 
in gaining independence in taking care of himself, the 
child also gains independence in thought and action 
in other directions. 

"The theory of cultivating self-restraint by complete 
freedom, Dr. Montessori pushes farther than the kin- 
dergarten, but in the direction in individualism rather 
than of 'group senseousness.' She allows the children 

in her school at Rome to move about at will; to sit, 
walk, or lie on the floor, to stay indoors or go out, as 
the spirit moves. 

"The child is allowed to use material, however, in 
only stipulated ways, and any disposition to experi- 
ment, to create something new, not provided by the 
regulation uses is promptly checked by a teacher. 

"There is great divergence from the kindergarten 
here, as one of the important purposes of our Ameri- 
can system of training young children is to encourage 
the creative faculty, exercise the imagination, and so 
bring about individual effort and stimulate intelli- 

"Montessori gives much attention to the definite 
scientific training of the sense. The rapid mastery 
of penmanship through the use of the 'sandpaper al- 
phabet' — letters cut from sandpaper and made famil- 
iar to the child through handling and tracing — is cer- 
tainly a spectacular feature of her system, but such 
complex instruments of self-expression as the alphabet 
and its employment should come much later in the 
child's development. At the right age, they say, Dr. 
Montessori's scheme will have much to recommend 

"American training schools provide two-ye£r cours- 
es of study and practice for young women who are 
fitting themselves to be kindergartners. Dr. Montes- 
sori completes in four months the training of those 
who intend to practice her method of educating little 
children." — Washington Times. 


Miss Gertrude Walch, daughter of Rev. and Mrs. A. 
Francis Walch of the Highlands, has opened a kin- 
dergarten school in the building near the corner of 
Sparhawk, School and Main streets. Miss Walch has 
the promise of quite a number of little ones ae pu- 
pils. — Ncwbitryport, (Mass.) News. 

Miss Leonwalda Hicks has opened a private kin- 
dergarten at Lynn, Mass. 

Statement of the Ownership. Management, Circula 
tion, Etc. 

Nonthlv except July and August nt Manistee,' M chigan 
requiredbv the Act of August 24, 1912 muiisdii. 

Name of Kditor,.T.H.Shults:Po«t Office. Manistee Mich- 
el? : <^ a ?f! g j, ng Editor./. H. Shults, Business Manager | 
J. H. Shults, Manistee, Michigan. 

OWNERS: (if ■ corporation, give names and addressee! 
of stockholders holding one per cent or more of total 
amount of stock.) J. H. Shults, Manistee, Michigan; Grace 
Dow Manistee, Michigan. Known bondholders, mort- 
gages, arid other security holders, holding one per cent or 
ttes? NONE amount of bonds - mortgages, or other securi- 
Signature of editor, publisher, business manager or owner. 
J. H. Shults. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this ~3<) day of Sept., 1914.1 

F. H. Stone. Notary Public.] 
(My Commission expires Sept, lst,19,19.) 


With the Kindergarten Review, now $1.25 a year, 
both for $1.85 



The Second International Conference on Race 
Betterment, at San Francisco, August 4-8, was at- 
tended by a large number of men and women of scien- 
tific achievement. The conference discussed race de- 
cadence, the possibilities of race improvement, and 
the agencies of race betterment. 

Luther Burbank, discussed "Evolution and Vari- 
ation with the Fundamental Significance of Sex." Mr. 
Burbank said: "Abundant, well balanced nourishment 
and thorough culture of plants or animal's will always 
produce good results in holding any species or variety 
up to its best hereditary possibilities, beyond which 
it cannot carry them, and lacking which, maximum 
development can never be realized. But a sharp line 
must always be drawn between the transient results, 
temporarily attained through favorable environment 
and the permanent results of selection of the best in- 
dividuals for continuing the race. Only by constant 
selection of the best can any race ever be improved." 

Paul B. Popenoe, editor of the American Journal of 
Heredity, in discussing "The Natural' Selection of 
Man" declared : "There are only two ways to improve 
the germinal character of the race, to better it in a 
fundamental and endmring manner. One is to kill off 
the weaklings born in each generation. That is 
Nature's way, the old method of natural' selection 
which we are all agreed must be supplanted. When 
we abandon that, we have but one conceivable alter- 
native, and that is to adopt some means by which 
fewer weaklings will' be born in each generation. The 
only hope for permanent race betterment under social 
control is to substitute a selective birth-rate for 
Nature's death-rate. That means — eugenics.'' 

Dr. J. H. Kellogg, superintendent of the Battle Creek 
Sanitarium, proposed that the conference institute a 
eugenics register which would undertake to register 
two classes of persons: — "First, those who, on exam- 
ination in relation to personal characteristics and 
family pedigree, are found to measure up to eugenic 
standards. Second, the children born of parents 
whose pedigree and physical' characteristics conform 
to the required standards. Such a registry would be 
the beginning of a new and glorified human race 
which sometimes, far down in the future will have so 
mastered the forces of nature that disease and degen- 
eracy will have been eliminated. Hospital's and prisons 
will be no longer needed, and the golden age will have 
been restored as the crowning result of human 
achievement and obedience to biologic law." 

Among the other speakers were Dr. David Starr Jor- 
dan of the Leland Stanford University; Dr. Ernest B. 
Hoag of the Los Angeles Juvenile Court; Edgar L, 
Hewett, Director of the United States Bureau of Eth- 
nology; Prof. Irving Fisher, of Yale University, and 
many others of equal' prominence in sociological and 
scientific circles. 

The conference was concluded with a Morality 
Masque, In which two hundred students of the Univer- 
sity of California took part. This masque was a 
dramatic arraignment of diseases and war. 

E. J. 
Ho, for a race! and ho, for a chase! 

And ho, for a game of tag! 
Hi Willow away! come Maple don't stay! 
Now who do you think will lag? 

Sharp blew the wind, 

Low rustled the trees, 
Loud sang the birds 

Away went the leaves. 

Swift ran Miss Willow and swift ran Lord 

And hot grew Miss Maple and red. 
Miss Tulip, poor soul, tumbled into a hole 

And vowed that her breath had all fled. 

Helter skelter, pell mell over stones into dell, 

Ran the frolicsome, rollicksome crew, 
'Tho who won at the chase, why nobody 
Now I wish I'd been there, don't you? 
Note — Little leaves should be sketched in througb 
the poem as desired. 

The Springfield kindergarten training school opened 
Sept. 21, with an enrollment of 21. Miss Harris* 
Twichell gave a short address, taking up psychology 
in general and the psychology of child life. She also 
emphasized the value of story telling and illustrated 
the different kinds of story. The class filled out the 
records containing information regarding experience 
and other qualifications and disbanded. 

Owing to the crowded conditions of the kindergar- 
tens the board decided to hold two sessions of the 
Lincoln school kindergarten. Sessions will be held 
both morning and afternoon whereas they were form- 
erly held only during the afternoon. — Billings, 
(Mont.) Gazette. 

The matter of adding a kindergarten to the Worth- 
ington street school was also discussed, but nothing 
was done, pending the investigation. There are 7~0 
children of kindergarten age in this vicinity who do 
not go to any school because there is none for them. 
— Springfield, (Mass.) Republican. 

Said robin to the blue bird, 
"My nest I now must build, 

And shortly you shall' see it, 
With pretty blue eggs filled." 

Do Business by Mail 

Start with accurate lists of names we furnish— 
baild solidly. Choose from the following or any 

ethers desired 

Apron Mfrs. 
Cheese Box Mrrs. 
Shoe Retailers 
Tin Can Mfrs. 
Auto Owners 

Wealthy Men 
Ice Mfrs. 

Axle Grease Mfrs. 
Railroad Employees 
Ova complete book oi mailing statistics 
on 7000 classes of prospective customers free. 

Ross-GodI*. 814 Olive Strut. St Louis. 



~ ■ ' ■-,-, ■'■ -... d^ I B j"-'^> 

"- '£~ yr ' -^";^=-- 

^'•^;-:K^y^\ ' «*^ > j^ ?Sg 










































'PHIS list of Teachers' Agencies i> published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be abl 
•* to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 
si these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school 


■■commands) Taacbsrs, Tutor* and 
Sckoal* No, 1» Boylston street. 


Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

Amerloan Teachere* Ag-enoy 

Myrick Building. Springfield, MASS. 


Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, andlother? teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT. Manager 
TO Fifth Avenue New York 


Station A. Spokane. Wssh, 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of rltnary and Kindergarten teach. 
era. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 


We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and "Language, 




Provides public and private schools 
-with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
In obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 



Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane, Wash. 





Trained rimary and Kindergarten 
Teachere needed. Good positions, er- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 



Home Occupations 


Mother's Meetings 


Bertha Johnston 

Address. 389 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency Kindergartners and Primate Teachers 

501-503 Livingston Building, Rochester. 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United Stales. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. , 

W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 1 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nsshville. Ttnn. 

Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewie Teachere' Agenoy 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon, Mich. 


We wantKindergarten, rimary, Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit. 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

Sabins' Educational Exchange 


Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. AN AGENCY ^cSortton tS 

The JMn^e Teachers' Agency 


A Placing Atfency for Tescher9. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



Always needed in our territory. We have placed over eleven thousand 

brainy men and women with discriminating employers. If you are 

a. qualified teacher, write us immediately. No registration fee 




proportion to- 
its influence If it merely hearsof va- 
cancies and tells THAT *» some- 
you about them ■ **r\ I. thing, 
but if it is asked to recommend arteach- 


is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C W.BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. Y_ 



Only Competent Teaohers Enrolled.. 



Wa are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado, Oklahoma,! 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Writs us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach. 
era outright. Our Booklet, "Mow to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Isws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 

■Rocxr Mr Teachers Age/vcy 

£A7/V/?/= BLDG, DE/VVEf), COLO. 


... The ... 



PLAY itself into the elements of an 
This new system Is adapted for home or 
school training, concentrating the child mind 
on simple lessons in writing and reading simul 
taneously It lays foundations on which 
more advanced instruction follows easily. 
33 CARDS, 8%xis Inches, In box with In- 
structions, $2.50 by Parcel Post Prepaid. 

The Faulkner School, Dedham, Maw, 




Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa* Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 

Entered at the Postoffice', Manistee, Michigan, as second class mail matter. 

November, 1915. 


The Michigan State Teachers' Association in annual 
session at Saginaw, October 27th, was very largely 
attended, and a decided success. Ex-President W. H. 
Taft, and David Star Jordan, were among the speak- 


Ex-President W. H. Taft, in an address at Grand 
Rapids, Michigan, October 27th, said "I am in favor 
of military training in the public schools because it 
democratizes physical training. The proposal for a re- 
serve army should be fostered. This would be the 
skeleton of a sufficient force for defensive purposes. 
1 believe in a big navy, a navy of sufficient size and 
strength to afford us time to prepare for invasion. 
Militarism is not much of a factor in this country of 
ours. The only way militarism can take possession of 
a country is when the country has a large army. Now 
we pay our men $15 a month and have a hard time 
getting them. How long do you think the party would 
last that authorized the maintenance of soldiers at 
$30 or $40 each a month, which is the least induce- 
ment one, could offer to recruit half a million men for 
a standing army?" 


Tristram Walker Metcalfe. 

Members of the Board of Education will soon be 
called upon to decide whether or not the public school 
kindergartens are to be reorganized to increase effi- 
ciency or to be disorganized to save money by forcing 
some children out of kindergartens and by reducing 
the time others of the little children spend in school. 
There is every reason to believe that the decision will 
be in favor of the former procedure. 

Recommendations that would result in the latter 
deplorable condition have been before the Board of 
Education for some months. There is general opposi- 
tion to their adoption, but they have not been 
brought to a vote because a constructive plan for im- 
proving the training of the little children has been 

suggested by the director of kindergartens, and is now 
pending before the board of superintendents. 

Some of the features have been commended by the 
board and others have been rejected, not upon their 
merits, but upon the plea that legislation may be 
necessary to effect them. This attitude has dis- 
appointed many of the members of the Board of Edu- 
cation who have been defending the superintendents 
from the charge that their board is of little use in the 
system. They had hoped that the board would study 
such a proposal, determine whether it would effect im- 
provement in the system, and if so point out how 
it could be put into operation. There is a possibility 
that this may be done by the superintendents before 
they adopt a final report. The entire matter is still 
before the board. 

The reorganization proposed provides that in each 
school in which there are more than one kindergar- 
ten, one kindergarten teacher shall be made the re- 
sponsible head, .subject to the direction of the prin- 
cipal. The other kindergartners are to work under 
her direction. Under the present arrangement all of 
the kindergartners in a school are rated equal. Pro- 
vision is made under the new plan for more definite 
training, for mothers' meetings and home visiting, 
and for the creation of definite standards for determin- 
ing the merit of teachers' service. A way is opened 
for the substitution for the present automatic pro- 
cedure of a fixed measure of the value of service 
rendered. Provision also is made for closer com- 
bination of the work of the kindergarten and the 1A 
grade and for the closing of excessively small kinder- 
gartens unless they can be combined with the 1A 

The plan rejects as harmful to the children and 
destructive of the possible service any proposal to re- 
quire a kindergarten teacher to teach two classes 
daily and to reduce the time of the classes to bring 
them within the 9 to 3 o'clock day. — New York Globe. 

We should be glad indeed to devote a page or more 
to news items from the Kindergarten Training 
schools, if we could only get some one to furnish us 
the information. Terms will be made known on appli- 
cation to the J. H. Shults Co. 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D.. New York City " 

It is a saying in our family that everything comes to 
use once in seven years. It so happens that 
the kindergarten Magazine for Novemeber, 1908, lies 
open before me and it has come to use again after the 
proverbial seven years, in 1915 for it is really an in- 
spiration for this Thanksgiving month. 

I presume few kindergartners keep back numbers 
for seven years, but if any one has done so, she will 
find two quite unique Thanksgiving stories, one by 
our present helper, Miss Bertha Johnston, which 
develops a thankful thought for Brother "fire" who 
warms us and cooks our food. 

With present day gas stoves so common, the real 
fire of olden times is lost to view. "John Henry" in 
Miss J's story had to go to the neighbor's house, a half 
mile away to get a few "live coals" because the home 
fire was out and it was Thanksgiving Day! How 
could mother cook the turkey? John Henry appreci- 
ated a fire after that! Can you not build a story from 
this hint? 

Simple glimpses into the history of a few of the 
every day things of life, as matches, may arouse the 
modern child's mind to think connectedly of past and 
present, and may be the means of awakening gratitude 
for the present rightly turned. 

The other story by Miss Elizabeth Peene, who now 
after seven years has a charming little family of her 
very own, won a prize from her associates in the N. 
Y. Public Kindergarten Association. 

It is a simple tale of a Thanksgiving party with 
"tico apples" on a "kitchen chair" prepared by a little 
kindergarten boy for his still poorer neighbors. 

Nathan had a good mother who listened to his tale 
of the Thanksgiving party in kindergarten. Nathan's 
initiative had not been stifled. He suggested the party 
at home. Mother had been to mothers' meetings and 
she helped the little fellow work out his little prob- 

Nathan wanted his company to have lots of fun, so 
he got his paper doll for Mary. (It was one she could 
hug made of balls of tissue paper — not a flat paper — 

Hymen rolled Nathan's "box-wagon" up and down 
the kitchen. Rachel took the only picture book but did 
not say, "Thank you." Nathan told her to say "Thank 
you," for was it not the month to practice saying 
"Thank you" so as to keep Thanksgiving Day aright?" 

Nathan had a poll parrot and even polly had learned 
to say "Thank you." 

When baby Mary was going to sleep that night she 

was sleeping saying, "party, dolie — thank you— thank 

"Coming events cast their shadows before." This 
first great autumnal holiday, suggested both by 
nature's harvest, and by our own national history is 
the controlling thought for the month. 

Let us make it a home and nature holiday for the 
little ones rather than a national. 

The kindergarten child cannot generalize sufficiently 
to get the idea of a nation, but home and nature are 
round about the child and only gradually do they pave 
the way for the larger home, our country. 

I mean by this that I disapprove of dwelling upon 
"the first Thanksgiving" in New England and what 
it meant in American history. Leave that to the grade 

If there should be a dramatic representation of 
the pilgrims in costume in the school, the little ones 
will be interested undoubtedly. Let them alone as they 
observe absorbing what they can. But in kindergar- 
ten rather dramatize: 

"Over the river and through the woods, 
To grandfather's farm we go." 

Even to appreciate this simple story in rhyme, you 
must commence early in the month to review sum- 
mer experiences on the farm if any have had them 
and if not, to show pictures of a farm, and to build 
farm houses, barns and fences. 

Lay out a farm scene on the sand table, and draw, 
day by day a growing farm scene on the blackboard, 
building up the story of Farmer Brown or "Grand- 
father's farm," as you add bit by bit to the picture. 

If you do not draw, get out the toy picture books 
and the toy farm animals and the farmer's tools. 

Get a large box and fit it up for a barn. Use a little 
hay, a wagon, make stalls for the horses and cows, 
for is it not getting too cold for them to stay out of 

Have a few toy barrels to put in the barn. Let the 
children fill them with colored beads or tiny clay 
apples that they have moulded and painted. Let them 
make clay eggs and hide them in the hay. This 
realistic representation of a barn in a box will enable 
the city child to image farm life and the Thanks- 
giving song will have a real meaning. 

Memorize a verse a week, or possibly two. Follow 
the children's suggestions in dramatizing the sleigh- 
ride, the arrival and greeting, and the dinner at 



Let this dramatization grow slowly. Modify the 
children's suggestions if advisable. 

Aunts, uncles and cousins may be impersonated as 
well as Grandma and Grandpa. 

Let the children take turns in driving the sleigh. 
They will build it of chairs doubtless. The sleigh 
may be an automobile if there are no sleighs to show. 
Pictures will help if good snow scenes are secured. 
Do not forget the ride home. Play bundle up well. 

Have polite goodbys with "Thank yous" to Grand- 

All these details help the little ones to enter into 
the spirit of the play. Listen patiently to their sug- 
gestions, and if possible let them carry them out. It 
is easy to make the difference in children whose 
thoughts are encouraged and those who are suppressed 
or are merely taught to play regulation games by 

The child who helps "organize" the game or play is 
gradually learning to plan for life. The adult in 
playing with children must aim to keep in the back- 
ground, and yet help the children to rise to a higher 
level than they would alone. 

Such direction requires the constant exercise of 
good judgment on the part of the kindergartner. 
Dictation in game, play or work is much less difficult 
and much less valuable. 

The talks about the farm, the memorizing of the 
words of this song, or any other, learning to sing it 
and to play it will occupy much of the morning circle 
and story time. It will also be a leading feature of 
the game period. 


This song also furnishes suggestions for gift-icork, 
as in building the farm-house, barn, bridges, sleighs. 

The occupation work is modeling, painting, paper- 
cutting of dishes, fruits and vegetables for the 
Thanksgiving feast. Pumpkins are sometimes made 
of orange colored crape paper stuffed with pop-corn 
or tissue-paper, and tied with green worsted. The 
expected pudding may be made the subject of great 
fun on a modeling day, and the children's ingenuity 
taxed to make a clay pudding look real. 

They will enjoy modeling dishes, and even attempt 
the turkey late in the month. 

They may cut paper napkins, fringing them; they 
may decorate circular paper plates, with a few colored 
strokes, — no elaborate designs in the kindergarten. 
They may make decorative chains for the room using 
autumnal colors, browns, reds, orange and yellows 
as suggested by the leaves, fruits and vegetables. 


Some time during the month, it seems quite in sea- 
son to introduce talks and experiences connected 
with the kitchen, the fire and cooking. 

Some kindergartners try to visit a grocery and a 

If there is a school kitchen, be sure to ask permis- 
sion to visit it, but even in the kindergarten room, 

many kindergartners make a cake, a pudding, bread or 
biscuit, butter, apple sauce, grape jelly, or cranberry 
sauce. These foods in my experience have proved 
the most simple to prepare. A few have even made 
the pumpkin pie, letting the children see every step of 
the preparation. 

Children love the activities of the kitchen. En- 
courage mothers in November mothers' meetings by 
telling them of the educational value of kitchen ex- 
periences for children. 

A little patience will put the child in touch with 
real things in the kitchen. He can learn to help at an 
early age in trifling matters because he loves to be 
active. If he only sits and looks on, it is interesting 
at first, but something can be found for him to do. Be 
patient and don't scold. A bit of dough and the 
rolling-pin will prove better than a toy. 

Encourage the mothers to report for each other's 
benefit. Let them show each other how to ornament 
a table, with vegetables and fruits. Some mothers 
know how to make animals and flowers from vege- 
tables. See if any do, if not, perhaps you can show 
them yourself. 

Show the pretty star in an apple if you did not do 
so last month by cutting the apple at right angles to 
the stem. Find the impress of the apple blossom by 
holding a thin slice to the light. Make a doll or 
"brownie" with two apples. 

I consider it fundamentally valuable for a child to 
be educated early in kitchen experiences. These ex- 
periences touch nature in many ways . They touch 
animal plant and even insect life. They may suggest 
cleanliness in preparig food. They show the great 
value in cooking of both water and fire, — "Sister 
Water" and "Brother Fire," St. Francis called them.. 
His is a genuine Thanksgiving hymn, quaint and olden 
coming down to us through seven centuries. 

Let me quote it in closing my hints for our Thanks- 
giving month, for you, mother and kindergartner. 

"Praise to Thee, my Lord, for Sister Water 
Useful and humble and precious and chaste! 
Praise to Thee, my Lord, for Brother Fire, 
Who lightens up the night and is handsome, and 
joyous and robust and able. 

Praise to Thee, my Lord, for our Sister and Mother 
The Earth who brings forth varied fruits and 

herbs and brigbt-hued flowers, 
Who sustains and keeps us! 
Praise ye and bless my Lord and thank Him and 

serve Him with great humility." 

St. Fransis of Assiri, 1226. 

Over the river and thru the woods 

To grandfather's farm we go, 
The horse knows the way 

To carry the sleigh 
Thro' the white and drifting snow. 



Over the river and thro the woods, 

Oh how the wind doth blow, 
It shakes the trees and bites our toes, 

As over the ground we go. 

Over the river and thro' the woods, 

To have a first rate play, 
Hear the bells ring, ting-a ling-ling 

Hurrah for Thanksgiving day. 

Over the river and thro' the woods, 
Now Grandmother's face, I spy; 

Hurrah for the fun, is the pudding done, 
Hurrah for the pumpkin pie. 



Topic. — Our winter food. The harvest. 

City children visit a grocery. Tell all they saw good 
to eat. Country children tell what is stored in their 
barns and cellars. Use in both cases the word "har- 
vest." Let children think how to decorate the room 
to remind them of the "harvest." Who gathered the 
harvest? Who planted in the spring time? Who took 
care of the fruit trees? Who sent rain and sunshine? 
Who buys things for us to eat at the store? Who 
brings them to the stores? Who makes jelly and who 
cans tomatoes and corn and peaches so that we can 
have them in winter? Why don't they grow in winter? 
Puzzle little minds with questions and encourage the 
children to ask questions. Show grains and cereals. 
Use pictures on packages that hold cereals. See if 
children have watched mother cook oat meal. Show 
yellow corn meal. Make a corn cake. We need some- 
thing in our oat meal. 

Show a bottle or glass of milk. Who brought it? 
How did the milkman get it? Show pictures of the 
cow. Play with toy cows and other farm animals this 


Little children should be thankful for their food. 
They should thank thei grocer and milkman for bring- 
ing it. They should thank the farmer. They should 
thank mother or the maid for cooking it. Should they 
thank father? Why? Some people always bow their 
heads and are quiet before they eat. They are saying 
— "We are thankful for this food." Will you do it? 


The farmer. The orchard. 

Bringing things to the city. — the train. Buying at 
the grocery store. 
The milk wagon delivering milk. 
Sense games to recognize fruits by touch. 
(See the Mother Play suggestions on "taste.") 


Bowing. Pop corn. How the corn grew. Poulsson, 
Little Boy Blue. 


1. What can we draw to help us think about our 
food? Who can draw a glass of milk? Use white 
crayon after drawing outline to represent milk. 

Who can draw an apple? 

An apple tree? A ladder to get the apples? A 

Free drawing each day. 

2. What can we cut? Let children choose. If 
they do not suggest well, ask if they would like to 
cut tools to help us remember how hard the farmer 
worked to help things grow so as to have a big 
harvest. What have tee done with tools in our 

3. Fold. A cup to drink out of on our walks. 

4. Coloring. Fill in with appropriate colors an out- 
line drawing of the cow. 

5. Build with blocks and outline with sticks, barns 
and farm houses, fences, stones, milk-cans, etc., and 
anything children think of. Let them tell why they 
want to make certain objects. 


Topic. — Our new song for Thanksgiving Day. 

Talk about vsiting our friends. Who went to see 
Grandma on Sunday? Who went to see some one 
else? Children tell about visits. Who went to see 
else? Children tell about visits. Who 
would like to play "visit"? How? "Let children 
shake hands with each other." Any other way? Try 
to get children to work out this little problem in 
several ways in the ring and at game time. Suppose 
Grandma lived far away, how could you go? Tell us a 
story the visit of some children who had a grandma 
and grandpa in the country on a farm as indicated in 
the song "Over the river." Tell in detail how they 
went and all that happened. Then sing the song 
complete to them. Let them suggest how to play it 
in kindergarten. Perhaps "Going" will be enough at 
first. Select horse, driver, make wagon, etc. The first 
verse may be sufficient for this week. If there is time 
for the second stanza, let the children suggest how we 
could have trees and the wind. (If it should happen 
to be windy any day, open the window wide while 
they play, or in game time, play out-of-doors.) Do 
not introduce sleigh-bells until ready to sing the third 
stanza. Meanwhile ask children to bring bells. Often 
in a large kindergarten, such provision is possible and 
it delights the child who has them to bring. Let the 
children contribute whenever possible to the little 
community, thus helping to develop the social life 
and the spirit of co-operation. 


As indicated above. Also any children ask for. 
Nursery rhyme. — Four and twenty blackbirds. 
Rhythms — Swaying trees — galloping horses — run- 



Hand work. — Building and outlining with sticks 
ind rings, carriages, trolley cars, autos, trains, sleds, 
ileighs, and any vehicle of travel that might take us 
o "visit." 

Outline also the trees making the woods. 

Sand table. — A country road — a bridge — a wagon 
vitb a toy horse. Children may furnish these from 
imong home toys. 

Drawing and cutting. — Vehicles. 

Folding and Pasting. — The carriage or sleigh — make 
i simple box for the body — or let children each bring 
i small box. 

Cutting. — Dolls for the sleigh ride. 


Topic. Finish the song, or if finished teach another 
Thanksgiving hymn as: 

"Thank Him, thank Him, all ye little children, 

God is love, God is love." 

"For the fruit upon the tree, 

For the birds that sing of Thee, 

For the earth in beauty drest, 

Father, mother, and the rest, 

Father in heaven, we thank Thee." 
Review the "conclusions" mentioned under First 
Week. Consider especially this week the environment 
jf your kindergarten, and lead the children in the 
aiorning talks to tell other things they are thankful 
or accordingly. These will differ in city and country 
ind home. Some years ago a N. Y. C. kindergartner 
Outlined these points as follows: 
For what the city gives us. 

1. Police to protect us. 

2. Firemen to put out fires. 

3. Lights for our dark streets at night. 

4. Parks in which to play. 

5. Men to keep our streets clean. 

6. Postmen to bring us letters. 

7. Schools and kindergartens. 

8. School teachers and school doctors. 


Review those of the first and second weeks, dwel- 
ing now upon the "arrival." Select several children 
'.o impersonate aunts, uncles and cousins, as well as 
Grandma and Grandpa. 

Dress Grandma as an old-fashioned New England 
lady. Get spectacle frames without glasses. Children 
30 enjoy a little "dressing up," as they usually call 
it. Some day play the game just before dismissal so 
that all may put on their wraps for the ride. This 
will be very realistic. 

Other stories, a's "How Patty Gave Thanks." 

See also current children's magazines: The Child's 

Review nursery rhymes, adding any one desired 
)r that children suggest. 

Simple Simon's story connects well with the gen- 
eral topic, "Food." Let the children recite these 
mrsery rhymes at odd times, perhaps when waiting 
!or dismissal bell. 


1. Clay modeling. Dishes for a doll's Thanksgiv- 
ing table. Loaves of bread, rolls, pies, cakes. 

2. Cutting. Dishes, napkins. 

3. Drawing. Illustrative of the song. 

4. Coloring. The horse. 

5. Folding and pasting. Paper bags. 

6. Building and outlining. Free. 


A visit to our School Kitchen. 

Let this be distinctly a Home Week. Review the 
home work of September, bringing to mind the work 
of father, mother, sisters, brothers. Our pets, our 
story and picture books, our food and clothing. Are 
we thankful for all these? What can we spare to 
give to some children whose father is sick, and can- 
not work? 

Shall we fill a basket with fruit and vegetables? 
John can bring an apple? a potato? a box of crackers? 
a pair of mittens? a little coat or dress? a picture 
book? a toy? 

Song and Game — "Give," said the little stream. 

Memorize. It is more blessed to give than to re- 


Making butter. Cooking apple or cranberry sauce, 
the children helping. Preparing for the Thanksgiv- 
ing party if one is to be given. 

Making chains for decoration. 

Folding paper napkins. 

Cutting plates and decorations. 

(The kindergartner may furnish large circles of 
white paper for plates. The children make red dots 
or dashes around the edges for design.) 

Outlining with sticks and rings and seeds. A toy 
table may be set with these, using rings for plates, 
half rings for saucers, inch sticks for knives, forks 
and spoons, seeds for fruits and vegetables. 

Let each child follow his own plan but add sug- 
gestions as needed. 


Complete scene if not already finished. 


Prepare invitations for party by cutting a double 
pumpkin that will open like a book. Teacher, per- 
haps, makes them of white paper and children paint 
them orange color. Children are asked to carry them 
carefully to mother. 

NOTE — The kindergarten Thanksgiving party must 
be adapted to the class of children attending. A real 
feast may be needed by some, if so, try to get friends 
to provide it. 

In some cases, an exhibit of the children's work 
since September may be preferred for parents. 

Speak of this as your "Harvest." 

NOTE — We have tried to indicate possible divisions 
of the work to assist the inexperienced kindergartner. 
The outlines are flexible and the week's work will 



doubtless overlap according to the varying capabilities 
of children. 

We wish to remind kindergartners of the points 
suggested as guides in method: 

1. Physical activity — locomotion. 

2. Nurturing — caring for room, for younger child- 
ren, for pets, for plants, — this month for the needy. 

3. Communicating — talking freely. Also encourage 
bodily expression in gesture and dramatic play. 

4. Constructing — making — which in a broad way, 
may be taken to include all gift and occupation work. 

5. Experimenting. Much free endeavor, little dic- 
tation, considerable suggestion to lead the child on 
and up. 

6. Playfulness in spirit and earnestness in work. 

7. Social co-operation as a preparation for living 

Dora A. Mondore, Grand Gorge, N .Y. 

Original! Everyone takes pride in original ideas, 
in the mere fact that some fresh conception or plan 
has formed in his mind. Throughout the world ori- 
ginality is appreciated. Closely akin to the origin- 
ator is the initiator — he who takes the initiative. 

Why is this? Why is the man who practically 
"starts the ball rolling" considered by the world in 
general as more important than those faithful hordes 
who "keep the ball rolling?" Why are Rockefeller, 
Ford, and others praised (or criticized) more than 
the thousands in their employ? Simply because the 
employes are followers, imitators. They lack origin- 
ality and initiative. They are not "planters," but 
are merely "watering what another man has planted." 

Let us not depreciate the mechanical worker. This 
is not our motive; but, that man in whom initiative 
has been developed, though he works under a "boss," 
still, feels more, thinks farther, learns as he works, 
and often develops some method by which his work 
is lightened, or devises some innovation which will 
enhance the value of his labor or even improve upon 
the system under which he labors. 

In all walks of life initiative is of importance. In 
the humble but infinitely important task of child- 
training the mother finds unlimited demands made up- 
on her powers of initiative. While some children are 
naturally possessed of a certain amount of initiative, 
they can by their training and environment be influ- 
enced either favorably or unfavorably in this respect. 
The pampered child, through force of habit, becomes 
dependent, gradually learning to cast responsibility 
and cares on "broader shoulders," on those who are 
more willing or able to cope with conditions. That 
child, on the other hand, who is left to solve his 
own problems, to "work out his own salvation," be- 
comes self-reliant — his initiative is developed. Such 
a child prefers to do his own work rather than to 
copy; unconsciously he may lead rather than follow — 
originate rather than imitate. 
The task of developing a child's initiative is not 

an easy one, but it is a ivorth icliile one. It would be 
a comparatively simple undertaking if the method 
consisted of merely introducing certain games or les- 
sons among the children. But even as a plant is 
influenced by the changing breezes and the sun's rays, 
so the initiative of the child must be developed 
through the varying lessons and games of the day. 

By allowing the child to work without hindrance 
or suggestions we obtain the direct product of his 
thinking. The house he builds from his blocks may 
be clumsy and lacking in symmetry; but what does 
this matter? In this instance, it is not the house we 
desire; it is the exercise and development of his crea- 
tive ability or initiative. It is the mental process 
which causes his house to be so different from the 
next child's. It is well to remember that "John 
building block houses" is as different a problem from 
"James building block houses" as when Mr. Long 
builds a brick house and Mr. Short builds another 
brick house. Given equal resources, the results dif- 
fer. Individuality and self-expression demand that 
each child be considered on his own merits; the free- 
dom of the kindergarten gives it superiority over the 
grades in affording this personal attention. 

The teacher who induces a child to carry out lier 
ideas destroys his opportunity to develop initiative. 
It may seem tedious to wait for the little mind to 
grasp the situation; but, ultimately, it is evident that 
a long time spent on one original task is of more 
value than an equal amount of time spent on several 

While rapidity and skill are essential, they may be 
acquired later through practice; they should not be 
acquired at the expense of creative ability. 

It is this depending on his own resources which 
gives the child in later years, power to meet exigen- 
cies promptly and wisely and to cope with practically 
all conditions upon all occasions. Such children are 
not apt to be numbered among the "failures." 

The Ericsson kindergartners have been very proud 
of their flower garden, but they have been obliged to 
bid it goodbye for the winter. The little folks planted 
the flower seeds themselves last spring, and with 
utmost care they pulled out every weed and nursed . 
the flowers when growth started. During the sum- 
mer the janitor did most of the work of caring for 
the plants, because the 5-year-olds were a little too 
young to work in the hot sun. The little flower gar- 
den is situated on a corner of the rather too limited 
school grounds, and the new kindergartners this fall 
have bubbled over with the delight of the many- 
colored flowers. — St. Paul News. 

Miss Mary Ledyard is to have charge of the kinder- 
garten department of St. Helens Hall, Portland Ore., 
when the new quarters are completed. Miss Ledyard 
has charge of the kindergarten at Los Angeles Cal. 
who spent a year or more in China organizing kinder- 


Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 


In an able monograph recently published by the U. 
S. bureau of education, Mies Luella A. Palmer writes 
upon "Adjustment between Kindergarten and First 
Grade." She has summarized the views of primary 
teachers, kindergartners and supervisors which were 
revived by Dr. P. P. Claxton, our national commis- 
sioner of education, in answer to certain questions 
sent out by him. 

There are many valuable hints in this careful study. 
One relates to number work. 

It seems that the tendency in the best primary first 
grades is to reduce number work, while some kinder- 
gartners are inclined to over do numbers in the 
kindergarten thinking it will please primary teach- 
ers! Fortunately many superintendents have already 
agreed that heretofore too much formal number work 
has been required in the first year. The tendency now is 
to make the teaching of number incidental, to connect 
it with games and also with necessary counting and 
measuring as in preparing hand work. The kinder- 
garten does much of this incidental work in number 
and if the primary teacher knows this, she can build 
upon it. The six colored balls of the first gift are often 
counted in playing games and in returning them to the 
box" to see if all are there. In a game, one or more may 
be hidden which suggests subtraction. 

The eight small cubes of the third gift and the 
..eight oblong blocks of the fourth gift are often seen 
as two fours when the boxes are opened. The chil- 
dren in p.lay make the blocks march by twos or ones. 
They count them as they build higher and higher. 
*. There are many other concrete experiences with 
number in using these two gifts, and also in measur- 
ing sticks of different lengths on the squares of the 
table. Sticks of one, two, three, four and five inch 
lengths are often used in the kindergarten. They may 
be measured, put together, etc. If children remain 
two terms or a whole year in kindergarten, the re- 
peated handling of these blocks and sticks has really 
drilled, tho unconsciously many of the smaller num- 
ber combinations into the children's memories. 

Weaving mats impresses the succession of numbers, 
in ones, twos and threes and gives the underlying 
thought for multiplication one up, one down, two 
up, two down, etc. 

Number also enters into paper folding. 

Again in kindergarten, the children are often allow- 
ed to count each other which greadually extends count- 
ing to twenty-five or thirty. At first, boys are counted 
alone, then girls so that the counting is not too ex- 
tended. Where this counting of boys and girls is 

done regularly every day for a term iji the kinder- 
garten, nearly every child when promoted can count 
at least to ten, and many to twenty without help. 

Some kindergartners now keep the record of atten- 
dance on the blackboard so that the children become 
accustomed to see figures, but no formal instruction 
is given in figures. The children are not even re- 
quired to know how to read or make a single figure, 
yet the bright child may acquire considerable power to 
read figures merely by seeing this record from day to 
day. It is a good exercise for theftrst year also. 

Rousseau says: 

"Count, measure, weigh" as a basis for arithmetic. 

This early counting in the kindergarten is of posi- 
tive value and the primary teacher whose class comes 
to her from the kindergarten should use this know- 
ledge of counting to build upon, and continue it con- 

If there is no kindergarten in the school, the pri- 
mary teacher should give similar experiences in count- 
ing before introducing figures. 

Figures are only signs or symbols of number, not 
number itself. Too much primry number work deals 
with these symbols instead of the real number. 

The primary teacher sometimes has splints and 
sticks furnished but if not, she can cut strips of stiff 
paper or secure some simple objects to be counted 
daily, as leaves and nuts during the fall. Pebbles nd 
shells are often used. The objects chosen for count- 
ing must be those easily obtained, easy to distribute, 
and such as will not scratch desks or make too much 
noise in handling. 

The kindergartner has the advantage of always 
having materials for every child at hand. The prin- 
cipal reason why the transition from kindergarten to 
the first year is trying, is just here. 

Materials re not so often put into the child's hands. 
He lias to constantly pay attention to what is being 
done at the front of the room. Sometimes he cannot 
see well at a distance; this strain upon the child's 
attention is too great. 

This difficulty is being rapidly obviated in our best 
primary schools by teaching the children of large 
classes in groups. Materials for counting and for 
other number work are placed upon a long table at 
the front or back of the room. 

A group of children gathers around the table and 
handles the toys or other objects used in counting. 
They may play store with each other. 

Toys should be used to some extent, and natural 
objects. The latter give city children the pleasure and 



experience of seeing and handling such pretty things 
as shells, pebbles, acorns, leaves, etc. 

What are the children to do with such objects? 
They are first to select from a pile a certain number, 
for example the teacher may say, "Here is a basket of 
acorns. Who knows where we get acorns? Well, let 
us play we are out in the woods under an oak tree 
picking up acorns. 

Each of you may pick up three acorns and put them 
in a row on the table — (Probably all know three.) 
Now you may all pick one more acorn and put it with 
the three acorns. How many have you now? How 
many did you have first? How many did you add? 
(Use the word "add naturally and the children will 
soon catch its meaning.) 

If the formal language of arithmetic is required, 
tho I do not recommend it, let the children repeat 3 
acorns and 1 acorn are 4 acorns. Then turn and write 
on the blackboard 3 plus 1 equals 4. The children are 
learning to read words and this is merely reading 
signs. The teacher points and reads and the children 
imitate. Three and one arc four, may also be written. 

The children should not be required even in the first 
school year to write figures during the first month. 
Let pupils see teacher write figures for several weeks 
before asking them to do so. 

When the figures are made, it helps to playfully 
compare their shapes with familiar objects, as. 

7 is like a little flag. 

2 has a long neck like a swan (if they know a 

6 is like a button hook. 

3 is like a curl or like two scollops. 

4 is like a chair. Now let some one sit on it. 
1 is like what? 

8 begins like the letter S. Then add a line upwards 

6 is like a shaving of wood. 

9 is a balloon on a stick. 
is like an egg. 

Take the children's fancies or your own instead of 
these. Do not insist upon making figures in order at 
first. Select the easy ones. Eight is usually the 
hardest for children, but if they have the shape S in 
mind they will begin without difficulty. 

After a time ask a child to make any figure he can 
on the blackboard and immediately have another 
child find what the figure means. 

One child may show so many shells, another the 
same number of marbles, another may hold up the 
same number of figures. 

The primary teacher who is trying to have a 
"connecting class" will profit by reading the article 
on the kindergarten program. Note especially the 
finger game of the piano in September and use it in 
counting to five. Use the hands and fingers freely in 
the first school year as we do in kindergarten and you 
will do much to prevent fatigue. 

I once visited a primary school where the children 
sat in stiff positions and kept their hands folded be- 
hind them a great part of the time. The principal 
seemed to think tiiis prevented mischief and also 
helped the children to sit up well. She was a good 
woman and meant well, but let us hope she has left no 
descendants to perpetuate such methods of discipline. 

The primary teacher of today has learned to utilize 
the natural activity of the child in teaching every sub- 
ject. The hands love to touch. 

In counting, for variety appeal occasionally to the 
sense of hearing, as clap three times, 1, 2, 3. Clap 
lour times. 

Let the children close their eyes and listen while 
another child taps on the floor with a stick. How 
many times? Let them count as the clock strikes 
if there is one to be heard. Let them also find the 
figures on the face of the clock if Roman numbers 
have been discarded. 

Do not confuse them with both kinds of numbers 
until later. 

When Roman numbers must be introduced, tell a 
story about how people who lived far away used to 
write numbers. . Teach the strokes first 1 11 111 

Then as the Romans did not want to go on making 
strokes, they made something that looks like a hand 
for five. Look at your hand. Hold the thumb out 
as far as you can. What letter do you see? V. So 
they made the letter V for five. 

Then can you guess what they added to V for six? 

Later show that those people chose the letter X 
for ten because it has two fives. 

Who can find them? One is upside down. 

Then someone said when we put I after X it means 
eleven, but when we put I before X it will mean to 
subtract I. 

Then they thought of putting I before V. What 
would that mean? and so on? 

These are mere hints to give the spirit of number 
work in the first year. Begin slowly. If you do, you 
can double the work later on. 

The greatest difference between number work in the 
first year and in the kindergarten is the introduction 
of figures to express numbers. This step is wholly 
out of place in the kindergarten. It is not usually 
until about the sixth year that children are ready 
for signs or symbols in language or in numbers. 

In these articles we may alternate between reading 
and numbers as we wish to help the kindergartners 
who are beginning to teach in the first year in both 
subjects early in the year. Probably next month we 
will continue October's suggestions on reading. Mean- 
while we will be pleased to receive questions upon 
first year work from either kindergartners or primary 

*Miss Palmer's Monograph may be obtained from 
the Superintendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington, D. C, at five cents per copy. 



Jonx Y. DrxLOF, Glasgow, Scotland. 

The making of toy paper boats is always a great 
source of enjoyment to little fingers. 

For the baby room newspapers can be used freely. 

All the paper should be cut the same size before it 
is handed out to the class. 

Fig. 4 shows a double boat made from a piece of 
square paper. 

Fold into sixteen squares, open out. 

Fold each side over to meet the middle crease. Fig. 

Fold on the diagonal dotted lines, Fig. 2, taking the 
triangular part to the rear of the pattern as shown 
at Fig. 3. 



Fig. 3 is now folded backward and Fig. 4 shows the 
pattern opened out. 

A very interesting paper boat with a middle sail is 
made from a piece of square newspaper about 12 
inches square. 

Fold down the middle. Fold the inner corner to 
within one-half of an inch of the middle, turn up a 
small portion of the outer edges on each side. 

Turn in the corners. 

The pattern is now a boy's cockade. 

To proceed with the boat stretch the sides outwards 
and bring the front and back creases of the cockade 
opposite each other. Press flat. Turn up the outer 
triangular corners. 

This gives a further pattern of a hat for a boy. 

Stretch the sides of the pattern out again then bring 

the front and back opposite each other, press flat, 
turn up the lower corners. 

Catch the outer portion of the paper at the sides of 
the folded pattern stretch out and the strip is com- 

Fig. 4 shows the paper folded pattern of a ship with 
two sails. 

Fig. 5 shows the first series of folds. 

Fig. 6 shows how the lower four squares are turned 
up and the corner pressed inwards. 

The side squares are now turned backwards as 
at Fig. 7, and the triangular shaped sails as Fig. 8, 
completed with the scissors. 

Fig. 9 which is the complete model is obtained by 
folding the upper peaks of Fig. 8 at a slight angle. 

A great variety of straight line cutting lesson can 
be obtained in this lesson. 

Fig. 13 shows the model of a small sailing boat 
which was made up in various tints of paper. 

The cutting lesson are shown at Figs. 10, 11 and 12. 

Fig. 10 was cut out of a piece of brown paper. Fig. 
11 and 12 white paper. 

The patterns were then mounted on a neutral grey 
tinted card with a blue sea space. 

The body of the boat was gummed all the way over, 
but the sails were only gummed along the double line 
shown at Fig. 13. 

This allows each sail to be curved outward and 
gives the impression of action in the gummed picture. 

Fig. 14 shows a very complete picture on this simple 
lesson, all the patterns are the same, but the various 
sizes of sails should be graded to give distance to the 



A step which is likely to do much toward solving 
the half-day session problem in the lower grades 
of the public schools was decided upon by a majority 
of the 200 kindergarten teachers who attended a meet- 
ing in Cass High school, Detroit, to discuss the sub- 
ject of their undertaking five or six hours work a 
day instead of from three to four as at present. 

Some of the teachers proposed to Miss Regenia R. 
Heller, supervisor of kindergartens, that instead of 
teaching only in the mornings or afternoons, they be 
apportioned work for both periods in the school day, 
if not to conduct kindergarten classes, at least to aid 
with work in most instances owing to overcrowded 

"There was a majority of the kindergarten teachers 
in favor of accepting more work," said Miss Heller, 
"and they will probably petition Superintendent Chad- 
sey within the next week that their duties be en- 
larged . 


Miss Florence Brinkerhoff, a graduate of the Boston 
Normal School, has opened a private kindergarten at 
her home, 2G Philips street. 



(See Frontispiece) 


(Translated from the German of Friedrich Froebel.) 

By Bertha Johnston 

Motto for the Mother (Prose rendering.) 

Through the senses Nature speake plainly to the child, 

Mother, see to it that through the former he finds the 

Through the senses open the gateway of the soul, 
But it is the mind that draws this forth into the 

Through the senses the baby's soul lies revealed. 
Nurture the senses faithfully, and you may hope with 

That your baby will in the future avoid much pain 

and grief, 
Yes, that it is even preparing for itself, purity, plea- 
sure and joy. 

For, through all that Nature says to us, 
Signs of God's fatherly love are conspicuous. 
Only you must early awaken the child's mind, 
To discover the inner, through the outer. 
If your child here early anticipates such con- 
It will certainly clear the way to this goal. 
He to whom Nature's laws speak of God, 
Finds in himself the peace of God. 

Open your mouth, my baby, wide, 
Something good I'll pop inside. 
This soft plum you'll not refuse, 
Now both teeth and tongue please use: 
Say how tastes it — very good? 
Sweet, yes, sweet — you like such food. 

Next, this apple, I hold here, 
For we eat them, too, my dear. 
Pucker you, your lips, the same, 
As paper crinkling in the flame; 
Sour, yes, it tastes quite sour, 
Babykin likes sweet things more. 

Bitter though the almond be, 
Baby likes it, too, I see. 
Bitter's healthful for my baby, 
Though his mouth it pucker, maybe, 
Though my child must bitter meet, 
Yet it makes life bitter-sweet. 

But if unripe things we use, 
Pains and aches we also choose, 
Unripe things must baby shun, 
They'll bring pain to my dear one. 
So, my baby, sweet and pure, 
Won't enjoy things till mature. 


As happened with the Falling Gems, this little song 
and play is without a picture, which, however, in this 
case can be almost more easily be spared, as the 
object itself, is so bound up with life. Who does not 
know and rejoice, loving mother, that with your child, 
you carry on everything in play, and clothe in charm- 
ing play life's most important lessons, — as when teas- 
ingly, playfully, you demand, "Let me have a bite," 
or "Bite this little pear!" — "Oh, how sweet it tastes!." 

Come baby, taste this currant, 

So pretty, shining red, 
You pucker up your little mouth, 

Then — shake your little head. 
This means, a second one you'll take, 

So-- juicy, cool, your thirst to slake; 
This fruit, my baby, likes to eat, 

Though sour is mingled with the sweet. 

So you seek, mother playfully, sportively, to culti- 
vate, foster, develop, every sense, especially the sense 
of taste. And what is more important for thy child, 
than the cultivation of the senses, particularly that 
of taste, especially in its metaphysical significance? 
Who is willing to be called of "low and vulgar tastes?" 
And who does not rejoice when it can be truthfully 
said of him, "He has fine, good, pure, taste?" 

Why is it, then, that we commend particularly in 
a man the perfection of his taste? Because, through 
the taste, is manifested, revealed, the essence, as it 
were, the nature, the mind, the spirit, of a thing — 
that of the life-giving, as of the destructive. For that 
is the office and the higher significance of the senses, 
that through them is declared, revealed, to the soul, 
the nature of a thing, its soul, without its being nec- 
essary, even with the sense of taste, to take up onto 
oneself, the external, the substance itself. It is a most 
noteworthy characteristic of the senses, that through 
them, to him who has cultivated them, and then obe- 
diently followed their instructions, the nature, the 
soul of a thing, declares itself, before it can operate 
injuriously or unhealthfully, upon him, through his 
enjoyment of it; or before he need destroy it in order 
to enjoy it — just as things themselves possess in pro- 
portion, the corresponding attribute of frequently 
showing their inner nature, distinctly stamped in 
their external appearance, particularly if enjoyment 
of them works injury to health. Thus, it is known, 
that at least most of the most harmful poisonous 
plants have a dark, dull, often contracted, twisted 
appearance; even the belladonna, so beautifully 
smooth and shining, and the spurge-laurel, with its 
peach-red blossoms, shares this characteristic, as in a 
higher degree, do the deadly nightshade, and the black 
henbane. Where, however, the form conceals it, the 
odor indicates it more decidedly, in the sensations of 
disgust it awakens. And taste, indicates the nature 
of a thing, whether it is healthful or unhealthful, even 
in those cases, when a thing is wholesome to eat in 
itself, being unwholesome only when excess leads to 



indisposition; then satiety and aversion are produced, 
— as, for example, with honey. 

If then, the cultivation of the senses, as of sight, 
or particularly those of smell and taste is important, 
for avoiding much that is harmful and unwholesome, 
it is important above all, for developing and elevating 
the mind and soul, for arousing the will to activity; 
since in all Nature, the natures of things declare 
themselves, only through cohesion, matter, smell, and 
taste, as through form and appearance, magnitude and 
number, sound and color, and their endless reciprocal 
proportions and relations. 

The right and vigorous, and the early, careful culti- 
vation of the senses as a whole, is therefore, of the 
utmost importance, both during man's early years — 
his childhood — as for his later years of manhood, par- 
ticularly, when they do not, as 'with savages, stay 
quiescent upon the bodily, physical plane, but are em- 
ployed with all seriousness, in order to investigate and 
to apprehend for themselves, the nature and soul of 
things, thus manifested. This however, is possible 
only by observing, combining, and comparing their 
operations and effects. For, as the sage said, of man, 
"Speak, and I will tell you who you' are;" so man 
can recognize objects, and their inner essence, only 
through their qualities, which manifest themselves 
to the senses. And this makes the man of really good, 
and trully fine taste — that he not only understands 
this language of a thing, but is decided to action, 
stirred to deed by it — either causing its removal or 
permitting the operation of its influence. For, through 
the senses, the soul, as it were, the spiritual force of 
man is revealed, even in children. Thus, the senses, 
as it were, are a guide to the knowledge of the soul 
itself; above all, the sense of taste, in its physical, as 
in its spiritual significance. Therefore, O mother, edu- 
cate your child's sense of taste. 

Yet, by no means, is the cultivation of the senses, 
as the Taste Song, in conjunction with the Motto, 
endeavors to show — important only for recognizing 
the data for distinguishing objects into classes, their 
relations, and their interaction upon each other and 
especially upon mankind — but their cultivation is 
also^in another connection not only as important, but 
much more so. It is so with respect to determin- 
ing the degrees and stages of physical development, 
the degree of ripeness each thing has attained, espec- 
ially when applied to human life, and human rela- 
tions, and phenomena. A serene, open, steady glance 
into these, shows us that the final and certain root of 
a number of human evils, those of the individual as 
well as of the larger and smaller communities, above 
all, of family and civil life, and even of business and 
professional life, is to be found in practices inad- 
missible before maturity is attained for every stage 
of human activity, and inadmissible interference in 
the life of things, before such maturity is reached. 

Yes, thus it is, dear mother, so earnestly solicitous 
for the welfare of your children! A number of evils, 
destructive of the individual, as of the family, of 
society, as of business and professional life, have their 

certain root in this: that before a thing had reached 
maturity it was subjected to a hindering and pre- 
scriptive interference, insomuch that unripe things 
are permitted to exert their determining influence 
upon other unripe things. 

Will you then mother, secure the future good of your 
own dear ones, of each one singly, as of their future 
families, make your children, from the commencement 
of their free self-activity and their first familiarity 
with Nature's productions, observant, not only of the 
definite degrees of development from unripe to ripe, 
but, above all, of how contrary to nature in all rela- 
tions and situations in life, is the use of all that is 
unripe, and of its often destructive reaction upon life 
— both the physical, but also not less upon the spirit- 
ual and the life of society — and in your efficiency as 
a mother you will become one of the greatest bene- 
factors of the human race. 


Do you know what others think about the Montessori 

Just read this: 

"Given under any system a directress sympathetic 
and magnetic, who understands how to lead children 
in the exercise of their natural aptitude without re- 
straint or force, and the effect has just the hypnotic 
character which is described again and again, by 
Montessori, and has been noted by impartial visitors 
at the children's houses." — U. S. Bureau of Education, 
Bulletin No. 17, for 1912, page 25. 

It is further stated by high authority that while 
the process of suggestion is in operation, the mind 
of the child must be as nearly blank as possible in 
order to lessen the resistance. "The children are 
told to close their eyes; the silence becomes complete; 
the children immobile; the children become fascin- 
ated, then the sounds to be listened for are sug- 
gested .... In the end the children become 'ecstatic,' 
in other words, completely under mental control. 

"The sense education of children which produces 
fascination, ecstacy, and uncontrolled emotion, is not 
what has usually been regarded as either normal or 

Well, you can take your choice. — Western Journal 
of Education, San Francisco. 

The selling of nature materials for the benefit of the 
Alumnae Kindergarten at Greenpoint has, for the last 
two years, been so successful in meeting tho need for 
such materials in city Kindergartens, that sales are 
being held again this year. Many very beautiful con- 
tributions have been sent by members living in the 
country and may be purchased Tuesday afternoons 
at the Kindergarten House. — Students' Bulletin of 
Pratt Institute. 

Jacksonviijle, Fa. — The LaVilla Free Kindergarten 
opened for the coming term Sept. 27. Miss Margaret 
Somerville, director, will be assisted by Miss Isabelle 
Livingston and Miss Vivian Wamboldt. 



Olive Wills, Cheyenne, Wyoming. 

All life, that is, in our northern lands, are preparing 
for the long, cold winter. 

Let us first talk of the many ways of storing up 
food and fuel for use in winter. How the squirrel 
gathers the nuts, the bees their honey, and people 
fuel, grain, fruits, and vegetables — thus you see many 
good, interesting lessons can be given of the ways 
these foods are gathered and of how they are stored 
for safe keeping. The grain, how it is harvested, how 
it is stored in bins or is sent to the miller who soon 
returns it in meal and flour. 

The apples, potatoes, etc., all gathered in and stored 
for careful keeping. In the first grades an interest- 
ing series of lessons may be given by urging the 
children to bring pictures of various grains, corn, 
•wheat, rye, etc. 

Pictures of the fields before this grain is cut, then 
w^ien the corn is in the shock, the farmer taking the 
load to town, of the mill, miller and machinery. These 
pictures the children will carefully cut out and paste 
on sheets of drawing paper— here may be given excel- 
lent lessons in arrangement, spacing, placing and in 
neatness. Do not paste these pictures hit and miss, 
up and down, but orderly row for neatness. If too 
much paste is used it makes the whole stiff and 
warped, if too little paste, it comes off or the corners 
curl up. Put the paste on all projecting points and 
a little in the middle. Then lay over the pictures a 
smooth piece of print paper, rub the pasted parts 
firmly, this will keep it from showing the spots where., 
the paste is, now place under a heavy weight until 

TV A 7 

The cover for this grain booklet may be a picture 
of a hay stack, a corn shock, or a panel of a corn 
stock, arranged something as Fig. I. Tie the whole 
together with raffia or a cord, never use ribbon. 
Another booklet may be made in the same way of 

the apple gatliering. Pictures of an apple on the 
branch of the apple tree — the orchard — of men and 
boys on ladders picking the fruit or gathering that on 
the ground and placing them in barrels for shipping 
or taking tbem home to store in the cellars, perhaps 
pictures of cider mills or pictures of mother canning 
and preserving. One pretty cover for this booklet 
was made by cutting out the picture of a spray of 
apples. Cut carefully around the apple and leaves 
paste as a panel, Fig. II, then with black crayon make 


a line around every part as well as the border lines 
of the panel. Another booklet of interest would be 
of cuttings — use white print paper and cut all kinds 
of fruits and vegetables you can find in your part of 
the country. Do not paste and arrange in crayon 
made baskets nor cut the fruit of all brilliant colored 
papers, cut of white and mount on a heavy soft sur- 
faced black paper. Let our booklets be simple cut- 
tings of these studies and arranged over our page, 
orderly and neatly, not in semblance of impossible 
fruit filled baskets, where the fruit is too big for the 
basket and would certainly fall out, besides having 
our booklet part cuttings and part crayons is hardly 
pleasing. If the children have had some cuttings, 
allow them to cut a story of the apple gathering a* 
Fig. III. 




y<8 <- v 

This book cover would look well with a border of 
apples, either as Fig. IV, or with the panel across 
the top. Paste the apple cuttings on a black panel 
and paste the panel on drawing paper which will be 
the cover, tie with black raffia. 



Doka A. Monbore, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

Willie was walking home from school one day, his 
head bent slightly forward, for Willie was thinking 
very deeply. 

He had just passed the little store on the corner 
where there were all sorts of toys for little boys and 
girls to play with. There were tiny American flags 
for only a penny; and nice paper kites, too; there 
were such tempting candy soldiers; and, tops just like 
all the other boys owned. 

Only a penny! Willie could not help thinking how 
nice it would be if he had just one penny. Of course 
he could make his pockets jingle just like bis papa's 
did, because ho carried a key, some nails, and even a 
pretty silver button which shone like a dollar; but, 
among all these things there was not a single penny 
to be found, and so poor Willie could not buy the top 
or kite or the pretty American flag. 

Just then, Willie saw something shining in a crack 
in the sidewalk. He stooped down to see what it was 
and there he saw a bright copper penny which seemed 
to be smiling right at him! 

Willie smiled too. 

"Oh," he cried aloud, "this is just what I was wait- 
ing for!" 

Willie walked along happily. "Which shall I buy?" 
he wondered. "If I buy candy it will not last long 
enough. If I should buy a kite it is only good for 
windy days, so I'll buy either the top or the flag. How 
I could wave the red, white, and blue flag! But, the 
top would bo nice to spin on the pavement — how baby 
sister would laugh to hear it buzz and hum! 

Just then, "Ding! Dong!", the trolly car came along 
and Willie noticed the lady who had been walking in 
front of him. She was an old lady and she did not 
appear as though she had very much money. 

"Fares, please!" called out the conductor. 

Of course, Willie knew just what that meant, for 
his mamma had often taken Willie on the car with 

The poorly dressed old lady opened her pocket-book 
to get her money so she could pay for her ride. 

"One, two, three, four," she counted. "Oh I can't 
find the other penny," cried she. 

"She needs one more penny," thought Willie, "so she 
will have five pennies for the conductor. Perhaps 
this penny I found belongs to her." 

Poor Willie! The tears came to his eyes as he 
thought of the .American flag and the shining tin top, 
for he knew now that the penny did not belong to 

"Wait! Here's your penny!" called out little Willie. 

"Thank you! Thank you!" said the lady, and she 
smiled in such a pleasant way that Willie thought it 
was more fun to give the penny back to the poor lady 
than to buy a top or flag. 

"Tell me where you live" she said to Willie. 

Willie shouted the address as, with another "Ding! 

Ding!", off the car sped, leaving poor Willie on the 
corner all alone. 

"I'm glad I made her glad," said Willie, as he 
wistfully watched the car going out of sight. "It was 
her penny, I suppose, anyway." 

A few days latter Willie had nearly forgotten about 
the penny be had found and the old lady to whom he 
had given it. 

But one day the door bell rang, the mail carrier 
whistled, and Willie ran down in the hall to get the 

"This package is for you," said the mail carrier. 
Willie looked at all the parcel-post stamps on the 
package, and, oh, how proud he felt as he ran to his 

First they cut the cord which was bound so tightly 
about the box. 

Then they took off the paper. 

Willie could hardly wait as he lifted the lid. 

"Oh, its a real little trolly car!" said Willie, "with 
a little American flag waving over it! 

"Yes, and you can wind it up," said mamma "so it 
will go on this track." There was a large track for 
the car to run on. 

"Here is a little note." Mamma read, — "Dear little 
boy: I have not forgotten my kind little friend. I 
hope you will always be so honest and so kind to 


Willie thought a minute. Then he said, "But, 
mamma, I only did what papa calls the 'square thing,' 
—didn't I?" 

The many friends of Dr. W. N. Hailmann, long one 
of our ablest commentators on Froebel's philosophy, 
will be interested to learn of his removal to Southern 
California. Although Dr. Hailmann has reached an 
age which might entitle him to a well-earned rest yet 
rest to this veteran educator lies not in "quitting 
this busy career," but in ever greater and more sus- 
tained effort. 

The list of his lecture-courses which he sends out 
from his home in Pasadena is long and interesting 
and will be of service to all who are interested in 
modern problems of education. 

He offers his services in the discussion of the fol- 
lowing and related problems at ins : tes, teachers' 
and parents' associations, etc.: Pros and Cons of the 
Montessori Method; The Montessori Method and the 
Kindergarten; The Significance of the Kindergarten; 
Culture and Efficiency; Educational Aspect of Manual 
Training; The School and the Vocational Needs of 
Our Day; The Mission of Childhood; Play and Work; 
The Coming School; Prophets of the New Education; 
Leading Educational Problems; Educational Philoso- 
phy of Froebel; Criteria of Educational Method. — 
Kindergarten Review. 

Ladies' Catholic Club Association of Boston added a 
kindergarten to their settlement work, which was 
opened at number 1472 Washington street. 



Mary R. Jessup 


Self-activity depends upon freedom, freedom to 
think and control one's act. 

Freedom is never absolute. There is no freedom 
without limitation. The less of limitation necessary, 
the more of development. But we do not say let the 
child always do just as he pleases. 

Thinking grows out of a felt problem. The child 
may be self-active or free in the choice for finding 
his problem or he may through interest so adopt 
to make his own, the problem set up by the teacher 
that he becomes self-active in meeting it. He may be 
self-active in different ways or varying degrees. 

1. He may be free or self-active in choosing what 
to do, where to give effort, and in determining how 
to do. 

2. He may be free only in choosing what to do. 

3. He may be free only in determining how. 

4. He may, after using all his own resources or 
experience, feel a need for help to meet his problems. 
Then he may in an imitating or taking direction, still 
remain self-active. He is merely using available 
means to his end. 

The ideal thing in the kindergarten is to create 
situations out of which the child will naturally find 
an educative problem, as: possessing a doll, we need 
a bed for it to sleep in. Let's make one. Or, there 
being one teacher and twenty-five children, we must 
learn to put on our wraps and keep ourselves in order 
or else be dismissed late. 

Where the problem cannot come in this natural way, 
we aim to know child nature and our particular child- 
ren so well that we can choose and present an arti- 
ficial problem that he will at once adopt and take as 
his own. 

A problem being felt by the child, we try to leave 
him free to work it out first in his own way, giving sug- 
gestion when undecided effort becomes a waste of time 
or has come to a standstill. Help by imitation comes 
when the child realizes a need for it. Dictation is 
only for a special purpose, a recognized game of fol- 
low your leader or of workers and master workman, 
a means of learning to follow as well as to lead. 

These methods apply not to hand work alone, but 
to every part of the day's procedure. Children being 
dismissed from the building, led by a teacher on 
strict guard, are not so self-active as children being 
trusted to lead themselves with the teacher, not too 
close, watching that she may be proud of them. On 
the other hand she fails unless she puts in the sug- 
gestion day after day and uses something of imita- 

Suggestion from the teacher, if rightly given, does 
not destroy freedom. It adds to freedom because it 
adds to the child's range for thought and action. 

The Montessori materials limit the child's action 
because he can only use them in one way. They limit 
his power to think because he can't make a mistake 

with them. Without problem or choice of action there 
is no thought. 

The kindergarten has in the past dared to use 
only one set of materials in a more or less prescribed 
way but it is working toward a greater freedom, learn- 
ing to use material as means only toward an end. 
— Oklahoma School Herald. 

Dora A. Mondore, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

The child's natural inclination to tear objects apart 
may be utilized in training the visual sense. Let us 
suppose he has torn the petals from a blossom. Help 
him. to note the difference between petals and sepals. 
(Do not teach him the names of flower-parts but men- 
tion them so he becomes familiar with them.) If the 
petals are symetrically similar draw his attention to 
this. In describing the form of different parts of the 
flower, the words short, long, wide, and narrow are 
sufficiently definite for the purpose in mind. 

But what is our purpose? It is to train the child 
to distinguish between different forms and shapes, — 
to recognize at once similar and dissimilar objects. 
The child does this unconsciously through handling 
and observing small objects, just as the older person 
absorbs many small details through his subconscious 
mind while the larger more important facts are pass- 
ing through his conscious mind. The musician who 
can talk to you while playing a piano has left the 
work of her fingers to the dictates of the subconscious 
mind while her main thoughts are engaged in the 
conversation she is holding. 

It is rather annoying when writing a letter if you 
have forgotten the spelling of a word. You do not like 
to have your thoughts drawn from your subject in 
order to attend to some mechanical detail which 
should have been adjusted subconsciously. It is still 
more trying for the little "First Grader" to be ex- 
pected to distinguish aptly between letters, numbers, 
and other forms if he has not had some visual train- 
ing in the kindergarten. 

The making of block houses which require both 
sides to be constructed of the same kinds of blocks; 
games which consist of parts of a larger object to be 
united properly and consistently by the child; plays of 
this sort train the child to observe and to recognize 

This training forms a foundation for the work of 
the first grade. A word is placed before the child — 
hen, for instance. A picture of the hen is placed near 
the word. Later the word hen is found elsewhere 
without the accompanying picture. He immediately 
recognizes through his former training the similarity 
of this word to that previously observed. 

Our earliest recollections of school consist of the old 
familiar chart and those interminable a — b — c's. To- 
day the child, through phonics and the visual sense, 
simply "picks up a book and reads." By the old way 
the child learned to spell a word; then, perchance, he 
was told to divide his words in syllables— it would 
aid him in learning to spell. Today the opposite is 
true; the child learns sounds, and syllables, he puts 
them together and presto! the word appears. 



F. G. Sanders, Toronto. 
Every child loves an orange. We all remember the 
elight of saying "The earth is round like a ball or 
ii orange." 
Oranges came originally from India. From there 

hey were brought to Europe and from Spain to 

The oranges only grow in warm climates. The 
saves are bright and glossy. 

The flowers are white with a heavy, fragrant odor. 

The fruit is round, slightly flattened at the top and 
aries in color from yellow to deep orange. 

The skins of some oranges are thicker than others, 
dl over the skin are tiny holes. If we pare off a 
hin piece of skin and hold it up to the light we can 
ee the holes quite plainly. Each hole contains a tiny 
ag of oil. If we squeeze the rind between the 
ngers and taste the liquid that comes out we will 
nd it very bitter. It is the oil. Under the skin lies 
lie fruit, carefully covered with a white coat. 

The fruit can easily be broken with the fingers, 
ntil piece is by itself. Each piece is three- 

If we break the thin skin, out comes the sweet, yel- 
bw pulp, the juice, and the hard, white seeds. 

If we plant the seeds we will have little orange 
rees by and by. Lot us put an orange seed in a 

ower-pot this Fall and note how slowly it grows, 
(range groves in the South flourish because they 
|ike the heat., 

j There are many kinds of oranges, such as blood 
jranges, seedless oranges, and bitter oranges, from 
t'hich we make marmalade. 

"Smile awhile, 

And while 
You smile 

Another smiles, 
And soon 

There's miles 
And miles 

Of smiles 
Because you smile." 

'Over the river and through the woods,' 

'To grandfather's house we go.' 

'The horse knows the way, 1 

'Hurrah for the pumpkin pie." 

Miss Ida Hoyle and Miss Beryl Neilly of this city 
are making arrangements to open a kindergarten at 
Martin's Ferry, Ohio. It is expected that the Hoyle 
home at the corner of Fourth and Washington street 
will be used for the school. 





The illustration shows the new kindergarten build- 
ing just opened at St. Helen's Hall, Portland, Oregon. 
A kindergarten training school in connection with the 
regular kindergarten will be conducted here. 

Tulsa, Okl. — The public school kindergarten opened 
here Oct. 4th, at the Horace Mann school, corner of 
Twelfth and Boston. One of the finest kindergarten 
rooms in this section of the country is to be used. 
It is arranged for the special work of the kinder- 
garten, having many homelike features. A large fire- 
place is located at one end of the room and the cloak 
rooms and toilets at the other end. The rest of the 
commodious room will be used for the work circle of 
the kindergarten. 

The kindergarten is a free public school kindergar- 
ten in charge of Miss Avis Smith, director. Miss 
Smith is a graduate of the Kindergarten Institute of 
Chicago, of Northwestern University of Evanston, and 
has a supervisor's certificate from the University of 
Chicago. Miss Florence Babcock will be the assistant 
director. Miss Babcock is a graduate of the kinder- 
garten course at the Michigan State Normal school, 
Kalamazoo, Michigan. 

A new kindergarten has been opened on Park ave- 
nue at the corner of Hanover street, which is under 
the patronage of society people. The school opened 
October 4 and is progressing nicely. The Montessori 
method is being used and the little tots look very 
picturesque in their little pinafores of pink and blue, 
the girls wearing pink and the boys blue. Two New 
York kindergartners are in charge. — Bridgeport, 
(Conn.) Telegram. 

The Lackawanna free kindergarten opened for the 
fall term, Sept. 26. Miss Carolyn Bailey will be in 
charge with Miss Beryl Harrison and Miss Essie 
Bessent as assistants. 

Providence, R. I. — The Rhode Island Kindergarten 
League held its first meeting of the year in the kinder- 
garten room of the Normal school on Wednesday 
afternoon, 26 members being present. 

The chairman of the winter's work committee pre- 
sented a very attractive programme for the year. It 
will include a lecture, "The Psychology of Action," 
and a reading, the subject of which will be decided 
upon later, both to be given by Delbert Moyer Staley 
of Boston. At the regular meetings Harold Madison 
will talk to the league in November on "Winter Ani- 
mals;" in March, Miss Peterson of the Normal School 
will entertain with story telling and in April Miss Per- 
pont, Supervsor of Drawing in Bristol, will give 
several illustrations of stories for blackboard work. 

The league also voted to appoint a committee of 
three to plan a course of propagation work for the 
kindergarten cause. — Evening Tribune. 

Two years ago, the Drama League of Boston pub- 
lished a selected list of plays for amateurs. The 
edition was very soon exhausted, but there: has been a 
constant demand for it from teachers ana schools. 
A new list has just been arranged tvnd published by 
Richard J. Davis, secretary of the league. Owing to 
the difficulty in securing suitable plays for school 
performance, teachers will no doubt find the list very 
useful in selecting plays for their school work. The 
list is comprehensive, including plays specially 
adapted for colleges, high schools, settlements, inter- 
mediate and primary grades, and the kindergarten. 
Teachers may obtain copies of the list, 25c postnaid, 
by addressing Richard J. Davis, Drama League of 
Boston, 101 Tremont St., Boston, Mass. 

Kindergarten teachers were given an instructive 
and interesting lecture by Miss Mary Holy, of the 
Ohio State Commission of the Blind. Miss Holy has 
spent the last few days in Hamilton investigating 
local conditions and giving instruction in the care of 
the eyes. 




30 31 

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Mountain Range. 





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K 4 




Our work centers naturally in November around 
the harvest festival and the products of Nature which 
occasion our feeling of Thanksgiving. 

The balls may represent all kinds of fruits and vege- 
tables, as well as the bells which call us to church. 
The wool of which the balls are made may also serve 
as a text for gratitude. Whence comes it? How is 
it used besides being made into our pretty balls? 
How is it dyed? How many people are employed to 
make them? 

Of the building gifts we make the farmhouse and 
the barn; the hay-wagon and the train that bring the 
products to market. The beads may represent bar- 
rels, crates, and fruits and vegetables to load upon 
the wagon and train. We can also make fences of 
them round the farm with aid of the sticks. 

Let the children make beauty forms of the tablets, 
reminding them of the trees from which they are 

The rings can represent apples, and oranges with 
curving stems. 

Classify seeds of various kinds according to shape 
and color. Corn can be softened in water and strung 
and cranberries are very decorative when strung. 

In the Harvard Museum the wonderful glass fruits 
and flowers made by the famous Bohemian, Blaschka, 
include ears of corn, as we now know them with the 
kernels in full and perfect rows, and also examples 
of those such as were raised by the Indians, showing 
the improvement due to careful and scientific culti- 
vation and reminding us that we are grateful to man 
as well as to Nature and the Power that holds all in 
its keeping. 

In clay let the children mold fruits and flowers and 
farm animals. Paints and crayons will be in demand 
to picture fruits and flowers. 

In paper folding, fold a letter to be semt, inviting 
some person to oar Thanksgiving dinner who has 
nowhere else to go. 

In cardboard modeling make the house, barn, wa- 
gon, etc., and cut free-hand the horses, cows, sheep, 
chickens, doves, of the farm. 

Sense games may predominate now and thus accord 
with the thought of the Mother Play found in this 
number. Help the children to feel that if they have 
nothing else to be grateful for, the possession of 
sight, hearing, taste, smell and touch makes one rich 

Bear in mind Froebel's important thought, that 
power to discriminate in things pertaining to the 
senses is of real value only when it leads one to 
deed, to choose the good and repel the bad. So with 
the sense of taste, have a variety of objects illustrat- 
ing sweet, sour, bitter, ripe and unripe. Do children 

like grapefruit v/ith its slight suggestion of the bitter? 
Do they like lemonade? The difference between the 
sour of a ripe lemon and of an unripe apple. What 
happens if we do not obey our sense of taste, but eat 
too much of honey, or candy or pie? Is not such 
nausea a warning to take less another time? Are we 
manly or just foolish when we do not heed such 
results? What about using tobacco after it has given 
warning by making the smoker miserably sick? 

In every such game in which the children exercise 
the sense of taste, emphasize that ripeness and unripe- 
ness, wholesomeness and unwholesomeness, are indi- 
cated by taste or appearance and that a person of 
truly good taste never uses a thing till it is in the 
right stage for such use or till he himself has attained 
the right maturity. Is it good taste for a child to 
dress like a grown person, or a grown person like a 
child? Why have many High schools objected to the 
students forming fraternities and sororities? Because 
experience showed that the children were not suffi- 
ciently mature to derive good from them but received 
harm instead. 

Can a teacher tell from a child's physical tastes, the 
things he likes to eat, something of his moral nature? 

Hearing. We use with this sense, also, the adjective 
"sweet." What sweet sounds can we think of? Voices 
of people and of birds; musical instruments, bells, 
running water. Difference between water running in 
a brook and water running from a faucet? What 
disagreeable sounds are there that may be prevented? 
Automobile gongs, rattling wheels, roller skates, harsh 
cries of street venders, unmusical voices of children. 
Can we think of any way to do away with city noises? 

Odors. — What disagreeable odors warn us of dan- 
ger? Gas, heavy perfume of lilies when kept in small 
room. , Is it good taste to use strong perfumes on the 
handkerchief and person? They suggest uncleanli- 

Blindfold children and let them guess by taste 
and then by smell what object is held. 

How do we show good taste in dress, manners, house 
furnishing and the like? Is 'it good taste to wear full 
dress gowns to business? Is it good taste to wear a 
hat at an entertainment that obstructs another per- 
son's view? Good taste is always moderate. 

Let the children form a farm wagon of chairs, and 
then load it with baskets of fruit (First Gift balls 
which have been suspended from arms and hands of 
teacher or tall children and plucked by the little ones) 
Sweet purple plums, sweet red apples, yellow but sour 
lemons, sour greening apples, sweet and sour oranges. 

Ask children in how many languages an object can 
speak. It has the language of Taste, perhaps; or of 
Sound, Smell, Shape, Color, etc. If we eat too much 
of a sweet thing, does it show that we understand its 
language very well? Should we not try to learn the 
language of different things? Can animals under- 
stand the language of color? of taste? of smell? 



Lida May Briggs, San Francisco 

In a certain city where originated the idea of hold- 
ing a children's Pets Exhibition, two native sons, 
walking briskly on opposite sides of the street, sud- 
denly halted as a peculiar whistle penetrated the 
evening air. 

"Ike's a callin' us, comin'," querried one. 

"Wha's a doin'," parried the other as he slowly 
crossed the street. 

"Wha's a doin'," mimicked the first speaker scorn- 
fully. "Where have you been you doan' know about 
the big fight? We're alayin' for the Pike Street gang. 
We'll git 'em allright, all right. It'll be one bully 
fight. Come 'long. 

"N-O-P-E, I ain't comin'," slowly replied the boy 
who had crossed the street as he turned away from 
his companion. 

"F-R-A-I'D, ain't you," taunted the larger boy, 
"Fraid cat, Fraid cat, Fraid — " 

"Don't you dast say I'm afraid," and the smaller 
boy thrust his fists alarmingly close to his tormentors 
nose. The next moment they were unclenched and 
brought down to pat the head of the little yellow 
dog that had been jumping up frantically trying to 
lick them. The young owner's face lighted up with 
pride as he stopped to pet the little peace-maker and 

"You see it's like this. I got no time for fights 
no more. I gotta get Boze ready for the Big Show. 
He's jes' common dog an' it'll take an awful lot of 
fixin' fer him to git a prize. Come 'long and help 
me — or maybe you gotta dog o' yer own that'll take 
a ribbon if you'll jes' doll 'im up a lot. No? — then 
I'll tell you what I'll do. I'll give you a share in 
Boze if you'll help shine him up. Come 'long and 
doan't fight." And the happy possessor of a boy's 
safest companion pulled the other boy along home 
with him while he importantly explained to an eager 
listener what "points" had to be made to win a prize 
and how to put "jes" a common dog that was greatly 
beloved into the class of prize winners. 

"I know by personal experience what pets mean to 
boys," says the Hon. Julius Kalm, Congressman from 
San Francisco, "by my two boys who until recent- 
ly, have been the proud possessors of three canary 
birds and several ducks. If anything indicated that 
these pets were not well, the boys had deep and tender 
concern in seeing that they were quickly restored to 

"If boys were early taught to apply to dumb animals 
as well as to humans the sentiment attributed to the 
Quaker Preacher Grellet, 'I expect to pass through 
this world but once, if, therefore, there be any kind- 
ness I can show, or any good thing that I can do for 
any fellow being, let me do it now; let me not defer 
or neglect it as I shall not pass this way again,' it 
would help them to be kinder and nobler as they grow 
to man's estate. 

"I believe the Children's Pets Exhibition, at the 

Exposition, December 2nd and 3rd will serve a most 
excellent purpose in making young and old feel a 
responsibility for considerate treatment of the help- 
less creatures of earth." 

Full information and entry blanks of the Children's 
Pets Exhibition (for which there are no charges,) 
may be obtained by addressing Superintendet, Child- 
ren's Pets Exhibition, P. P. I. E., Department of Live 
Stock, San Francisco. 


William H. Neidlinger spoke on the subject of 
"Music" before the Public School Kindergarten As- 
sociation of New York City, on Wednesday afternoon, 
Sept. 29. He told of the association of normal breath 
control and mentality, and urged keeping children so 
as to express themselves naturally through music, and 
also to preserve spontaneity by having music normal. 
He said that the essentials in music were the instru- 
ment, breath column, articulatory apparatus, and 
resonance, by which power and beauty are brought to 
tone. He also said that the development of a proper 
"E" (that being the most common vowel sound in the 
English language) and correct breathing would pro- 
duce beautiful voices. 


New York. — Recommendations for kindergarten 
reorganization as proposed by Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, 
director of kindergartens, were discussed by the ex- 
ecutive committee of the Brooklyn Women Principals' 
Association recently and were generally approved. 
Modifications suggested were the following: 

1. While approving the closer co-ordination be- 
tween the kindergarten and 1A classes, the commit- 
tee disapproved of the proposed rotary system of co- 
ordination, whereby the head kindergartner and as- 
sistant ldndergartner could be placed in the 1A grades 
without previous experience or training in grade work. 

2. While approving of differentiation in the salary 
schedule of kindergartners, to be based upon merit, 
the committee was not prepared to approve the methods 
of qualification until more definite plans for those 
methods were indicated. 

3. The committee expressed disapproval of the 
suggestion that kindergartners obtain license No. 1 of 
the elementary schools without undergoing the same 
examinations required of other holders of that license. 

The committee also considered the question of repre- 
sentation in the suffrage parade, to be held on Oct. 
23. It was the opinion of the committee that the In- 
terests of women would be best served if the members 
of the teachers' branch of the Suffrage Association 
should join those divisions of the parade representing 
their various assembly districts. 

Miss Lewis' kindergarten opened in the Main Street 
Baptist church building, northwest corner of Main and 
Eighth streets, Sept. 27. Miss Lewis will be assisted 
by Miss Ellen Lee. 

HINTSandSUGGESTIONS for rural teachers 


HEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
*•* rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time or any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 


"God has two dwellings — one in heaven, and the 

other in a meek and thankful heart." 
"After all, the best Thanksgiving is thanks living." 
"Gratitude is the fairest blossom that springs from 

the soul." 

He who thanks but with the lips 

Thanks but in part; 
The full, the true Thanksgiving, 

Comes from the heart." 

The general topics of study, especially for morning 
exercises, during the month should be bravery, cour- 
age, unselfishness, and gratitude. 

Select a story to be told or read by some pupil each 
morning. Story of the Pilgrims. Did it not require 
great courage on the part of the Pilgrims to leave 
their homes, cross the ocean, and settle in a barren 
land inhabited only by Indians? 

Teach the poem "The Landing of the Pilgrims," by 
Felicia Hemans. 

In connection with the life of the Pilgrims study 
the pictures: — The Departure of the Mayflower, Pil- 
grims Going to Church, Landing of the Pilgrims, and 
Pilgrim Exiles. 

Thanksgiving Booklets. — Give a number of short 
selections to be studied and committed to memory. 
Let pupils select one to be used in an illustrated 
booklet. The older pupils may select the longer 
poems, and place in the book a number of illustrated 
pages, besides using on the pages with the poem fancy 
initial letters, and small illustrations. 

The younger pupils may select a single paragraph, 
illustrating the outside only and may use a card or 

Do not neglect the calendar for the month, as there 
is variety of suitable decorations for this month. 

Instead of the usual form of invitations sent to 
parents for the Thanksgiving exercises, we suggest 
that the pupils make Thanksgiving postals to be used 
for this purpose. 


The Pilgrim's home can be explained to the child- 
ren in no better way then by cutting the articles 
found in a long-ago home. 

There was no stove, but a big fireplace on one 
side of which was a big brick oven, and in front 
were the andirons and crane. Cut of light paper, 
and mount on a darker shade, outline bricks. Cut 
the old time kettle which hung from the crane when 
used in cooking. The long handled shovel, the warm- 
ing-pan, the bellows, the candlesticks, the straight 

backed chairs, the wooden cradle, the spinning wheel 
are all needed to make the scene complete. 

The outside surroundings may be represented by 
Indian tents, their canoes, bows and arrows, manner 
of cooking outside in kettle suspended from a pole, the 
hatchet, feathers, etc. 

This may be arranged in form of a poster if so 
desired . 


Beads. — Procure a few boxes of beads, either glass 
ones of various colors; or boxes of wooden ones, 
which contain cubes, balls, and cylinders. 

Color and number may be taught by the use of 
beads. Allow them to make strings, using one color 
only, then again use two of one color and two of 
another, alternating. In the use of cubes, balls, and 
cylinders, arrange on a string one cylinder followed 
by three balls, or one cube and two balls, etc. 

Fine wire may be used for stringing, and bent when 
strung into different shapes. 

Rings. — The material consists of whole, half and 
quarter rings of iron or steel, put up in boxes con- 
taining 36 whole rings, 54 half rings and 36 quarter 
rings, which may be of different si:res, 1 inch, 1% 
inch, and 2 inches in diameter. 

In preparation for the work stories may be given 
the children on mining, then of converting the metal 
into pig iron, and of moulding it into rings and many 
useful articles. Bring out the difference between 
iron and steel. 

For the first work, rule some paper in checks the 
same as diameter of the rings used. Border designs 
using whole or half rings will be easy work for begin- 
ners . 

Proceeding gradually to more complex work very 
beautiful rosettes may be made by combining whole, 
half, and quarter rings. Let the children occasion- 
ally do some original work, but generally plan the 
designs which you wish made, allowing them freedom 
in selecting material and arranging same. 

Sticks. — Stick laying is already so generally used 
that the hints here are only in combination with 
rings. Beautiful border designs may be made by use 
of colored sticks with rings. Fancy letters may be 
made by using quarter rings with smaller sticks of 
different sizes. Figures may be made in the same 

Forms of leaves, fruit, and vegetables may be repre- 
sented . 


"I'm up and down, and round about, 
Yet all the world can't find me out; 
Though hundreds have employed their leisure, 
They never yet could find my measure. 
I'm found almost in every garden, 
Nay, in the compass of a farthing. 
There's neither chariot, coach, nor mill, 
Can move an inch except I will." 

Thanksgiving Game. 

The children stand in two lines facing each other. 
They choose Winter and Thanksgiving Day, one 
om each line. 
The children in the first line sing: 

Who will ride? Who will ride, 

On Thanksgiving Day? 
Side by side, side by side, 

On Thanksgiving Day? 

The children in the second line sing: 
We will ride, we will ride, 

On Thanksgiving Day? 
Side by side, side by side, 

On Thanksgiving Day? 

The children in the two lines change places. 
Winter now runs through, between the lines say- 


'o • 

Who will come out with me, pray? 
I am looking for little Thanksgiving Day- 
Little Thanksgiving Day runs out between the 

nes saying: 

I will ride out in the sleigh, 
I am little Thanksgiving Day— 

These two children run through the lines and 
ut. The children in the lines repeat song and 
lange places as before. 

Winter and Little Thanksgiving Day now run 
irough the lines again saying: 

Who will ride out in the sleigh? 

With Winter and Little Thanksgiving Day? 

And two children may quickly follow them. 

The game continues until very few children are 
.•ft standing in the lines. 

The children in the lines may then suddenly say, 
lasping hands with those across from them: 

Tip over the sleigh, tip over the sleigh, 
Here comes Little Thanksgiving Day- 

They catch Little Thanksgiving Day on his way 
irough and the game is ended. 


Little Shoes. 

(This recitation is to be given by three little girls 
ho wear or carry shoes of blue, red and white). 


I am thankful for father and for mother, 
Thankful for little baby brother, 
Thankful for my sister, too, 
And for my little shoes of blue- 
Tell me really, wouldn't you, 
Like these little shoes of blue? 


In am thankful for father and for mother, 
Thankful for little baby brother, 
And thankful for sister, as you said, 
And for my little shoes of red- 
1 take them with me up to bed, 
My pretty little shoes of red— 

I am thankful for father and for mother, 

Thankful for little baby brother, 

Thankful for my sister, quite, 

And for my little shoes of white. 

Is it not a pretty sight? 

Shoes of blue, and red and white? 

Thanksgiving Day. 

The children sit down in chairs in a row when 
they recite the second verse of the poem and they 
go through motion of "cracking whip, etc. They 
each carry a large pasteboard letter. The letters 
spell the word "Thanksgiving." 

Thanksgiving Day has come once more, 

The sleigh is waiting by the door. 

Happy children get inside, 

For we all will have a ride. 

And wc all will sing and say, 

"Welcome, good Thanksgiving Day." 

Now, crack the whip, away we go, 

Faster, faster, over the snow. 

Keep this little thought in mind, 

To every one today, be kind. 

Sleighbells ring as on we go, 

Merry winds of winter blow. 

Going on away, away, 

We enjoy Thanksgiving Day. 

Into grandma's house we may, 

Go to spend Thanksgiving Day. 



Very happy, tucked in warm, 

The blanket keeps us safe from harm. 

In and out and round about, 

We ride away, we laugh and shout. 

Never pause, now fast, now slow, 
We will say, "Go Dobbin, go-" 

Give three cheers, we're all away, 
Hurrah, hurrah, Thanksgiving day. 






Laura Rountree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 

The children stand in line, the leader facing theta. 
The leader says, 

Clap the hands, one, two, three, 
How many fingers do you see? 

(He holds up as many fingers as he pleases from 
one or both hands. He asks any child he pleases to 
answer him. The children who answer correctly 
come over to the leader and stand by him. 

The children are soon in two lines. 

When there are only a few left in the first line the 
rest of the children clap them out. 


Laura Rountree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 

The children stand in a circle. One child holding a 
basket runs round inside the circle. The children 
sing, Tune "Little Bo-Peep. " 

Who will be first to name a fruit? 
So early in the morning, 
Who will he -first to name a fruit? 
We give you all fair warning! 

The child with the basket, hands the basket to a 
child who must name a fruit quickly or go out of the 

If he names a fruit, he runs round inside the circle 
and teh first takes his place. 

The name of the fruit must not be repeated. 

The game should be played in a lively manner. 

The basket may contain fruit or pictures of fruit if 

Doha M. Burr, Waltharu, Mass. 

I wonder how each birdie knows 

Just how to build its nest, 
A horse hair here, a brown root there, 

They know just what is best. 
It is so wonderfully made 

With strings and sticks entwined. 
And then, to make it soft inside, 

With wool or hair 'tis lined. 
I've looked and looked, and how 'tis done 

I really cannot see, 
I think that birds must know much more 

Than a little child like me. 


Doka M. Burr, 138 Myrtle St., Waltham, Mass. 

Can you shut your eyes and see 

The sunlight dancing on the sea, 

The white ships sailing far away, 

The long long beach where children play, 

And all just as it used to be, 

AVhen you were down beside the sea? 

And can you shut your eyes again, 
And just while I am counting ten, — 
Bring back the green leaves to the trees, 
The daisies nodding in the breeze, 
And overhead the summer sky 
That bent above you last July? 

We made the light bird yesterday; 
Can you see it now at play? 
Flitting, floating, in the light, 
Like some happy fairy sprite, 
It has gone, but still we find 
"We can see it, in our mind. 

The following questions involve careful study bj 
mothers of the natures of their children. They art 
printed with two thoughts in mind. 

We would be glad to have some of our mothers hell 
us and other mothers by endeavoring to answei 
thoughtfully these questions. For their convenience 
answers may be written in the blanks below and this 
sheet cut out and mailed to the Institute. 

There are mothers, perhaps, who would prefer t( 
have the Institute help them answer these questions 
Mothers who will check below the questions to whict 
they would like to receive an answer, and who will 
sign their names and place their address at th«| 
bottom, cut out this sheet and mail it to he Institute 
ill receive a prompt and, we believe, helpful reply. 

1. What shall I do with a boy who wnts to sho'K 

2. Do you advise girls of 11, 12 and 13 playing with 

3. What shall I do with my boy, who says "girls 
don't amount to anything"? 

4. Should a mother tell her child she is pretty?— 
Child Life. 

A kindergarten is provided in the new 8th Ave. 
school just opened at Omaha, Nebraska. 

Miss Walth has opened a kindergarten on Spar- 
hawk street, Amesbury Massachusetts. 




Carrie L. Wagner. 

November brings many pleasing topics in the kin- 
dergarten, and there are so many interesting things to 
be made of clay. 

Thanksgiving appeals more to the children than any 
other subject, and they will delight in making clay 
articles picturing the landing of the Pilgrims, Indian 
ife, and also familiar objects. Many vegetables may 


The new kindergarten building under course of 
construction in Elmhurst, will be completed, and the 
pupils will be able to move into their new quarters. 
Work on the building has been in progress for several 
weeks. The structure is temporary. 

The kindergarten building will become a sort of 
civic center. The commissioners have granted the 
Elmhurst club the right to meet in the schoolhouse. 




be modeled, Thanksgiving cakes, plates on which to 
eat the Thanksgiving dinner, and many other things. 
The canoes, wigwams, cabins, Indians and Pilgrims 
jare always interesting to mold. They may be painted 
and put in the sand table. The cabin is marked with 
Ipaint when dry to represent logs. 

The song "Over the River and Through the Woods" 
may be illustrated with clay modeling. Model a 
sleigh and horse; a silouette house, for grandmother's 
home; and the bridge could be made of a second gift 
box lid or heavy card board. Place these in the sand 
table and use white paper or cotton for snow. 


At a recent meeting of the club the following officers 
were elected: 

President, Mrs'. H. W. Lloyd. 

Vice president, Mrs. L. B. Mansel. 

Secretary and treasurer, Mrs. L. K. Boardman. 

Plans were discussed for an entertainment to be 
given early in November, the exact date will be an- 
nounced later. 

After the business session the usual social hour was 
enjoyed and refreshments were served. 


A Highland Soldier 
F. G. Sanders, Toronto. 

This is a picture of a Canadian soldier called a 
High-lander. Of course this is the uniform worn on 
parade, not in active service. See the grand feather 
bonnet, the sporan, and the white gaiters. It is a 
grand sight to see a Highland regiment marching, 
with their bag-pipes in front playing for them. 




Thru the generosity of a resident of California, and 
in connection with the Panama-Pacific Exposition, the 
National Education Association was able to offer a 
prize of one thousand dollars for the best essay on 
"The Essential Place of Religion in Education with 
an Outline of a Plan for Introducing Religious Teach- 
ing into the Public Schools." 

Religion was to be denned in a way not to run 
counter to the creeds of Protestant, Roman Catholic, 
or Jew. The essential points to be observed were 
"A Heavenly Father who holds nature and man alike 
in the hollow of His hand;" the commandment of 
Hillel and Jesus of Nazareth "Thou shalt love the 
Lord, thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy 
soul, and with all thy mind, and thy neighbor as 
thyself;" the high ethical teachings and spirit of 
service and sacrifice indicated in the Sermon on the 

As a result of the announcement which was made 
in December, 1914, 1381 persons representing every 
state in the Union except one entered the contest. 
The essays were limited to ten thousand words, and 
by June 1, the date of expiration of the contest, 432 
essays have been filed. Five preliminary sets of 
judges read the same before the selections were passed 
up to the final Board of Judges. This Board con- 
sisted of: 

Adelaide Steele Baylor, State Department of Educa- 
tion, Indianapolis, Ind. 

William T. Foster, President, Reed College, Port- 
land, Ore. 

Louis Grossman, Principal, Teachers Institute, He- 
brew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

John H. Phillips, Superintendent of Schools, Bir- 
mingham, Ala. 

Thomas E. Shields, Editor, Catholic Educational Re- 
view, Professor of Education, Catholic University of 
America, Washington, D. C. 

The decision of the judges awarded the prize to 
Charles E. Rugh, University of California, Berkeley, 
Cal., and gave special mention to the essays presented 

Laura H. Wild, Lake Erie College, Painesville, Ohio. 

Frances V. Frisbie, Wilkes-Barre, Pa. 

Clarence Reed, Palo Alto, Cal. 

Anna B. West, Newburyport, Mass. 

The Association will print a monograph containing 
these five essays and a synopsis of the points brought 
out by all the various writers. It will take about two 
months for an editor to examine all of the essays and 
work up such a synopsis. It is the intention to sell 
this monograph at cost. Full announcement will be 
made in the next Bulletin. The officers of the Asso- 
ciation feel that the contest has been beneficial to 
the cause of Education and believe that the mono- 
graph will be read and studied with great interest. 
Secretary N. E. A., Ann Arbor, Mich, 


If a task is once begun, 

Never leave it till it's done. 

Be the labor great or small, 
Do it well or not at all. 

At work or at play, 
In darkness or light. 

Be true, be true, 

And stick to the right. 

To do to others as. I would, 
That they should do to me, 

Will make me honest, kind and 
As children ought to be. 


Little children, you should seek, 
Rather to be good than wise, 

For the thoughts you do not speak, 
Shine out in your cheeks and eves. 

At evening, when I go to bed, 
I see the stars shine over head. 

They are the little daisies white, 
That dot the meadows of the night. 

And often, while I'm dreaming so, 
Across the sky, the moon will go, 

She is a lady, sweet and fair, 
Who comes to gather daisies there. 

All-night long the little stars blink, 
All night-long they twinkle and wink, 

All night-long when we're fast asleep, 

Through the cracks in the shutters they 
peep, peep, peep. 

Oh, look at the moon! 

She is shining up there, 
Oh, mother she looks 

Like a lamp, in the air! 
Last week she was smaller, 

And shaped like a bow, 
But now she's grown bigger 

And round, like an O. 

"Kindergartens for the Public Schools." The slogan 
of the council of Jewish Women, of Portland, Ore. 
At a meeting recently, the council adopted a resolu- 
tion favoring a taxpayers meeting to urge kinder- 
gartens in the school districts where they are 
needed. Mrs. S. M. Blumann said "Oregon is one of 
the nine states in the Union where kindergartens 
are not a part of the schools. She ranks high educa- 
tionally in all respects except this." The council 
will ask the co-operation of all the women's organi- 
zations in the state to obtain the kindergartens. 

THE KOT>fcB€UfctEN-i»BiMAfclr MAOAZttdi 



|XOTE:— Under this heading we'shall give from time to 
le such items as come to our notice relative to the estab- 
hment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
■nts in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
i le to the kindergarten cause. > 

A. new public school kindergarten has been opened 
the Abbott street school, Pautucket, R. I. 

VVatertown, Mass. — Miss Florence Binkerhoff, a 
lladuate of the Boston Normal School, has opened 
private kindergarten at her home, 26 Phillips street. 


JA kindergarten has been opened at Highland Park, 
uburb of Richmond. The attendance is very large. 

A private kindergarten has been established by 
jiss Leonilda Hicks of 25 Mt. Vernon street, Lynn, 
.iss. About 25 children of ages ranging from three 
ars to six years are enrolled. 


Miss Emma Fordyce, of Pratt Institute, New York, 
icned a private school and kindergarten Sept. 7, in 
e residence of Mrs. S. Milford Schindel, corner 
roadway and N. Potomac streets. 


A kindergarten at the Whittier school was started 
ct. 16, in response to the petition of more than 100 
others" of the district. Miss Elinore Rowett and 
iss Helen Dorr are in charge. 


Sacramento, Calif. — The new kindergarten build- 
ig under course of construction in Elmhurst, will be 
unpleted, and the pupils will be able to move into 
leir new quarters in a few days. 


Miss Rita Steyer has opened her kindergarten at 
le Stratford Springs hotel. Miss Steyer is most 
ipable of conducting such a school, as she is a 
raduate of Pestalossi Froebel Training school at Chi- 
igo. 111., and later took advantage of many lectures 
u the Montessori method. — Exchange. 


Miss Carolina A. Sibley, supervisor of public school 
indergartens, addressed the mothers of the Froebel 
chool district and teachers of the school on "The 
'.indergarten Theory —Its Value in the Home and the 
trades," at a meeting held in the kindergarten build- 
ig on the Froebel school grounds, Oct. 10. 

Miss Alice Wheeler, a teacher of the Froebel kinder- 
arten, will be in charge of a little class which will 
emonstrate some of the things talked about. 


Miss Anna W. Devereaux, head of the kindergarten 
system at Wellesley, gave a reception October 10, in 
the kindeargarten building of the college, in honor of 
Miss Ellen F. Pendleton, president of the college. 


The first meeting of the season of the Buffalo Kin- 
dergarten Union was held at the New York Telephone 
building October 14th. An interesting program was 
given, after which refreshments were served. 


The demand for the kindergarten is so great here 
that both morning and afternoon sessions are held. 
Miss Amelia K. Mudge, who has been a student in 
New York City for the past year, has returned to her 
work as a kindergartner. 


A benefit for the Woods Run Settlement Kindergar- 
ten was given in the Hotel Schenley October 22 and 23 
by the Pittsburg and Allegheny Free Kindergarten 
Association. There were readings by Mrs. Robert D. 
Gillson and music by Mr. and Mrs. Charles E. May- 
hew, Mrs. Annabel McCoy Hill and others. 


At the first fall meeting of the Savannah Kindergar- 
ten club October 14, resolutions on the death of Mayor 
Davant were adopted, expressing the club's recognition 
of his work for the interests of the children of the 
community and of the ideals which actuated him, and 
its sense of the loss to the city occasioned by his death. 
The resolutions were drawn up by Miss Orcutt and 
Miss Judge. 

The topic for the afternoon "Amusements for Little 
Children," was presented in an interesting and de- 
lightful way in a paper by Mrs. Frederic Myers. 

The sub-topic for afternoon, "Children's Playrooms 
and Playhouses," was most interestingly handled and 
presented by Mrs. A. L. Alexander. The paper covered 
the subject in an exhaustive manner and the furnish- 
ing playrooms and playhouses, the arranging of the 
other details whereby the child is given a sense of 

The Newark, (N. J.) Kindergarten Union held its 
first business meeting October 18th, in the school 
for the deaf, in Washington street, at which plans 
for the year were discussed. The plans as mapped 
out at the meeting will be completed by the executive 
committee and then published. The officers of the 
union are: President, Miss Marietta Freeland; vice- 
president, Miss Maude Cowell; recording secretary, 
Adah Belle Harris; corresponding secretary, Mabel 
Curtis, and treasurer, Elizabeth Lehibach, 



Dora A. Mondore, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

There are so many underlying principles involved 
in the selection of kindergarten devices that we may 
become confused in regard to their relative value. 

For convenience we will divide them into practical 
and impractical devices. 

When children learn to wash dishes, to sew, to 
sweep, we say they are learning something practical. 
We say "Johnny is learning a practical lesson" when 
he becomes efficient in carrying in the kindling, doing 
errands, shining his shoes and the like. Practical, 
therefore, in its common usage, is the adjective applied 
to those tasks which are essential in our daily lives. 
According to this use of the word the little three-year- 
old who has learned to sing a song or dance is not 
as proficient practically as that other three-year-old 
who has been an adept at dressing himself or tying 
his shoe-strings. 

A device may be directly or indirectly practical. 

Montessori's didactic material is directly practical, 
for by means of it the child learns at first hand to 
button, and lace clothing, as well as to perform many 
other very necessary tasks. But the seemingly aimless 
gymnastic and manual exercises given in our kinder- 
gartens are equally practical, but not directly so, in 
that through them the child is developed muscularly 
and trained to greater alertness and rapidity, these 
qualities coming into play afterward when the child is 
attempting to perform some practical task. 

More practical results may be obtained in kinder- 
garten training by teaching through real life. Let the 
children learn to button their own coats, let them 
practice pinning safety pins — wrapping packages, — 
tying and untying bows. If possible let the children 
feed and pet animals, teach them kindness to animals. 
Instead of sewing on cards, let them sew little bonnets 
or caps for their dolls; give the children an oppor- 
tunity to design the shape of their doll's hat or its 
apron. (The child should not sew very long for fear 
of tiring the eyes.) Let them learn to do by doing. 

We may feel tempted to let pictures form a sub- 
stitute for realities; notice the difference in enthus- 
iasm when you show your pupils a beautiful rose or 
simply a picture of a garden full of roses. The picture 
does not impress them so vividly. 

Certainly, during spring and fall, there should be 
afforded opportunity for the child to partake of out- 
of-door life — farm occupations if possible. During the 
winter the children can sprout beans on wet blotters, 
while a large box of soil will help to keep out the 
"deadness" of the season, bringing the children close 
to the practical side of nature study. 

When pictures are used select them as we would 
a story; choosing those that are attractive, uplifting — 
constructive rather than destructive — scenes which in- 
culcate higher ideals and love of the beautiful. 

At the Thirty-third Annual Meeting of the Connei 
ticut Valley Kindergarten Association, held at Har 
ford, an address was given by Caroline Crawford c 
Teachers' college of New York, on "The beginnin 
of dramatic art with rhythm as the characterization. 
She said that the nucleus of art development was t 
be found in the following: Rhythm, game story ant 
song, with music, literature and dancing as the basi 
for study. She emphasized knowledge of fact am 
value of life. She told of the different methods en 
ployed by the child in order to express thought, sayinij 
it was more through action because the child waf 
unable to give verbal expression to its desires. Ton J] 
and words revealed artistic action, said Miss Crawl 
ford. To piano accompaniment she demonstrated 
various steps in her theme. 

The afternoon session of the convention was helJi! 
in Center church house at 2:30 with Richard Thoraa r 
Wyche of New York, president of the national storJ] 
tellers' league of America, as the leading speaker! 
His theme was "The meaning and value of story tellfl 
ing and its place in school, home, playground, librar;fl 
and Sunday School." Mr. Wyche told what mighl 
be accomplished by acquiring individuality in tellinjl] 
stories. He said that one heard a story and attempted 
to give it for the edification of others, it was not nee"! 
essary to repeat it word for word. It would be faill 
better, he argued, to tell it in an original style wittl 
plenty of self-expression. 

He stated that any one who can tell a little anecdotf j 
well can recite a ten minute story well; any one wtu; 
can toll a ten minute story well can recite an houi 
story well; and any one capable of doing this carl 
write a story. Originality and self-expression wenfl 
the particular points which the speaker emphasized.! 
His remarks were accompanied by many humorous! 
anecdotes, old folk lore stories and many of the fa J 
mous anecdotes of George Chandler Harris. His' 
method of telling stories was superb, his instruction 
very interesting, and altogether his lecture was a rar« I 

At the business meeting of the association prior tc| 
the afternoon session these officers were elected : 
President, Miss Anna W. Bullard of Hartford; vice-: 
president, Miss Harriet E. Price of Hartford, Miss 
Caroline E. Meacham of Holyoke, Mass.; secretary,' 
Miss Lucy C. Voorhees of New Haven; auditor, Miss ! 
Nella M. Stockwell of Springfield, Mass.; executive! 
committee, Miss Lillian M. Capron of Springfield, 
Mass., Miss Harriet Sprague of Hartford, Miss Anna 
T. Shaw of Springfield, Mass., Miss Clara Lewis of 
Springfield, Mass. 

Miss Gertrude Campbell has opened a kindergarten 
in Wheeling, West Virginia. 

Miama, Fla. — An enthusiastic and interested 
coterie of women met in the kindergarten rooms of 
the Central grammar school to take up the study for 
the year. Mrs. K. C. Havens acted as leader and for 
the day, the members studied the difference in the 
Montessori and the Froebel method. The Montessoris 
conference at San Francisco was discussed. The 
convention will last until November. 



Vhen the recess bell rang in the Tottenville High 
100I Mrs. Lora M. Wagner picked up her parasol 
1 darted across the campus to the street. 
Going to see the baby?" her sister teachers smiled 

Of course," she answered, "he'll probably be asleep 
lithis hour, but I have to have a peek at him just the 
j ae." 

That teacher-mother baby whose arrival on October 
blast year started so much discussion in educational 
Jcles is now serenely started in life, equipped with a 
Staple in his chin and a curl over his left eye, just 
ie any other infant phenomenon. He weighs 
neteen pounds, his mother proudly announced yester- 
w to the interested circle of her fellow teachers, 
ley take the daily report of little Hans just as 
iularly as the attendance of their geography classes. 
Mrs. Wagner returned to her desk in March, after 
iing been suspended by the Board of Education for 
eglect of duty." She employed a nurse to watch the 
|ld during school hours, but she went home every 
tess to nurse him. Her return to school yesterday 
per answer to those critics who said she could not 
ptinue to follow two professions, teaching and 

j'Of course, I came back," she said yesterday. "I 
re my work and would not give it up unless I had to. 
;et along very well and am much better and happier 
an I would be doing housework, which I hate."— 
t'W York Tribune. 


Laura Rountree Smith. 

The children stand or skip in a circle. The Wood- 
cutter is inside the circle with a paste-board hatchet. 
The children say: 

The jolly old Woodcutter comes today, 
Away, away, away, 
Don't come in these woods of mine, 
Cut the hemlock, spruce and pine. 

The Woodcutter stops before any child and "pretends 
he will cut down a tree. The child must give the 
name of a tree as quickly as possible, or be cut down 
and go out of the game. 

The child must not name "hemlock, spruce or pine" 
but must give the name of some other tree. If he 
names any of the above three trees he is out of the 

The Woodcutter returns to his place in the centre 
of the circle and the game continues any length of 

Rochester, N. Y. — The Rochester Kindergarten As- 
ciation held its first meeting of the season Sept. 28, 

No. 10 School. Nearly 100 members were present, 
l informal social was followed by supper, which was 
rved at 6 o'clock. In the evening a programme of 
tertainment was enjoyed. Miss Mabel Green, pres- 
ent of the association, outlined plans for the coming 
ason's work at a business meeting. 

The Rhode Island Kindergarten League held its 
first meeting of the year in the kindergarten room of 
the Normal School on Wednesday afternoon, 26 mem- 
bers being present. 

The Chairman of the Winter's work committee pre- 
sented a very attractive programme for the year. 
It will include a lecture, "The Psychology of Action," 
and a reading, the subject of which will be decided 
upon later, both to be given by Delbert Moyer Staley 
of Boston. At the regular meetings Harold Madison 
will talk to the league in November on "Winter Ani- 
mals;" in March Miss Patterson of the Normal School 
will entertain with story telling and in April Miss 
Pierport, Supervisor of Drawng in Bristol, will give 
several illustrations of stories for blackboard work. 

The league also voted to appoint a committee of 
three to plan a course of propagation work. 

.rr. « • ' ' 




By Edith B. Davidson. Illuminated boards, 64 
pages, size 5%x6%. 

A beautifully illustrated little volume of special 
interest for little children. Among the stories are the 
following: "Hurrah for the Holidays;" "The Snow 
Port;" "The Danger of Disobedience;" "Paddy to the 
Rescue;" "The Choosing of the Christmas Tree;" "An 
Old Friend Appears;" "How the Christmas Tree Came 
Home;" "The Christmas Party." 

STATE OF KENTUCKY, For the year ending June 
This volume contains a vast amount, of information 

relating to educational matters in Kentucky. 


Crawford and Elizabeth Rose Fogg. Cloth 85, large 

pages. Price, $1.50. Published by A. S. Barnes 

Company, New York and Chicago. 

Contains twenty-two rhythms as follows: 

How we March A-Soldier; A Clear Frosty Morning; 

Here we Go; Going out to Play; Coming Home From 

Play; Going to Church. Reverence; Marching in 

School. Anticipation; Let's Run a Little Way; The 

Happiest Skip; Round and Round we Go; Waiting; 

A Quiet Mood; A Happy Heart; The Rocking Horse; 

How the Band Marches; Dolly Goes A- Walking; Jack- 

in-the Box; Rocking Dolly to Sleep; The Train's 

Going By; Floating Like a Feather; Butterflies-in-the- 

Garden; Birds-a-Flying; The Giants in Their Great 

Boots: The Wind's Blowing Us; The Galloping 

Horses; The Elephants go Down the Street; The 

Fairies are Dancing. 

KISINGTON TOWN, By Abbie Farwell Brown, Cloth, 
size 6%x8%. 213 pages. Price $1.25 net. Published 
by Houghton Mifflin & Company, Boston. 
The town of Kisington was besieged, and affairs 
were in a desperate state. Many strange and interest- 
ing things had happened in Kisington in days gone by 
and it suddenly occurred to the people that instead of 
surrendering to their enemy, they would send out 
Harold, who knew and loved all the ancient stories, 
and see if by reading them to Red Rex, the king of 
their enemies, he could not divert his attention. 
Harold's reading is so very entertaining that the king 
asks for more and more of it, and finally repents of 
his purpose to destroy such an interesting town. 
Boys and girls of six to twelve will find inspiration 
and delight in these merry stories of olden times by 
one of the most successful writers of children's books. 

Clara W. Hunt. Illuminated cloth, 156 pages, size 
5x7 inches. Price $1.00 net. Published by Hough- 
ton Mifflin Company, Boston, and New York. 
This wise and helpful volume tells just what books 

to read aloud to little children and just how to read 

them. Poetry, nature, and travel books, fairy ta 
Bible stories, true stories, picture books- 
branches of children's reading are covered inai 
that parents and teachers will find most help 
There is also an excellent chapter on buying the u 
sery library. Miss Hunt is the head of the childrc 
department in the Brooklyn Public Library, and i 
of the best known authorities in the country in t 
important field. 

Banta. Cloth, 128 pages. Price not given, publisl 
by A. Flanagan Co., Chicago. 

This beautifully illustrated volume shows a gr 
many illustrations. The contents are as follows: "T 
Brownies' Banquet;" "Water Sports and Adventure 
"A Trip to the Moon;" "A Pain In the Sawdusi 
"Berrying;" "The Jewels;" "The Departure of 1 

MASTERPIECES IN ART. A manual lor teach 

and students, by William C. Casey, Cloth, 

pages, size 6x9 inches. Price not given. Publish 

by A. Flanagan Company, Chicago. 

Simply stated, this manual seeks to put within ea 

reach of public school teachers and elementary i 

students a comprehensive study of masterpieces in ! 

especially adapted to the age and needs of the stude 

It is the outcome of the author's own experience as 

teacher in the elementary and high school grades a 

as a student in normal and normal and university s 



Calendar Songs 

Unison Choruses with Piano Accompaniment 

Words by 

Gertrude Leverich Knox 

Music by 

Mrs. R. R. Fornian 

75c net 



January *The Sparrow 

February My Valentine 

February *George Washington 

March March Winds 

March Travel Song 

April The Frogs 

April The Raindrop 

April The Sunbeam 

May 'May Day Song 

May Mother 

June The Daisy 

June *Good-bye to School 

July *'• Fourth of July" 

August 'Hammock Song 

September *The Dancing Leaves 

September Golden Rod and Asters 

October The Birds Flying South 

October leathering Nuts 

October The Squirrel 

November 'Hymn of Praise 

November.. ..*Pumpkins 

November *The Turkey 

December *Jolly Santa Claus 

December Wiuter Weather 

Address Orders to 


7, 8, lO & 1 1, Bible House. (Astor Placet N. Y. 

Don't send to New York for what yon can get in Detroit 




Pencil Sharpener will be 
sent at once with the pen- 
cils, all charge? prepaid. 
When the Pencils are sold 
you will be reimbursed 
and have a profit of 40c. 

It stands six inches high, is handsomely nickeled, and sells for $2.00 every- 
where. A positive guarantee accompanies each and every machine. It is 
designed and made to give years of hard usage. You and your pupils will 
hly appreciate this most excellent Pencil Sharpener. 

An Amazing Offer 

I have undertaken to create a large and unprecedented demand 
for Johann Faber's Lafayette Pencil No. 47 7 (the best 5c 
pencil made). To do this I am going to give away, absolutely 
free, thousands of New Era Pencil Sharpeners with each four 
dozen pencils. And under my plan, even the four dozen pencils 
will cost you nothing. 

ALL I ask you to do is to send for four dozen pencils. You do 
not have to send a single red cent, as I trust you implicitly. 
With these pencils we will also send you 48 announcement 
cards, which you may give to each pupil together with one of the 

These announcement cards explain to the parent that the class 
would like very much to have a New Era Pencil Sharpener, and 
that each parent can help by simply purchasing one of the pencils. 

No parent will refuse, as it is clearly a fine five-cent lead pencil and 
weli worth the money. Many parents purchase a dozen, so you 
may be able to get extra Pencil Sharpeners. 
Send me the proceeds and I will mail the machine promptly. 

This Happened Only Recently 

Stambaugh, Michigan 
September, 28th, 


Lyman A. Skinner, 

Detroit, Michigan 
Dear Sir:— 

Enclosed please find money order for two dollars and forty cents {$2.40) to cover the cost of 
the four dozen Pencils you sent me. 

I gave the children the pencils on Friday and Monday morning they came back with them all 
sold. I had told them that I had a small prize for the one who sold the most pencils. One boy sold 
12, so I gave him the small * Deposit Pencil Pointer, you sen tas a sample. He was delighted with it. 

The children are very proud to think that they earned the sharpener and of course make good 
use^of it. I have shown it to several other teachers and they are going to make use of your offer also. 

Very respectfully, {Miss) Vera Van Allen 

•The free sample Deposit Pencil Pointer, referred to above, will be included in your order also. 

Mail me a postcard today and I will do the rest, address 


At Lynn, Mass., the fol- 
lowing tentative time 
schedule for all subjects 
to be taught in the kinder- 
garten has been adopted: 

Recess, 25 minutes; 
greeting, 5 minutes; morn- 
ing talk, 15 minutes; read- 
ing (development, phonics, 
spelling, etc.), 120 min- 
utes; music, 15 minutes; 
rest and relaxation (two 
periods, 5 minutes each), 10 
minutes; literature: Story 
and readings (at least two 
new stories a day. Two or 
three periods), 15 minutes; 
games, rhythm work, sense 
training, (two or three 
periods), 15 minutes; story 
retelling, poem reciting, 
picture study, (The child's 
time to talk), 20 minutes; 
drawing and hand work, 15 
minutes; unassigned, 15 
minutes. Total 270 min- 


The babies of the kinder- 
garten schools of the city 
are studying their families 
this week. That is, the 
children are becoming 
familiar with the relation- 
ships that should exist 
between them and their 
brothers and sisters and be- 
tween them and their 
parents. The doll family is 
also being studied. The 
latter part of the week 
classes will be taken to the 
dairies to see cows milked. 
— Pittsburg, Sun. 

A kindergarten is to be 
opened at the Plymouth 
Boys' Club, Brockton, Mass. 


With a registration this fall of two hundred stu- 
dents, the National Kindergarten College, formerly 
the Chicago Kindergarten College, Chicago, has sur- 
passed any previous enrollment. It has added two 
new dormitories, having now three in all, and has 
increased its class room space considerably. 

Provision has been made in the larger classes for 
group recitation in order to keep the sympathetic 
touch between the teacher and the individual student. 
In addition to its regular session the College has 
maintained sine'e 1908, a summer session. Courses 
in both kindergarten and primary methods are given, 
and the credit applied if desired upon the work 
outlined for the regular year. The College has found 
the summer school of special value in reaching pri- 
mary grade teachers and principals who could not 
otherwise be imbued with the educational ideals of 
the kindergarten. The 1915 term was a very success- 
ful one, both from the standpoint of attendance and 


The New York Kindergarten Association, 524 West 
42nd street have engaged Miss Susan E. Blair, to de- 
liver a course of lectures relating to the above subject 
which began October 16, and will continue each Satur- 
day ending with December 4th as follows: Oct. 30, 
"Nursery Rhymes;" Nov. 6, "Fairy Stories;" Nov. 13, 
"The Frobelian Approach to Mathematics;" Nov. 
20, "The Frobelian Approach to Mathematics;" Dec. 4, 
"The Frobelian View of the Child." 

A reception for the new pupils of the Frobel 
Normal Kindergarten Training School at Bridgeport, 
was held Oct. 23. 


(No Glue or Gelatine) 
Make 50 from one examination pa- 
per, music, mapor any tiling written 
with pen, pencil, tvpewriter. No 
curled copies, no sticky substance 
on paper. Prices, $2.10 up. Booklet 
and samples free. Write 

419-420 Park Bldg., 

Pittsburg, Pa. 


'"PHIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be ab 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or moi 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though nowemployed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better schoo 


Recommends Teachers, Tutors and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 


Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Ag-enoy 

Myrick Building, Springfield, MASS 


Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and^otherj teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 

70 Fifth Avenue New York 





Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building. 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 


Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 

f/il-503 Livingston Building, Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 


We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals. Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and "Language. 




Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 



Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Steinway Hall, Chicago; Lincoln. Neb, 

Spokane. Wash. 



There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers . Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. 
W. H. JONES. Manager and Proprietor. 


We wantKindergarten. Primary, Rural 
andotherteachers for regular or special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manag-er. 



Home Occupations) 


Mothers' Meeting? 


Bertha Johnston 

Address. 389 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, N. 1, 


Kindergartners and Primary Teadia 

Are in constant demand in the South ; 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville. Teni 


Kindergarten and Primary Teache: 

exceedour supply. No charge until yo 

accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency. 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon. Mid 

iiiii i iiiiii^ m i ii ii ii 

Safes' Educational Exchaog 

Wants to hear from kindergarten 
primary teachers desiring places we» 
of Mississippi river. Write fully. Wi 
answer frankly. 

The J.D.EsigSe Teachers' Agency 


A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished W years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 


Always needed in our territory. We have placed over eleven thousand 

brainy men and women with discriminating employers. If you are 

a qualified teacher, write us immediately. No registration fee 





We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado. Oklahoma, 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas. Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outright. Our Booklet, "Mow to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 



its influence If it merelv hearsof vi 
cancies and tells TU AT la some 
you about them ■ n« ■ thln^ 
but if it is asked to recommend a^teac; 


is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C. W. BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. 


Only Competent Teachers Enrolle 





TLAY itself into the elements of an 
This new system Is adapted for home 
school training, concentrating the child mil 
on simple lessons in writing and readingsim 
taneously It lays foundations on wbi 
more advanced instruction follows easily. I 
33 CARDS, 8Kxi2 Inches, In box with iij 
structions, $2.50 by Parcel Post Prepal 

The Faulkner School, Dedham, Mas! 




Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust, at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS, Manager. 

Entered at the P. O., Manistee, Mich., as Second Class Mail Matter. 

'. cember, 1915. 


,'he kindergartner who can create a real love for 
| kindergarten in the hearts of little children has not 
:];sed her calling. 

'ourteen of the twenty-two county superintendents 
[daho are women. 

Ve wish all our friends a Merry Christmas and a 
>py, prosperous New Year. 

'he kindergarten cause is rapidly growing. The 
ntessori Educational Method which was thought 
some, might detract from the kindergarten, has 
med to have had no such effect whatever. 

The working mother is the most melancholy figure 
the working world. She not only has to leave her 
l'dren largely to the care of others, but also to spend 
life doing work for which she is hopelessly un- 
bared. — Katherine Bingham, Cleveland. 

'To deal with the needy helpfully requires a balanc- 
? of sentiment and trained sense. Adequate service 
the needy require that in considering misfortune 
i warm heart be controlled by a cool head and that 
y be a motive and not an emotion." — James F. Jack- 
i, Cleveland. 

'Christianity, if anything, is practical. It refers to 
i affairs of everyday life. It has its closest concern 
th those about us. Proper living conditions, health- 
and agreeable working conditions, adequate pay 
i reasonable hours for workers, and an equal oppor- 
lity for all men to live, to work and to play in 
olesome surroundings is a fundamental part of the 
iponsibility of the church as men now see it." — 
mes E. Cutler. 

Hie annual Christmas party of the Kindergarten 
iociation of Toledo, was held in central elementary 
lool', Nov. 23, 



That the Christmas spirit, the Christ spirit, is a 
necessity in the world is shown by the present con- 
dition in Europe. Carefully prepared figures up to 
September 1st, reveals the astounding fact that 21,- 
770,000 people are engaged in the actual business of 
fighting; 8,950,000 represented Germany, Austria, 
Turkey, and the remaining total of 12,820,000, the 
allies. In this was included the naval force of 2,108 
ships of war. At that date, 2,228,350 had been slain, 
4,837,515 wounded so seriously, as to be disabled, and 
1,750,000 men reported missing. The human mind can 
hardly grasp the depth of this calamity. Let the reader 
think of a city of 20,000 inhabitants and then con- 
sider that on the first of September the actual number 
of men killed more than equals the entire population 
of 1,114 cities of that size. This carnage has been ac- 
companied by the destruction of cities and towns, 
and vast areas of territory, starvation of men, women 
and children, spreading of disease and the accumula- 
tion of a debt that will grind the people of Europe into 
poverty for a hundred years to come. 

War annihilates practically everything material 
that the human heart can desire, and this war is 
without a really valid excuse. It would have been 
utterly impossible if the Christian spirit had prevailed. 
If the rulers had been guided by the golden rule there 
could have been no conflict. The fact stands out 
boldly that civilization without real' Christianity is a 
menace to the human race. The inhumanity of this 
war has been increased a thousand fold because of the 
intelligence of the people engaged in it. Strife leads to 
strife. Other nations are becoming involved and who 
can predict when it will end. It is indeed a dark pic- 

The Baltimore Kindergarten Club met, October 26, 
in the club-rooms, 516 Park avenue and among other 
things decided to make a secial effort to raise the full 
amount for the national Froebel monument fund and 
also to further the interest of the kindergarten 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D., New York City 

I have been reading "Christmas" by Zona Gale. 
Perhaps you know her better as author of "Friend- 
ship Village." 

If the extravagant celebrations of Christmas have 
dulled your interest in its :oys, read this touching 
story which tells of a whole village that voted one 
year to give up Christmas altogether! 

While at first thought, it really seemed a relief, the 
idea became more and more oppressive as Christmas 
drew near. And I need not tell you that a "little 
child" led the whole village back to a simple, sane, 
wholesome Christms Eve. 

So impossible it is to extinguish the spirit of play 
in childhood, that the children of this village actually 
planned a "funeral" for Santa Claus if there was to 
be no Christmas trees and no Christmas toys! but 
Santa was not dead and was not buried! Indeed, he 
proved himself very much alive that Christmas Eve! 
But I must not forecast the story, for that is not the 
way for a good kindergartner to do. 

Read the story and it will make this coming Christ- 
mas a very real one to yourself as well as to the 
children of your kindergarten if perchance, your ardor 
has waned because of all the things so hard to under- 
stand in these days: 

"Let every heart prepare Him room, 
And heaven and Nature sing." 

During the months of September, October and No- 
vember, many little hands have been growing more 
deft, and a love of "making things," has been steadily 

"What can we make for Christmas presents" will 
make one of the interesting topics of conversation 
early in the month, possibly the very first. 

When the new month is announced, some child is 
sure to say, "Christmas comes this month." Then 
many little tongues will be unloosed and "Oh! the 
babble of the Babel" — but never mind, listen to the 
various bits of information as each child gives of his 
little store of happy last year memories. 

Do not try to organize these various contributions 
the first day. Rather listen and learn from the little 
ones what impressed them, what has remained. Note 
quietly the omissions that you may supply them in 
your next conversation. 

When little tongues have exhausted themselves, say, 
quietly, "Now, go to the tables and we will all look 
lit our Christmas pictures." You are supposed to 
have a collection all ready by December upon such 
an important topic. Whatever toy picture books you 

have, which relate to Christmas, whatever mounts 
scrap pictures of Santa or Christmas trees, or soul 
scenes, or toys, bring them forth. Include Froebel! 
Toyman. See that each child has one picture i\ 
least; later quietly exchange pictures. Whisper if 
you pass about. Raise your finger as a quiet warning 
Try to induce the "quiet spell" that should follow a| 
exciting conversation. "Look at the pictures novf 
Some other day we will talk about them, — and df 
not forget to do so, telling stories of many. 

After play time- or an out-of-door romp, the childref 
return to work. Possibly now is the time to enga 
"helpers for Santa Claus." 

Show a number of very simple Christmas gifts- 
that children made last year for father, for mother c 
for you. Ask how many children would like to mak 
some little presents to give away, as well as to g<| 
presents on Christmas. 

Pass several little presents around or let the chili 
ren come to the table where they lie. Make it in 
portant that each one decides which he wants to mak 
and to whom he wants to give it. 

This is their little problem. 

Continue the interest in "making things" from da 
to day. One period at least will be needed every da 
for all the presents must be finished by the 20th i 
all probability. Begin early. Do not hurry. Do nc 
allow excitement. 

From day to day tell stories about Santa Claus, c 
all the work he has to do to get ready, and he 
pleased he is to have children help him. He likaj 
little children not to tell what they are making b<| 
cause it is pleasant to have Christmas secrets. 

Spend more time than usual in song. ChristmJ 
is the time for singing. 

Select songs after carefully examining all sonij 
books accessible. The following is a suggestive lis! 
in which you will find not only Santa himself, btj 
many of those objects that help us to image tb' 
beautiful' holiday, as "The Star," "The Bell," "Th 
Tree," "The Baby." Keep these words in mind aj 
you select your songs: 

Once a little baby lay. 

O Star of wonder. 

O, wonderful tree. 

Old Santa Claus puts on his cap. 

Jingle bells. 

Sing the songs to the children for several day: 
Ask which they like best. Which shall we lear! 
first? In these ways let the children help {n makin 
the daily program. 



Have several singing periods, none too long. Fif- 

en minutes is a long time to sing. 

Sing occasionally during a working period. In some 

ndergartens, the spirit of song is encouraged, so 

at even the children now and then feel free to sing 
they work, spontaneously. 

Singing, telling stories, looking at pictures, making 

fts, are to be the main features of your December 

Gift work will not be so prominent but there will 
\ building periods surely when Santa's chimney will 
t in evidence — possibly in some sections of the coun- 

y, a fire-place is known but in many even the chim- 

by is not well known. Pictures and stories may help 

bring these two interesting objects into existence. 

eal bricks, a dozen or so, are sometimes secured 

id the children take turns in building with them, 

hile the kindergarten blocks are also used on the 


Ask the children to build a sleigh for Santa. Ask 

lem another day to show you with the blocks what 

>y they would like to have. Then see if you can 

less what it is. 

Also have these possible presents outlined with 

icks and rings. 

Do similar work in drawing or coloring. 

In some kindergartens the Christmas decorations 
re made early in the month before the presents. 

The teacher cuts out drums, balls, trumpets, dolls, 
nd any other typical child's toy after good patterns, 
he then gives one to each child to color, giving care- 
jl directions about coloring. 

With, these colored paper toys, very attractive bor- 
ers can be arranged around the room. 

If a snow storm arrives in time, white crayon on 
ray paper should be used for snow-hills, snow balls, 
now men. These joined also decorate well. 

During this month if there should be time, cut out 
aper mittens, and have the children select the color 
hey wish to use to make them pretty. Let each child 
olor two mittens and unite them with a long piece 
f worsted. 

This gives a simple opportunity to use the needle, 
nd also to impress the best way for a child to take 
are of a pair of mittens so that mother will not have 
o buy another pair because one is lost! The children 
njoy these coloring lessons,, and the action of rubbing 
he crayon on is strengthening little hands for future 
rork in writing in the primary. The coloring insets 
f the Montessori material are favorite occupation 

Our kindergarten coloring lessons give very similar 
r ork. Coloring the camel, the reindeer, or any of the 
nimals suggested by Christmas stories would be good 
ccupation work if making presents does not fill all 
he time. Indeed, why not color all these animals, 
nd afterwards have them mounted in a scrap book 
ir a Christmas picture book. 

This could be used as a present for grandma, or 
untie, or cousin, or little sister. 

Speaking of little sister reminds me to suggest a 

possible doll house for her made in a paste-board box. 
This will give considerable constructive work for a 
few of the older kindergarten children. 

Little wagons and "puppy shows" may also be made 
in cast off paste-board boxes. I have seen biscuit 
boxes converted into trolley cars. 


If possible, secure a few twigs of evergreen before 
the tree arrives. Use them to represent trees grow- 
ing in the woods by planting them in the sand box. 
Secure a tiny ax and saw and play go to the woods 
to find a C-.ristmr.s tree to bring to the school. Play 
cut' a tree down, use a toy wagon to bring it to kin- 
dergarten, and when it arrives, set it up in the doll's 
house. This will give much pleasure, and prepare 
the way for tie big tree if it comes, or if none is to 
be expected, it will still be an excellent feature, an 
instructive one too, especially in city kindergartens 
where children know so little of trees. 

Small things look bigger to children than they do 
to us. Do not neglect a twig or two if you cannot 
secure a whole tree. Since we have learned that eyen 
an atom is a world full of revolving sub-atoms or 
electrons, we have very great respect for little things! 

Hang a few tiny decorations or toys upon the tiny 
tree in the doll's house and the children will laugh 
aloud. Try it. 


Froebel's Toyman should be re-read every year. It 
contains a good lesson on training a child to choose, 
to be content with cboosing one toy and not to want 
everything he sees in a toy store. 

The child's mind is to be prepared before he goes 
to the store. 

Playing store is always a pleasure to children. Kin- 
dergartners have invented a very happy toy store of 
living toys. Do you know of it? The usual game 
circle is the toy store. Each child decides what toy 
he will be. 

When he is called into the circle, he tries to repre- 
sent what toy he is so that the other children can 

Sometimes the kindergartner plays she is the toy- 

Half of the children are arranged as toys. The 
other half are customers and come to buy toys. 

One says, "I want a doll that walks and talks." 
The toyman says, "Here is just such a doll." 

She then pretends to wind up one of the children 
who walks off in a stiff way like a walking doll, say- 
ing "Mamma," "papa," trying to mimic a walking cjolj. 
Another customer comes to purchase a rubber ball, 

"Oh, yes, here is a fine, large rubber ball. See how 
it can bounce!" The child who represents a ball, 
springs up and down like a ball, etc., etc. 

It is a very fine game for this month. For rhythms 
various toys may be imitated by the children in uni- 
son as, the Jumping Jack, the drum, the ball, the kite, 
the swing. 



The motion of chopping down the tree, and using 
the saw may also be imitated rhythmically. 


The kindergarten stands for social life. Children 
love company. They love parties. They love visitors. 
They learn in them to be polite. 

Let us hope they enjoyed a Thanksgiving party last 
month, and will again have the pleasure of inviting 
mother and father and auntie, too, to a Christmas 
party. Let it be a simple one, the chief feature being 
the Christmas songs, a story and the toyman's game. 
Let the children then have the pleasure of handing 
their little presents to the friends they are enter- 

If the children are to receive gifts, let that come 
last as a surprise. I think a little picture book of 
animals, of children at play, or of farm scenes, most 
appropriate for children who have few or no books 
at home. Circumstances must decide the choice of 
toys. It is difficult to advise in general terms. 

In conversations during the month, try to get the 
confidence of the children, and if possible, gratify 
their hearts' desire especially in needy cases. Avoid 
fragile toys that soon disappoint and lead to destruc- 

Dishes and dolls for girls, trains and fire engines 
for boys, usually give satisfaction. 

Prepare a dainty invitation for the party, and even 
parents who cannot come, will be pleased to be thus 
remembered. Cut the invitation in the form of a bell, 
a tree, or a star, cutting double so as to write inside. 
Have the older children color the outside, using appro- 
priate colors. 

"Merry Christmas to all, 
And to all a good night." 

tribute its share to the development of civic righted! 
ness by proper training in the rights, duties, at 
privileges of citizenship. In a word, it must do all I 
can to help men to be what in their best moment 
they would like to be. — Robert J. Aley, Maine. 


One of the very difficult tasks confronting the 
educator is that of creating a larger faith in know- 
ledge. We are too prone to spend large sums of 
money in the equipment of men with knowledge and 
then in our hours of need we turn to the quack or the 
charlatan for help. When we calmly consider the 
matter, we know that in all the affairs of men, there 
are laws which, if understood and followed, would 
give definite results. In practical application, how- 
ever, we too often prefer the guess or the practice of 
some former day. To overcome successfully this lack 
of sure confidence in knowledge will demand all the 
skill and all the wisdom we can summon. It presents 
to us a man's job. We must meet it as men. 

Education in its present meaning and purpose has 
laid upon it a great responsibility. It must harmonize 
the discordant demands, and keep open the door of 
opportunity to all. 

It must help to produce better workers by giving 
them skill based upon reason. It must help to pro- 
duce a satisfied people, by instilling a sane philosophy 
of life and creating a love for the ideal. It must con- 


At the meeting of the Mother's Congress ai 
Parent-Teachers' Association, Quincy, Mass., Oct. '. 
Miss Lucy Wheelock of the Wheelock Kindergart 
school of Boston spoke on "The Kindergarten." SI 
divided her address under three headings. First: T > 
chief concern of the community is educatic 
Second: The beginning of education is most impo: 
ant. Third: The ones who know the most aboi 
education are the ones best able to judge. A go 
education enables a man to fill magnanimously ;'■ 
offices both civil and private in peace or in war. 

"There is much less appropriated for the elementa 
grades than for the higher schools, the teachers a 
paid less and the parents expect to pay less for t! ' 
education of a young child. We should emphasize til 
beginnings of education because as the child gets old' 
there is a growing chance that he will leave til 
school. The best economy of a community is 
educate its children and the earlier this education I 
begun the better. The kindergarten will do certaji 

"For instance it is the great melting pot of tl | 
nations. The attitude of the child is determined 
the kindergarten, his habits are developed, his i; 
terests determined. It teaches freedom, constructs! 
and some kind of employment. The parents who ha , 
seen what the kindergarten has done are the be' 
able to judge and they are unanimous in their endonj 

Miss Wheelock said she had been appointed cha: 
man of the committee on kindergartens in tl; 
Mothers Congress and that she was not going to 1 ( 
the grass grow under her feet until she had succeedij 
in getting a kindergarten established in every town 
the state. 


The Muncie (Ind.) Press says of a new kinderga 
ten room in that city: 

"Located north of the court house, with its sout 
frontage of glass, the large, light, airy and well-heatt 
room is most attractive all through the winter," sa 
the parents of one of the little tots who will atter 
the school this winter. "With its white lace curtain 
its ferns, plants and hanging pictures, in addition 
attractive pictures and frequent decorations made 1 
the children it attracts all who enter it. 

"Nature study, story telling, folk dancing, gam 
and simple practical handiwork are all given a pla> 
in this school. It is a school where happiness reigi 
with the children and the teachers." 

--vr- ■ 

^ — . — ^„__ = ^_-_— -,.,..,. ^ .,_, .-..-■■ r ■■■■ t 


Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

I am sure the readers of this series of articles will 
all be pleased to hear the outcome of the work in 
reading in the "connecting class" of crippled children 
to which I referred in my article last September. 

It was impossible for me to visit this class as I had 
planned several times during the term, but I have 
learned thru report that the interest of the children 
in reading never waned throughout the term. Indeed, 
when I asked Mrs. North how much time was given 
to reading, she replied, "We read all day — that is," 
she explained, "some of the children were always com- 
ing to me to hear them read." This reply means so 
much that I must attempt to elucidate it, for many 
of us, have not fully realized how much "initiative," 
"freedom," and "natural activity" may be permitted 
in teaching reading in the first year. 

Mrs. N. explained in this way: "Some children 
were at the blackboard, while others might be at the 
sand table or doing other manual work, but while 
these occupations were in progress, several would 
come with their books to read to me. Strange also 
to say, the children who were working often listened 
to the reading, tho not required to do so. One boy who 
had read ahead of the rest, would often call out from 
the distance the very right word if a child, who was 
reading, hesitated, thus showing how closely he fol- 

A feature of unusual' interest and importance is 
the drills the children gave each other. Of course 
we all know how children love to "play school." This 
feature was not only permitted, but guided in this 
little class. 

Many children, I have noticed, when they "play 
school" out of doors on the doorsteps, seem to imitate 
the most unnecessary and disagreable things they 
have seen in school, but with a little healthy guidance 
under the teacher's eye, many children develop into 
genuine little teachers. 

I was much pleased to hear of this use made of 
"play" to help in drilling both words and sounds. 

In this particular class, a set of cards, which accom- 
pany the Reader used, were handled by the children 
in testing each other. It was a very simple thing 
to hold up a card and ask a child to answer, but it 
not only was a drill on words, it gave confidence to 
the little teacher who had to decide whether the 
answer was correct. 

Slips were also prepared for use in drill and busy 
seat work. The children used such slips to construct 
short sentences and stories. 

The lines of a nursery rhyme for instance, are 

"sliced," as in the familiar game of "sliced animals," 
and the children put the "slices" together to make 
the rhyme anew. For example, suppose the child has 
the three following slips given to him in a package or 

Jack be Nimble, 

Jack be quick 

Jack jump over the candlestick. 

The child does not know which rhythm he has in 
his package, but by his memory of the chart or black- 
board work, or even one word, he finally decides and 
soon arranges the right order for the three slips, and 
reads the story. He may not remember all the words 
but gradually by this practice, all the words of the 
rhymes become more and more familiar to him. 

After a time, the slips of two rhymes may be placed 
in one package or envelope. Then the work of sorting 
out the right pieces for each rhyme becomes quite a 
task, but a very happy one. It is like a little game 
to the child. 

One of Dr. Montessori's devices described in her 
"Book of Method" is similar. It appeals also to the 
physical and dramatic activity of the child. 

Little slips are given out directing the child to per- 
form some simple act. First one and then another 
child reads silently and then does the thing directed. 
The others guess what was written on the slip. If 
the child cannot read the slip, he does not know what 
to do. So he tries very hard to read. 

Such slip might read: 

Shut the door. 

Open the box. 

Pick up two pins. 

Find a red ball. 

Jump three times. 

Swing your arms. 

Make a bow. 

Count six shells. 

Hide the blue top. 

Hide the blue top. 

The children's interest to do the thing is so great 
that it seems to facilitate the reading. 

The same slips can be exchanged until all become 
quite familiar. Then new ones must be ready. 

This play spirit is the finest and most successful 
way of "connecting" the kindergarten and first year 

Some teachers of the first year pupil's, are unde- 
cided about which method of reading to begin with, 
the word or the phonics. 

Both methods are valuable in their place. The 



phonic method is much more useful in a language 
like the Italian because there are not such dreadful 
irregularities in spelling as in English. But at the 
proper time, phonic work helps very much even in 
English. It should be used principally in the second 
and third years. 

It is generally conceded that the whole word or 
even a short sentence is desirable for beginning, and 
indeed for several months, if not for the whole of 
the first year. 

Dr. Balliet contends that very early phonic work, 
or early oral spelling, tends to make slow readers for 
life. At any rate, reading whole words and sentences 
keeps the mind of the child on the thought of what 
he is reading, and tends to make the child read for 
"content" — that is to get at the thought or story. 
This is one reason why we approve the use of nursery 
rhymes for beginners. The previous knowledge of the 
rhyme, and also its playful character, tend to keep the 
thought uppermost, and so to insure natural, expres- 
sive reading. The habit once formed of reading "to 
get the thought" persists, especially if books are se- 
lected which have interesting contents. 

Readers also should be frequently changed. In our 
best first year classes, the children now read several 
primers and a very simple story book. 

One primer is usually selected for the class to com- 
plete and several others are kept on the table where 
those children can help themselves who advance more 
rapidly than the class. In this way, initiative and 
individuality are encouraged. 

To encourage a good motive in reading, children 
are allowed to read to each other. The children who 
do the listening may tell what they remember. 

In selecting readers try to secure a variety of sub- 

Children love to read about animals. They love 
fairy stories, but they also need other subjects relat- 
ing to child life and bearing on conduct, more or 

The old-fashioned ethical readers often planted 
ideals that were never forgotten. Even some of the 
nursery rhymes are indirectly ethical in content, as 
"Little Boy Blue." 

Reading is the greatest subject for all grades. It is 
an honor and a responsibility to be called to lay the 

Personality is the most distinctive mark of char- 
acter, as it is the most effective element of influence 
upon others, and of great importance among a teach- 
er's qualifications. A teacher must, of course, have 
scholarship, must be able to impart knowledge and 
must have the knowledge to impart. He must have 
good habits and a moral character ; but the most im- 
portant of all qualifications is personality. When in 
after years, we recall our school days, it is not the les- 
sons that our teachers made us get that we most re- 
member, nor the knowledge that they imparted. It is 
what we got from their personalities, and it is for this 
that our students will remember us. 

Maintaining that personality is not a gift merely, 
not a mysterious something that defies analysis but 
rather the emanation from certain mora! qualities, 
moral j.nd moral-mental, existing in the individual 
and predominating in him, it was argued that what is 
regarded as a distinctive, if not a distinguishing per- 
sonality might not only be acquired by the teacher 
himself, but that he might well make it a part of his 
effort to aid his pupils toward the same end. 

Among the elements that might be cultivated in the 
endeavor to develop a marked personality were men- 
tioned, energy, self control, a philosophic temper, 
manner and originality. 

Continuing, Professor Taylor s-id: 

"Above all, there is personality in being one's self. 
Originality is so rare a quality that to have but a 
small measure of it is to be distinguished. It is 
almost as rare as genius. Emerson said that men 
speak tvice from their iu.pulse to once from their rea- 
son, and do they not speak ten times from their 
memories to once from their own thought. But it is 
to that ence that we all listen. If, amid a roomful you 
have really something to say, you need not raise your 
voice. The chatter will be instantly hushed. Pro- 
vided it be your own thought, you do not med 
emphasis or noise to command an audience. When 
Elihu Root rises in the Senate, the seats are full. 
When from the pulpit, the preacher launches a bolt 
forged in his own heart and brain, be it in his mildest 
tones it does not fail the mark. A borrowed platitude 
delivered with ever so loud a roar strikes the wall, 
and the congregation continues its slumbers. That 
cry in the wilderness need not have been a shout; had 
it been a whisper the whole universe would have 
listened.— Prof. J. D. Taylor, Colby College, Me. 


We find the following in the New York Mail: 

One of the best known training schools for kinder- 
garten teachers in New York is the Harrietta Melissa 
Mills School, located in the New York University 
building, Washington square. The school has the 
special co-operation of the School of Pedagogy and 
the Washington square collegiate division at Univer- 
sity Heights. The regular graduates of the school 
may matriculate in Washington Square College, with 
advanced credits leading to the degree of B. S. in 

The training course of the school is approved by 
the State Board of Regents and by this city's Board 
of Education. This means that the diploma of this 
school qualifies its graduates to take kindergarten 
examinations for positions in state and city schools. 

All candidates for admission to the training classes 
must be at least eighteen years of age and in a satis- 
factory physical condition, and have ability to play 
the piano and sing. Miss Harrietta Melissa Mills is 
the principal and Miss Elsie A. Merriman associate 

Mam Ruef Hofek, Chicago. 
Many communities are combining to rid themselves 
of the gift nuisance and the spending of much money 
on useless articles, by joining in a Community Christ- 
mas celebration. To this ail may bring their offer- 
ings, schools, churches, clubs, secular, civic, and 
sacred organizations, rendering their carols, plays and 
various exercises. The pretty custom of celebrating 
Christmas out of doors, bids fair to become permanent, 
even in our more vigorous north., and offers oppor- 
tunity for a fresh conception of the Christmas tree. 
The following program prepared for an untrimmed 
tree, may serve for suggestions for an indoor 'or an 
out-of-door celebration: 


SCENE. — A city square or park brightly lighted; a 
growing tree and shrubbery about. If a planted tree 
is not available, one can be easily substituted. A 
trumpet is heard; the Spirit of Christmas appears 
about a clump of shrubbery; he is dressed in white 
and holly berries, a sparkling wand in his hands: 

Spirit of Christmas — "Once more it pleases the 
Children of Men to evoke the Elements and the 
Spirits of the woods in the celebration of Christmas. 
Our beautiful evergreen tree, for centuries ruthlessly 
torn from the soil and set to wither in the indoor 
glare and heat of the haunts of men, may at last re- 
joice in the sparkling frost and fairy mist of its native 
forests and send its fragrance into the free air in glad 
messages of the happy Christmas time. Truly may 
our tree now be the pure symbol of that radiant life 
everlasting, which hails this night's glad birth. Hence 
I summon ye, Children of the Elements, appear — from 
your haunts in forest tree and shrub; sparkling 
Spirits of the Air, shower your glistening gems on its 
green branches; Snow Spirits, float and swirl and 
circle and softly cover each soiled spot with your 
fairy whiteness; hail Frost King, hang your crystal 
candles, and send sparkling their thousand prism 
flames; Holly berries, twine your scarlet wreath in 
shining garlands fine; Gift Fairies appear and scatter 
your choicest gifts of good deeds, the laughter and 
sweet songs of children — come all ye and join in mad 
revelry with the Children of Men about our green 
tree everlasting." 

He raises his wand and first appear a troop of 
brown, grey, green gnomes and brownies, disporting 
themselves about the tree. A brownie dance may be 
improvised. (See music below.) If tree is large 
enough they may finish by hiding under its branches, 
peeping out at the audience. The youngest boy's may 
take this part. Tbey scatter as the white frost spirits 
with their glittering wands appear, scattering hoar 
frost and dancing about. Boys from eight to ten will 

take this part. A bevy of little girls in white cotton 
flannel dresses and caps, next appear with pockets full 
of white confetti. They skip about throwing hand- 
fulls high upon the tree and join in a circling dance 
about the tree. The Holly Berries appear dressed in 
green and red with holly in their hair and twine the 
wreath. For this red ribbons may be fastened from 
the top of the tree and from ten to sixteen couples 
may encircle tree, go through the figures and then 
drop ribbons and run awny. The Gift Fairies and 
their queen, in gowns of dainty colors and tinsel 
appear. The queen somewhat taller stands raised be- 
hind some shrub and pointing her wand to tree re- 

Queen of Gift Fairies — "Well have our friends the 
Spirits of Earth, Air and Forest, restored to us our 
beautiful tree. Again as of yore it stands clad in 
sparkling splendor. O Spirits of beauty and delight, 
with what fairy giits shall we now bedeck it, that once 
more it shall stand a fit symbol of the love and happi- 
ness we celebrate this night? Hasten fairies, with 
gossamer dreams of lovliest hues; scatter sparkling 
jewels of joy and love; lavish the gold and silver of 
good deeds and fill the earth with happiness and riches 
this night for every child! Come! Come!" 

The Gift Fairies now scatter around the tree and to 
the music dance and throw festoons of many colored 
tinsels over its branches. As they finish the colored 
electric lights may be turned on when all' should join 
in a carol of joy, "Hail Old Father Xmas." At the 
close of this, a funny Santa Claus may appear: 

Santa Claus— "Well, well, children, now you have 
done it! Do you know you have put me out of my 
job? It was just about time however. You have 
kept Old Mother Santa Claus and myself and thou- 
sands of helpers so busy these last few years that we 
were just about to drop in our tracks! More and more 
and such useless things, and such extravagance — Our 
old friend the Christmas Tree was so loaded down 
that he groaned with rheumatism and backache. And 
now he will stand up straight and tall again and we 
shall' see his beautiful green branches reaching up to 
the sky, and the fresh fragrance of the forest will scent 
the air. As for Mrs. Santa and myself, we'll mend 
stockings and rub down the reindeer. Let us give 
three cheers for our old friend — cheers— and now with 
what we have saved this year on useless trash, we can 
send some good things to those poor little ones across 
the water who this year are without trees and gifts 
and worse — without fathers and mothers and homes. 
Let us sing a nice carol for them. — All sing Holy 
Night. Now to your games while I spy around and 
see if there is something in my bag for these older 
children here wh?m T haven't seen in an age before. 



(Throws bon-bons and confetti to the crowd.) All shout 
and laugh and cheer for Santa Claus. A few carol's 
may be sung at the close, and some citizen may con- 
gratulate Santa Claus on the new Christmas and with 
a few general good wishes the meeting breaks up with 
more carols or Auld Lang Sine with Christmas words. 
Trumpets and noise are now in order. 

Have a table of fancy articles suitable for unusua'. 
gifts, a table of articles of utility, cake table, grab bag 
curio table, 25c table, a table for preserves, jellies, etc 
Postcard table, postoffice with humorous letters for al' 
who apply and will pay the postage, guessing games 
and fortune telling. 

■■'■ ':'.<■■< 

iHRl5TMA5 I 





A band, victrol'a, piano and cornet make good out- 
door music. Cornet will give trumpet calls and help 
lead the singing. Brownie, Frost, Snow music can be 
found in Music for Child World, Vol'. 1, II, III, and 
other available selections. Simple dance forms are 
suggested by the music. For out-of-doors, use running 
steps, in free movement and circles, rt, It., front, 
back, etc. The wreath dance is described and music 
is given in Singing Games, Old and New. The carols 
of the School and Sunday School children will serve 
for singing. A Merry Community Christmas to you 
by the writer. 

By F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 


Emilie Poulcson 
While stars of Christmas shine, 

Lighting the skies, 
Let only loving looks 

Beam from our eyes. 
While bells of Christmas ring, 

Joyous and clear, 
Speak only happy words, 

All love and cheer. 
Give only loving gifts, 

And in love take; 
Gladden the poor and sad 

For love's dear sake. v. 



George Jesse Chandler 

There is no question but that the presence of a good, 
hriving literary society in a rural community is very 
esirable in many ways. Co-operation is the order of 
tie day in various activities of human life. Indeed, in- 
ell'ectual co-operation plays an important role too, for 
E it is true that "two heads are better than one," it is 
Iso true that a multitude of heads are still better, 
toe can derive much benefit from reading good books 
nd periodicals but to obtain the greatest degree of 
ulture and knowledge it is necessary to meet with 
ne's fellows and talk things over at public gatherings, 
n this connection, too much praise can not be be- 
towed upon the training received in a public debate, 
t is a fact that participation in a good debate upon an 
interesting theme will give the participants a ready 
ommand of language; the ability of speaking in an 
mpromptu manner; a breadth of view that will elimi- 
ate bigotry and narrowness; and, above all, the desir- 
ble mental attribute of looking at questions of human 
Hairs from all possible angles. Then, too, delivering 
rations, recitations and monologues; reading 
rigina! essays; and taking part in amateur theatri- 
als, mock trials, ciphering contests and spelling 
Hatches are of value in the work of the local literary 
ociety. The nature of a program must necessarily de- 
»end upon the varied tastes of the members. It 
nakes little difference wha't the programs may be, if 
he fund of knowledge is increased, culture is obtained 
md the ability to express one's self well and with ease 
s acquired. 

About a year ago, a group of farmers and their 
amilies in the Mimbres valley of southern New Mex- 
co realized that they needed a literary society. Ac- 
'ordingly, on a certain Friday evening in October they 
net together at the school house and organized one. 
There were eight present at this organization meeting 
md it looked that the movement would come to 
laught. But at the next meeting, there were about 
sixteen present and the outlook seemed more promis- 
ng. Officers. were elected and a program was arranged 
tor the following meeting. The officers were a presi- 
dent, a vice-president and a secretary-treasurer and 
their terms of office were for four months. From that 
Stime on, the society flourished like the famous "cedars 
of Lebanon" and the usual attendance was thirty per- 
sons. Everybody from fifteen and up, of both sexes, 
and of good character was considered as eligible to 
membership. The society has been fortunate in ob- 
taining desirable members and, barring a certain 
'measure of difference of opinion on matters of public 
policy, there has been no inharmony or hostility upon 
the part of the members to mar the prosperity of the 
organization. I have seen a good literary club com- 
pletely broken up by having two members who made 
themselves decidedly obnoxious to the other members 
by their loquacity and their complete disregard of the 
rights of their fellow-members. So, I believe that 
harmony among the members is very fortunate in a 

club devoted to the attainment of culture and know- 
ledge. In many cases, it is wise for a membership 
committee to use a certain amount of good judgment 
and discretion in admitting new members. 

From its inception up to the present time, the so- 
ciety has missed but one meeting and the failure of 
the members "to turn out" that evening was due to the 
fact that they were busy irrigating their field crops. 
Interest has always leen keen and seems at the pre- 
sent writing to be on the increase. Occasionally, 
members have been remiss in taking part in the pro- 
gram when they had been appointed by the program 
committee for various assignments. • So it was 
decided at a recent meeting to levy a small fine upon 
all who failed to participate in a program when 
appointed or to appoint a suitable substitute. I 
notice that this remedy is efficacious in bringing de- 
linquents "to time." 

The programs of the organization are varied so that 
the tastes of all the members may be suited. Some- 
times, we (I say "we" because the writer is a member 
of this club) have music. Three men who play the 
violin frequently entertain us by a display of their 
talents. A few evenings aro, a member brought his 
phonograph along and played some popular airs for 
us. At all meetings, we sing "The Red Mountain 
Booster Song." This song is so-called because "Red 
Mountain" is a well-known mountain in our locality. 
This song was coir.posed ty a young lady member and 
is sung to the tune of "Marching through Georgia." 
The singing of this song is effective in arousing local 
patriotism and loyalty among all present. In passing, 
let me say that all rural clubs of this nature would do 
well to sing some song about their particular 
localities, a stirring song that would promote loyality 
for the neighborhood and aid in eliminating the 
pernicious habit of "knocking" (I believe that all 
communities, rural or urban, have their quotas of 
knockers. ) 

Last summer, we had a mock trial that proved a 
decided success, the attendance being sixty. The 
fact that everything was free helped, perhaps, in our 
having a large attendance. The case was a breach of 
promise suit instituted by "Sally Snifflesneeze" against 
"John Gv.mdrop" for a million dollars as "a balm" for 
"wounded affections." There were ten witnesses, 
many of whom were dressed in ludicrous costumes 
and impersonated foreign characters. At times, the 
testimony was very witty and provoked much laugh- 
ter from the audience. The plot and words were 
original, having been written by a lady member of the 
club. The mock trial lasted an hour and the "judge" 
rendered a decision for the plaintiff, Miss Sally 
Snifflesneeze, fining the defendnt ten dollars. 
Getting up. this program was very little work, except 
for the originator thereof and it was a much smaller 
undertaking than rehearsing a play would have been. 
The trial was much enjoyed by all present and the 
folks decided to have another one at an early date. 

Occasionally, we have debates upon popular ques- 



tions of the day. As a rule two members each are 
appointed on the affirmative and negative sides and the 
audience participates in the general discussion. We 
have debated upon the following questions among 
many others: "Resolved: That Environment has a 
greater influence upon Character than has Heredity" 
(a threadbare theme but a good one); "Resolved: 
That Capital Punishment should be abolished in this 
country"; "Resolved: That George Washington was a 
greater man than Abraham Lincoln"; and "Re- 
solved: That the Initiative and Referendum Laws are 
desirable." After the regular speakers have de- 
bated, open discussion by all the members follows. 

As a general rule, the most entertaining kind of a 
literary program is the amateur newspaper. Every 
few months this paper is written and read aloud by 
several members. The contents comprise: a few edi- 
torials on topics of the day and current events; some 
essays; a few poems; a scientific article; and the 
local gossip and happenings. The news of the neigh- 
borhood is always written up in a humorous manner 
and large portions of it are fictitious to add to the wit. 
This part of the program is the most popular as all 
are fond of hearing jokes about one another. There 
is Bill who is laughed at for being so attentive to a 
certain maiden. Then there is Nell who trapped a 
coyote and thought she had captured a pet dog. A jest 
is made about John because his dairy cows come home 
at midnight to be milked. The writing up of this 
paper and collecting data for it always prove a valu- 
able training for these who are appointed for the 

Then every few weeks we have a big spelling bee 
and a ciphering match. These contests afford an 
opportunity for the brilliant ones to display their 
talents. The leader who gives out the words uses a 
small Webster's dictionary and endeavors to use only 
easy and common words but it is surprising how many 
words the average individual will miss. Sides with a 
leader for each division are chosen for the ciphering 
match and two persons, one from each side, go up to 
the black-board at a time to match their skill at 
figures. Adding and multiplication are used in the 

Essays, composed and read aloud by the members, 
are also used in the programs. Elocutionary training 
is afforded by giving declamations, monologues and 
recitations. One Friday evening, all the members 
gave the old-time recitations they had used in their 
school days in childhood. This innovation was quite 
interesting and entertaining. When the secretary 
calls the membership roil, the members usually re- 
spond by reciting a quotation from some author. 

The social side of the club work is not neglected. 
Occasionally, we have a party, picnic or a rabbit drive. 
As a rule, we do not need any money to carry on the 
work of the organization. But, once in a while we 
need a dollar or so to pay for oil for the lamps and 
for postage for the secretary. So, we give a box-lunch 
party to raise funds, as we have neither initiation 
fees nor monthly dues. Each lady brings a dainty 

lunch in a box. This box is sold to a gentleman wh 
takes the lady who prepared the lunch he buys as hi 
partner for the luncheon. The boxes sell for twent; 
five cents each and there is no difficulty in raising th 
desired amount of money. When the weather is pie; 
sant, we hold a jolly picnic at some convenient rancl 
On such occasions everybody enjoys himself to th 
utmost and lusty appetites make quick work of th'* 
delicious picnic dinner. Sometimes, all the men g«|! 
together and round up the rabbits that annoy thfl 
farmers so much with their depredations upon thj! 
field crops. The fields and woods are scoured by thfl 
hunters and many a bunnie's life is lost in the rounci 
up, when cluts and guns do their deadly work. O'fl 
the last drive we kih'ed fifty cotton-tails and "jacks." j 

Last spring, we voted to discuss and act upon a I 
masters of public interest and local improvements aj 
the business portion of the club's meetings. It war 
easier to get all the folks together at the societf 
meetings than it would be to call a special meeting t] 
act upon each'public project. A motion was made an] 1 
carried to have a new school house built and equippej' 
by the county school trusteed. So, a committee wal 
appointed to wait upon the trustees and present thli 
matter to them. At that time we were renting a farn ' 
house for school purposes. The location of this in 
provised school Wa6 inconvenient and its size wag ill 
adequate to the heeds of a growing school population 
So, the plans for a new building were drawn and novj 
after several months work, a first-class building ha 
made its appearance in our midst. The structur 
cost $1040, is up-to-date in every particular and i 
undoubtedly a credit to the community. School i 
now being held in the new school building an 
school attendance is increasing every week or so. 

Recently, the people of tbe neighborhood hav 
cleared and graded twenty miles of dirt road an 
much enthusiasm has been aroused in the good road 
movement. Of course, all' the farmers are not intei! 
ested in making and maintaining good public higl 
ways but enough of them are to counteract the apatb 
of the others. We see the need of having goo] 
roads and we mean to have them. If we can nq 
obtain help from the county road board, we sha 
undertake the work ourselves. 

For the past year, our rural church has not mc- 
with much success for various reasons. Recent!;] 
several ladies have solicited funds from the farmer! 
and purchased a little church organ. A local conl 
mittee has been appointed by the society to look afte 
church affairs and this group of workers is makin; 
a success out of the church. Services are held in thj 
new school house every Sabbath afternoon at threi 
On one Sunday, we have a Baptist clergyman, o 
another a Methodist and on others, a Presbyteriaj 
and a Christian. These preachers come out from on 
little village to preach and conduct services. Hov, 
ever, the Presbyterian divine is an itinerant one ani 
the major portion of his salary comes; from the mi:| 
sionary board. Our people are as ge.iaerous as thej 
can be in compensating these preachy by subsQr$j 



>ns and basket collections. We aim to make these 
urch meetings as non-sectarian as we can, as we 
lieve that the spirit of Christianity and righteous- 
ss are more important than hide-bound dogmas 
d iron-clad creeds. 

Our society has not "set the world on fire" but it 
s done quite a number of things that have uplifted 
e community. It seems to me that a literary society, 
lbodying social' features, intellectual and cultural 
velopment and the transacting of plans and busi- 
ss pertaining to public improvements, is a very 
lpful medium in effecting the rural uplift. At 
ist, our folks have found the club work instrumental 
making rural life happier and broader and in 
taining and maintaining various public improve- 
ents. I believe that all the above remarks resolve 
emsei'ves into one question: have you a thriving 
erary organization in your community? If not, 
»es it not seem to you that you and your neighbors 
ould have one? If you want to get one up, select a 
ive wire" leader, get all the people together some 
ening in the local school house and organize one. 
lect your officers and appoint your committees and 
e that they do their duties. Select a line of study 
at would be of interest to all who attend. It might 
i well to have a varied program that would suit as 
any as possible. Our society meets on the first and 
iird Friday evenings of each month. Friday is a 
mvenient time, as all of the young people who at- 
nd school can be on hand as they will' have no study- 
ig to do that evening. Twice a month is better than 
ice a month for meetings as interest will be main- 
Lined better. If you and your friends do not enjoy 
le advantages of a good literary club in your locality, 
would be a wise plan to organize one as soon as pos- 


Mrs. Eliza A. Blaker, president of the Teachers' col- 
ige of Indianapolis, presided at the meeting of the 
indergarten section. Mrs. Blaker officiated in the 
bsence of Miss Elizabeth Brewster, of Indianapolis, 
ho was out of the city. The meeting resolved itself 
lto a kindergartners' reunion, inasmuch as practi- 
llly all the women in attendance had, at one time 
r another, been associated with Mrs. Blaker in her 
ork here. 

Miss Frances M. Kelsey, of Indianapolis, expressed 
er opinions in a paper entitled, "What Does the Kin- 
argarten Contribute to the Final Efficiency of an 
idividual?" Miss Kelsey based her views on the 
sycbological phases of life as they are developed in 
le kindergarten and carried up through the elemen- 
iry grades, the high school' and the university into 
fe work. Miss Kelsey said that a child's natural in- 
ination toward certain elements of learning are the 
irect guidepost to an efficient future, and that she 
as opposed to cramming a child's brain with what, 
V nature, it was not willing to accept as valuable 

Miss Martha Criely, of Indianapolis, read a paper 
dealing with music in the kindergarten. Her subject 
was "Simplicity, the Keynote of Children's Songs." 
In her experience as a kindergarten teacher, she said 
she had found that children's musical inclinations 
ran toward songs of nature and the trades^ She 
opposed present-day popular songs as bad examples 
of what to teach the children in music. Most of the 
popular songs, she said, might have a pleasant air 
but the words, for the most part, are meaningless 
conglomerations that carry no good message. 

Illustrative of Miss Criley's idea, Mrs. Annetta Shaw 
Wysong sang a group of kindergarten songs that won 
the full appreciation of the audience. 

Miss Josephine McDowell concluded the morning 
session with a paper entitled "The Compartive Essen- 
tials of the Four Kindergarten Programs," dealing 
directly with problems that confront kindergarten 
teachers in their work. She touched on the ideas of 
Fro?bel and Madam Montessori, asserting that the 
latter's work dovetails quite successfully into the 
basic principles set forth by the founder of the kinder- 
garten, Frcebel. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: Presi- 
dent, Frances M. Kelsey, Indianapolis; vice-president, 
Mildred Dickinson, Richmond; secretary, Helen Sum- 
erlin, Evansville. The executive committee will be 
composed of Martha Criley, Indianapolis, chairman; 
Mary Sappington, Union City, and Harriet Fuller, 
Terre Haute. 

In the afternoon the kindergartners were the guests 
of the Teachers' college in celebration of Founders' 

"Dollars and Sense in Education" was discussed by 
Professor William D. Henderson, junior professor of 
physics and director of the University of Michigan ex- 
tension courses, at a public lecture in the auditorium 
of the Detroit Museum of Art No. 1. A kindergarten 
with a paid play-leader in attendance was in session 
during the lecture, that mothers with little children 
might attend. 

Miss Gertrude Odien, contralto, accompanied by 
Miss Esther Sincock appeared in two numbers, "A 
Night in the Valley," by Thomas, and "Thou'rt Like 
Unto a Flower," by Rubenstein. 

The kindergarten program at the Vermont State 
Teacher's meeting included the following: — "Plays 
and Games in the Primary Grades," Superintendent 
Florence M. Wellman, Brattleboro; "The Modern 
Kindergarten and Its Relations to the Grades," Miss 
Lillian Poor, Boston; "Story Telling," Miss Ruth Farr, 
Proctor. — Dr. Thomas A. Green. 

Mabel A. Robertson presided at the kindergarten 
section of the Bristol County association, October 30. 
Lucy Maxwell of the Perry Kindergarten Training 
School, Brookline, gave the principal address. 

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2D?onb jn fietgen, 
SBotlten rotr fo bod> bort oben 

tbrt erreicfyen ! " 
©leidj ta$ $tnbcben bet ber 9Wut- 

ter ftdjcrm 2Bort 
Stfacb ber nabcn ©cftopfe, a(g ter 

getter Drt, 
©eine SIrme jvenbet, unb toertraJ 

ertb fagt : 
(Dcnn jum 9flenb ju gefoen ibm 

gar febr bebagt) 
„£ctter bclen ! " Unb feft tear fetn 
j ©inn 
»3unt Sefud) beg SWortb'S gewenbet 





(Translated from the German of Friedrich Frcebel.) 
By -Bertha Johnston 
"Come, baby, see the pretty sight, 

The moon in the heavens, sailing so high; 
My baby call to you, moon so bright, 

Please quickly come down, from out of the 
"Oh, gladly, gladly would I come, 

But live too far, too far away, 
And from my ordered, circling path, 

I may not ever stray. 
I may not come to you, and so, 

To gladden you, dear child, 
I send my shining beams below, 

My silvery rays so mild. 
I thus can send my love, my dear, 
Tho I myself, may not come near. 
Be good, dear child, be good and true, 
From time to time I'll look for you. 
And in each month, some pleasant night, 
Will smile on you with friendly light. 
And so, tho distant, we can meet, 
And often, thus, each other greet:" 
"Good-bye, so far, so far above! 
My Moon, with love, doth answer love." — 

Abtiut this Mother Play and picture it is necessary 
to say but little. What mother or nurse does not 
know the strong attraction the sight of the moon has 
for children, so much so as to often even make them 
oblivious of pain. This expresses the attraction of our 
spirits in mature life, to the visions of the spiritual 
Light, an attraction which makes those who dwell 
therein, forgetful' of all earthly ills. 

This little song, O thoughtful nurturer of childhood, 
is just a little contribution to help you early to notice 
and early to foster, according to his needs, this truly 
significant attraction of the moon for your child. 


(Translated from the German of Friedrich Frcebel.) 

By Bertha Johnston 

Motto for the Mother (prose rendering.) 

To whatever surrounds the child, 

He loves to attribute human relationships; 

Whatever Alls his heart emotionally, 

That, is a picture of life to him. 

Parents, do not disturb this tendency of your 
child's mind, 

If, in the future, he is to heed your loving admo- 

For only through it will his activities become 
significant to him; 

Through this alone children are fitted for life, 
When they are purely and devoutly penetrated by 

the feeling, 
That, what they see throughout the universe, 

striving in silent energy, 
What they see, in all, working quietly, faithfully, 
Are the throes of one loving, creative Spirit, 
They will then look upon life, in devout unity 

Fervent love should it reflect back to them. 


One fair, lovely evening, the baby so sweet, 
Sees two great stars shining as if him to greet. 
"Oh, Father-star, Mother-star!" cries she in glee, 
And Mother thus answers her babykin wee: 
Now shall I tell you, darling, why, 
The double-stars shine in the sky. 
Towards each other they seem to reach, 
As if love drew them, each to each; 

"Peaceful, happy, noiseless, slow, 
You can see them onward go. — 
But look and see how all about, 
The crowd of little stars come out, — 
The children of the double-star, 
Their gentle beams are fainter far, 

. Yet their pale rays shine pure and bright, 
To give the darksome night some light, 
With shining beams so soft and clear, 
They imitate their parents dear. 
As shining on their way they go, 
So, smiling, should we here below, 
Thus form the stars so mild, 
A model for my child. 

The circumstances which gave rise to this picture 
and song are much the same as with the preceding 
one. (The Little Boy and the Moon, which appeared 
in another volume of The Kindergarten-Primary Mag- 
azine) oni'y here it concerns a little girl and two stars. 

The occasion was the shining in the evening and 
nocturnal sky, of two planets, simultaneously and 
close together. Who is not acquainted with the in- 
stinctive tendency, yes, the need of children, of seeing 
human relationships in all things. But to those notic- 
ing this childish utterance, it was in the highest degree 
remarkable, as no one could explain how the child 
could have come by this comparison and association 
of ideas. 

This much is certain, that it strengthens the child's 
mind and soul to nurture this impulse as long and as 
deliberately as possible, in order to invigorate and 
to develop in him the feeling expressed in the Motto: 

"It is one Spirit which lives and works for all." 

A kindergarten is to be opened in connection with 
the St. Mary's parochial school', Franklin Falls, N. 

The Lucy Wheelock Kindergarten Alumna? Associa- 
tion met for the first time this year at the Wheelock 
Training School. Rwerway, Boston, November 6th. 



By Olive Wills 

What shall we make for Christmas? 

Where can we find something new and something 
interesting for the child to make? Have we worked 
the holly, candles, and Santa Claus beyond all repeti- 
tion? To the teacher most likely the answer is, yes — 
hut do not forget it is ever new to the child in this 
grade and always interesting, tco. Here are a few 
suggestions with the hope of having some touch of 


The Calendar, Fig'.I. If you have had some cuttings 
this fall, of leaves and flowers it will not be too diffi- 
cult for the kindergartner to cut from a folded two 
inch piece of red paper, a holly leaf, open and you 
have two leaves. Cut a tiny circle for a berry, per- 
haps three of them and arrange between the two 
leaves. Considerable care must be given to the plac- 
ing and arrangement of these leaves, as well as to 
the placing of the calendar pad, not too close to the 
corners nor yet too much in the center of the card. 
This card is of heavy dark green paper, 3M>x5y2 ins. 
The outlines are in red crayon. This may be too 
difficult for the child so the teacher may help in the 

F,o. E 
A blotter, Fig. II, of the same size and same kind 
of paper has a row of Christmas trees cut of red paper 
and pasted as a border, a dark red blotter tied in with 
dark red raffia. 

I l | | | I 

I I 

Fig. Ill, a match scratcber of the dark green paper, 
candles of red on either made of the oblong of sand 

A picture frame is always pretty, particularly if 
the teacher adds to it one of the half penny pictures 
of some loved Madonna. 

Fold a square of paper on the diagonals then bring 
the corners to the center, again fold the corners back 
to touch the outer edge, put a drop of paste on the 
inside of first fold and slip picture in place. Deco- 
rate the turned back corners with holly. Of course, 
there are endless cornucopias and boxes and baskets 
always beautiful for Christmas candies. 

Then toys, how would you like to make a play horse. 

The teacher will have to outline a horse's head on 
a folded paper, the children can color this as they 
like and cut it out. Of course, color both pieces alike 
for the two sides of the head. 

Cover a long, flat stick with raffia or yarn. Place 
one end between the two heads and fasten then the 
whole just below the ears with a round headed brass 
paper fastener. Braid raffia or yarn for the harness 


and lines and fasten this round the ears and thru 
the mouth as shown in Fig. IV. 

Now let us make a box of A B C blocks. Use as 
heavy paper as the child can easily handle and fold. 
We will need six pieces. 6 inch square is a good 

It would be well to have two pieces a trifle larger 
than the others and even one of these a bit larger 
than the others. 

The largest piece is for the box cover, the other 
for the box. The four smallest squares for the blocks. 
Fold all of them into 16 squares. Always make your 
folding as interesting as possible. The first fold is 
a book, a few children may read a short story from 
their book. The next fold makes a window, four 
square panes of glass. Hold them up and see pictures 
thru our windows. The children love these imagin- 
ary pictures and stories. 

Talk about square, various lines, corners, etc., fold 
each side to the middle and with every fold count 




;he squares. Now we have Fig. V. Cut on the heavy 
,ines and fold on the light ones. Before pasting the 
oox cover, paint the four central squares with dif- 
ferent colors, put the crayon on with a smooth, even 
surface. Then with black crayon print a large letter 
Dn each square. On each side cut out a small curved 
piece so the cover may be more easily removed. Fold 
[the box in the same way. For the four blocks, fold 
the same, then cut off one row of squares. Cut, color, 

J G hi 

■ >k 


Fit. VT 

and letter these pieces as shown in Fig. VI. Then 
paste so the letters will be on all sides. You will 
find you have had some excellent lessons and that the 
little children are delighted with their Christmas 

By Claudia May Ferrin 

Mr. Red Squirrel blinked a question at Mr. Boy. The 
lad knew what must be disturbing his neighbor in the 
tree and drew away a short distance. Bunny held a 
huge hickory-nut in his mouth, bound for the knot- 
hole among the upper branches. Mr. Boy had known 
of the fellow's homestead, since first he could toddle 
about in the woods. His father had taken care to tell 
him the story. 

"Be sure -you put away enough, Mr. Squirrel!" 

The neighbor frisked and barked saucily, as if not 
at all fearful of the winter to come. 

"Never mind! I intend to save several' bushels. If 
yours are used before spring I shall divide with 

The two visited in this manner every day during 
nutting time. Mr. Red Squirrel ceased to be so timid, 
after a while. But Mr. Boy did not think it wise that 
he become too tame, as hunters might chance that 
way at any' time. Mr. Red Squirrel knew his friend 
from every other that came to the woods, however. 
He hied to his knot-hole whenever a strange voice was 
to be heard. 

By and by the" frost turned to snow and the north 
winds brought their chill over the homes of Mr. Boy 
and of Mr. Red Squirrel. Mr. Boy became busy with 
school' and skates and sled; Mr. Red Squirrel had 
nothing but his nuts to employ him. When the sun 
shone, the creature would venture out upon a near-by 
limb. Seldom did it seem that he should dare descend, 
as snow was everywhere. 

The winter proved a long one. More than three 
months of bitter cold, with the store of nuts growing 

less and less, caused Mr. Red Squirrel to gaze with 
concern toward the nearest corn-field. It was to be 
hoped a few grains still were scattered about, shat- 
tered by the men when gathering. One sunny day 
he made bold to go down. 

Mr. Boy saw him, and remembered the promise of 
nutting time. At once he went to the store-room, and 
filled a pail with the kind that were easy to crack. 
Wrapped in his muffler and overcoat he hurried to- 
ward his neighbor's tree. Mr. Red Squirrel' was glad 
indeed to hear his voice once more. 

"Come! Come," coaxed Mr. Boy. "Have one to eat 
right away. Come, now — don't be so timid!" 

But Mr. Red Squirrel could not learn so suddenly 
to take the dainties from his friend's hand, even 
with a hunger so keen. He snatched the one that was 
thrown gently toward him, and darted up the tree. 
Mr. Boy laid down a half-dozen, and drew aside to 

Mr. Red Squirrel did not stop to gnaw at the one 
he had picked up. He put it in storage, and hurried 
back. He kept at his task till all were gathered, just 
as in autumn. Mr. Boy then emptied his pail, and 
stood guard until every one had been carried to the 

"We are friends, just the same, if you won't let me 
smoothe your fur. By-by! I shall not forget you. 
We shall play nutting time quite often. 

Nothing is more significant in American life than 
the changing ideas and ideals of education. The peo- 
ple of America believe in the potency of acquired know- 
ledge and skill. They are ready and willing to make 
frequent changes in the educational program if such 
changes promise to make it easier to live efficiently 
and completely. Faith in education by our people is 
as old as the first colony planted on our shores. Under 
the wholesome environment of freedom that faith has 
been nourished and has grown to be a most vital 
factor in the life of the nation. The expenditures for 
education, freely made from public taxes and private 
wealth, are large, almost beyond belief. — Robert J. 
Aley, Maine. 


October 27th the students of the Columbia school 
kindergarten took their mothers to school with them 
and entertained them with numerous feature stunts 
that had been especially arranged for the occasion. 

After the children completed their program, the 
mothers gathered for the regular session of the Co- 
lumbia School Kindergarten Mothers' club, transacted 
business and elected officers for the ensuing year. Mrs. 
Ethel Hill was elected president; Mrs. John Harper, 
vice-president; Mrs. Charles FitzHenry, secretary and 

Miss Eva L. McConkey addressed the Worcester, 
(Mass.) County Teachers' Association Nov. 5, on Con- 
struction and Hand Work in Kindergarten and Pri- 
mary Schools. 




Carrie L. Wagner 

The most joyous of all months is December, and 
there are so many ways to picture the interesting 
topics, but most of all the children enjoy clay model- 
ing, and they will be delighted with the result of their 
work, when the clay is shaped into different toys 
which they want for Christmas. The wagon bed is 
easily made. The wheels are molded and a one inch 
stick stuck through each one, and then stuck into 

of Education, Washington, D. C. This list is made up 
of books which have proved valuable to many parents. 
Many books helpful to parents in the care and educa- 
tion of their children are not included in it. Some of 
those not included may be much better than those that 
are included. However, the list is typical and these | 
books cannot fail to be very helpful. 

The free kndcrgarten and sewing classes for girls 
under 12 years of age, opened at the People's Institute, 
Springfield, Mass., November 6. 







the wagon bed. When dry, the wheels will turn. The 
tongue is a three or four inch stick according to 
length of the wagon. 

The bell' may have a bead tied to a string, for a 
clapper, with the string fastened to a one inch stick 
and stuck through the top of the bell. The tire is 
made by rolling a ball of clay, then patting down 
thin and cut into shape. Stick a slat through while 
the clay is damp, and when dry, paint green. This 
may be stuck into a large spool, and called a Christ- 
mas tree. The rattler has a ring fastened at one end, 
and where painted, is quite realistic. The drum is 
shaped and allowed to dry; then marked with paint. 

The children may attempt the camels and the three 
wise men, the shepherds and the sheep and other diffi- 
cult objects, for they never tire of the clay. 

Believing that fathers and mothers who have 
gained experience through parenthood would welcome 
suggestions as to methods for the fullest development 
of the physical, mental and spiritual life of children, 
the Bureau of Education has prepared a list of books 
for reading and study, which will be sent upon appli- 
cation to the Home Education Division of the Bureau 

If we are true to the traditions and hopes of a free 
people, we must oppose with all the power we can 
command all forms of education that tend to limit the 
opportunity of the individual or that would fix our peo- 
ple in classes. In a government like ours, the various 
phases of education, elementary, secondary and higher, 
are but parts of one scheme. Secondary education is 
a continuation and extension of elementary education. 
It is already recognized as a necessary part of public 
education. Higher education is more education, ex-' 
tensive in some fields and intensive in others. — Robt. 
J. Aley, Maine. 

We find in the Bedford (Me.) Journal, the following 
reference to Miss Smith's address before the Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs of Maine: 

"Many of the teachers of the public school's came in 
to hear her and whatever she had time to give made 
all eager for more. Every sentence was fraught with 
meaning to the young teacher and the mother of. child- 
ren. From years of experience, Miss Smith spoke and 
it was all intensely interesting. In closing she said 
she would come back next year and finish and many 
expressed the desire that she might do so." 





("Song Without Words" — A Lins.) 

By Mary E. Cotting 

The new picture, more complex in composition than 
those already considered, may be used as a test in 
deciding whether, or not, the children are ready for 
something a little more difficult. Here as in the first 
used picture, there is the suggestion of family life 
and the sentiment expressed by one unit for another; 
also of labor as related to the upkeep of the home. 

The new thought presented is of companionship 
and sharing with those not of one's immediate family. 
This sentiment is one that it is wise to help the 
children to recognize and begin to cultivate early in 
order to avoid the formation of habits of exclusive, 
selfish living. 

Attention is attracted by saying,— Well, well! Aren't 
these children having a happy time? What do you 
suppose they're playing? O, you think it's "Snap-the- 
whip" because one child has fallen down? Does some- 
one always fall in that game? That doesn't seem like 
a kind game. These children look as if they would 
not play such a rough game. You'll notice the little 
boy must have fallen because of some fault of his 
own as he is making haste to get up so as not to lose 
any of the fun. No, I don't think they're playing 
"Snap-the-whip;" you must guess again. "Running 
away?" No. "Chasing the geese?" Do the geese 

seem afraid? It looks as if they might be pets and 
were enjoying the fun, too. Jack thinks it's the game 
where you play "march up the hill and then march 
down again." Shouldn't wonder if Jack had guessed 
right. Which way do you suppose they are marching 
now? Where are the children playing? "In the 
street." Does it look like one in the city? No; it's 
a road way off in a country town. Should you think 
it was in America? No; it's in a land across the sea, 
but children love to play over there just in the same 
way you do. When these children have gone as far 
as they wish, what will they do then? March back 
to be sure. If they're tired of this game by that time, 
what can they play? I think they'll sit down and 
play house. You see Biggest Sister has her doll to 
attend to. Guess what that doll is made of? It's just 
a bunch of straw twisted up and covered with a cloth. 
She loves it better than she does her best doll. That 
best doll is one grandfather made out of a piece of 
kindling wood. Grandmother made a dress and bonnet 
for it. -Do you see Grandfather sitting on a log just 
behind biggest sister? What is she doing? Yes, he's 
holding Baby-dear and telling her that pretty soon 
she'll be old enough to play that game. What do you 
suppose they'll do when the children go off to play 
something else? You may be thinking about it; by 
and by we will talk about it. A second exercise will 
bring out individual expression making a review of 
the first with added thought developed as follows:— 



No doubt Grandfather and Baby-dear might do some 
of the things of which you have been telling. Per- 
haps, also, they might go to watch the pigeons in the 
barn near which you can see them playing. Baby 
loves to watch them; she tries to "coo-coo" as they 
do. Sometimes they light on Grandfather's arm and 
eat out of Baby's hand. She likes the pigeons better 
than she does the hens and geese. She's just a little 
afraid of their queer talk-noises. They wouldn't hurt 
her though, would they? 

Now look way down at the back of the picture; can 
you see anything? "A cart with some people in it; 
two cows are drawing it." Those animals look like 
cows, but they're oxen. Great, strong, animals that 
can draw very heavy loads. They do not give us milk 
as cows do, they are to help us do our work as horses 
and donkeys do. 

The man who is wearing a cap is Baby's father. 
He has been away to sell a load of hay. As soon as 
the children spy him they'll hurry to climb into the 
cart so as to have a ride to the barn. Grandfather 
will put Baby in the cart, too, and walk beside it to 
keep watch over her. You know Mother "trusted her 
to his care," and he means to keep his promise "to 
take the best of care of her." 

All the children will watch Father take the oxen 
from the cart, and put them in their proper places 
in the barn after he has hung their wooden yoke on 
the pegs where it is kept. 

Then everyone will go off home to tell Mother all 
about their good times. They love to share their fun 
with Mother by telling her all that's happened. 

The artist must have known and loved well such 
a scene to so have made its charm his own that he 
has been able to make us, too, see it all and feel the 
gentle care of grandfather for the baby-dear, the creak 
of the great cart-wheels, the thud-thud of the clumsy 
animal feet and to be able to almost participate in 
the perfect abandon of childhood's joyous play. 

What true understanding of the various periods of 
human life, tender friendliness and sympathy for and 
with it all the artist has shown! 

There were 55 children who took part in the exhi- 
bition of the primary and kindergarten departments 
at Kittery, N. H. - The children did their work well 
and the exhibition was declared a success. 


I f ft. 













J is* 

•it'i "I<J Com o ' v'o "« <* iivn*, - i<* w <a > ~t 

']4*U L kri&t yy 


Susan Pi'essner Pollock, writing from Gotha, Ger- 
many, quotes the following letter, from an attache of 
the Bureau of Education, Washington, D. C: "I want 
to tell you how much we enjoy the Kindergarten-Pri- 
mary Magazine. It is a very fine magazine. — N. L." 

-Q-A-K-^vA ' 



3 Ht 1 

f" fr^' 


"fciwOtL, — Orv^J . 

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("Festival of Saint Nicholas" — Jan Steen.) 
*■ By Mary E. Cottixg. 

When a good beginning has been made upon both 
thought of and work for Christmas, place the new pic- 
ture on a line with the eyes of the children when they 
are sitting. 

The small people will be certain to ask questions 
which may be answered by saying; — We are going to 
find out about this picture some day very soon. 

Notice carefully if the complicated composition 
creates confusion in the childrens' minds, or if they 
single out and name the various persons; also notice 
whether any thought connecting the action of the pic- 
ture with that of the coming holiday is aroused. 

At the end of a week when curiosity is thoroughly 
piqued ask, — Would you like me to repeat a rhyme — ■ 
story to you? 

The affirmative answer may be followed by repeat- 
ing. Clement C. Moore's "A Visit From St. Nicholas," 
At the conclusion undoubtedly connection between the 
thought exprssed in the story and picture will' be 
made. If so, encourage the children to express them- 
selves most freely. 

If no connection is made, ask, — Does anyone see 
in this room a picture that looks as if something 
were happening in it that is in any way like anything 
you've just been hearing about? Whatever thought is 
brought out by this question may be followed by ask- 
ing, — Should you think it was the night before, or the 
morning of Christmas day in the picture? Why do 
you think so? Is all of the family here? Does the 
room look like those in our homes? By question after 
question draw attention to various members of the 
family and the gifts received by them. Compare these 

gifts with those likely to be received by the children 
who are studying the picture; also the personal appear- 
ance of the "picture people" and our own. Explain 
somewhat about the country and customs of the "pic- 
ture people." Speak of their custom of placing gifts 
in the children's wooden shoes as well' as in their 
stockings. Call attention to the big boy who doesn't 
look satisfied. Help the children discover the reason 
by directing attention to his gift which he seems dis- 
inclined to accept. Afterwards explain: — You know 
this big boy is a great .tease as many such boys are 
likely to be. He doesn't mean to be unkind; he just 
doesn't think and sometimes he makes the smaller 
children cry. Mother doesn't like that, so, as other 
mothers often do, she had a bundle of switches put 
into his shoe. When he saw what his gift was he felt 
badly, for he realized how unhappy he had made his 
mother. He's making up his mind now to be the right 
kind of a boy in future, and will hang the bundle of 
switches in his room as a reminder of his resolve. 
After a while his grandmother will bring out a pair of 
new stockings that she has knit for him and you can 
guess how pleased he will be to find that each stock- 
ing is filled with many of the things he had hoped he 
might receive. 

There's going to be a regularly jolly party in this 
house after dark night comes and the stars have 
twinkled out in the sky. All this family will sit 
around a great table and enjoy the good-smelling roast 
goose, pudding, cakes and O, dear me! I could never 
tell' you about all the delicious things there will be 
to eat. 

The children will be so sleepy before the feast is 
ended somebody will be obliged to carry them off to 
bed. I rather think they'll' have wonderful dreams, 
don't you? 

The study of the picture should make impression of 
a family happily united in celebrating and exercising 
the spirit of good will and joy that should prevail at 
this season. 

Though the picture is composed of many units, its 
simplicity of sentiment and clearly expressed action 
make of it as of many of this artist's pictures, some- 
thing attractive that may be advantageously used 
with children who are entering upon, or have not long 
enjoyed school life. 

It is a picture especially adapted for use with chil- 
dren whose religious faith does not embrace belief in 
the birth at Bethlehem. The stories told in connec- 
tion with it may be of a nature wholly un-religious 
or secular and the song for the season be that of Miss 
Poulsson's little "Santa Claus." 

"Children in the beginning are neither good nor 
bad, wicked nor righteous, truthful nor untruthful. 
They are just little bundles of impulses, and if some 
one impulse goes out in the direction we happen to 
consider right, they are little cherubs, but if it goes 
out in the direction we call wrong, they are little 
imps." — Franklyn B. Dyer, Boston. 




Myrtle Barber Carpenter. 

(A dialogue for ten children, each one carrying a 
stocking, as their verse indicates.) 

This is Grandpa's stocking, knit hy Grandma true 
Since she has grown older, she's not much to do, 
So she sits and knits and knits nearly every day, 
Though this is old fashioned, it's all wool they say. 
Grandpa 'd like some spectacles so he might better see 
•And if he had a reading glass he would delighted he. 

Grandma wants a Bible with print that's big and 

And then a new ear trumpet, so better she might hear, 
She'd like some peppermints to eat, a cushion for her 

Oh anything that you might give, she'd take and 

never care. 

I am Father's stocking, good sized, substantial, too 
A pair of slippers is what he'd like and handkerchiefs 

quite new, 
A scientific book or two which he has never read, 
And a new thermos bottle are things he'd like, he said. 

This is Mother's stocking all thin from being worn 
For she is always busy from early in the morn 
She'd like a coat and set of furs some gloves and 

Some magazines and aprons, she never would refuse. 

This is big brother's stocking, gray colored as you 

can see, 
For he's a young man that is stylish, or at least he 

tries to be. 
He'd like a pair of driving gloves, a dozen of ties and 

And I think he would like a moustache cup, or that's 

what I'd suppose. 

Big Sister's stocking of finest silk and thin as a cob- 
web sheer, 

Should be well filled with a dozer things, to a 
maiden's heart so dear. 

Boxes of Bon bons, a diamond ring, a fancy apron or 

Some silver spoons and a luncheon cloth and a book 
or two will do. 

This is Bobbie's stocking well darned at heel and toe 
For fear that he might loose the gifts from Santa 

Claus we know, 
He'd like a base ball and a bat, a punching bag and 

He'd like a hunting knife and dog, all things that 

stand for fun. 

This maid would like some roller skates, and a brace- 
let for her arm, 

A necklace made of big gold beads would have an 
added charm, 

Some ribbons and some story books, a sewing box so 

And pounds and pounds of candy, all this would be a 

This is a little girl's stocking who would like a Teddy 

And ever so many dolls you see, how many she does 

not care 
She'd like some dishes, a rocking chair, a drawing 

slate would please 
And there are maybe a thousand things, for which 

you've heard her tease. 

Claudia May Ferrin. 
The boy had built a palace wide, 

And towering high with many a dome; 
His chubby hands had set the trees 
To mark the storied landscape home. 

His blocks of color, such a treat, 
As hour by hour he planned anew 

The nooks, the parks, the pleasant drives, 
For men of state to wander through. 

And then, at last, to build an arch, 
He chose the purple from his store; 

He framed again the royal house 
To make it seem as tales of yore. 

And out the palace door there came 
A group in state with welcome cheer, 

The queen with every honor stood 
To laud the nation's new-made seer. 

A hand fell on the youngster's head, 
A kiss was planted on his cheek; 

His mother bent above the arch 
To see the hero, — ah, so meek! 

The child snatched up a ribbon bright — 
The purple scarf the queen had worn; 
. He threw it 'round his mother's neck — 
His best must needs his queen adorn. 



Myrtle Barber Carpenter. 

Denison, Iowa. 

The very best tree in all of the world 
Isn't maple or walnut or beach 
But is loaded down with the loveliest things 
That a little child can reach. 

There are shining lights on it's boughs so long 
There are tinsel wreaths you can see, 
Why the loveliest tree in all of the world 
Is the good old Christmas tree. 


119 V 


('Oh! I am so glad, I've a shilling to spend," 

Said Jessie one cold winter day; 
'And to-morrow it's Christmas, the shops are so 
And every one's happy and gay." 

"I'd like to buy father a grand walking stick, 
And for mother some gloves lined with fur, 

And as for dear baby, I think a nice ball 
Would be the best present for her." 

But Jessie was only a wee little girl, 
And a shilling meant riches to her; 

She had no idea of what it would buy 

When she thought about gloves lined with fur. 

|She was dressed like Red Riding Hood, iu a warm 
With a hood and a soft wooly muff, 
She was cosy and warm, though the snow-flakes 
fell fast, 
And the biting North wind was so rough. 

But just at that moment, she saw a sad sight. 

A little girl, just her own size, 
Stood, holding out matches, which no one would 

While the tears gathered thick in her eyes. 

And as Jessie looked at her thin tattered clothes, 
And her poor little arms bare and red, 

She forgot all the gifts she intended to buy, — 
"I'll give her my shilling," she said. 

When no one was looking, she took out the coin, 
Dropped it into the thin pleading hands, and 

Then for fear she should alter her mind, 
walked on 

Without even once looking behind. 

That night, when she sat on her dear father's 

And talked about glad Christmas Day, 
"I can't give you a present, dear daddy," she said, 

"For I've given my money away." 

When she told him about the poor sad little girl, 

Her father said, "Mother and I 
Would rather our darling was loving and kind 

Than have all the gifts money could buy." 

S. M. T. 

These toys that I have were given to me 
My dear Santa Claus on my last Christmas tree 
He knew what I wanted so don't think it shocking 
For I left him a note on the toe of my stocking. 

I am sure that all children would get everything. 

They wanted to have Mr. Santa Claus bring 

If they'd write him a note and then take the 

Of having it posted by mother or father. 

Anna Brownwell, Dunaway, Kearney, Neb. 

I'm writing a letter to Santa, 

But I'll not ask for very much, 
For papa says Santa is poorer 

This year than the very Dutch, 
And he says that he thinks its likely 

Old Santa will run into debt, 
If he tries to bring all the children 

The things they would like to get. 
So I'll just ask for a baby dolly, 
And a dear little fur and muff, 
And dishes, a locket and bracelet 

And a case with a powder puff. 
And I want a big toy piano 

And a doll bed and manicure set, 
Now if every one else asks as little, 

Dear Santa won't run into debt. 


By Rebecca Strutton. 

Arrange stage to represent a nursery, covering walls 
with sheets and crepe holly paper, or similar childish 
effects. Several small beds filled with children. May 
becomes restless, stretches, yawns, raises to elbow, 
looks about and finally discovering Santa Claus, ad- 
dresses him as follows:. 

Isn't your name Mr. Santa Claus? 

Just call me little May. 
Now sit down and please don't hurry 

'Cams there's things I've got to say. 

You see these stockings hanging, 

Well, they're not all for me 
But they do belong to children 

Whom you have come to see. 

The boy around the corner 

You know his name is Ted, 
Says if we only had some snow here 

He sure would want a sled. 

And pretty Mary Brownlee 

And her little sister Kate 
Think with just a pair between them, 

They both could learn to skate. 

Brother Walter wants a ladder, 
But I'm 'fraid he'd get a fall — 

Says he wants it just like Jacob's 
With the angels on — and all. 

I'm sure dear Mr. Santa Claus 

Our Xmas will be sweet, 
I'll shut my eyes up tight like this 

And promise not to peep. 

I'm off to slumber land now 

To sleep till broad daylight — ■ 
Goodnight! dear Mr. Santa Claus, 

Goodnight! Goodnight! Goodnight! 



By Bertha Johnston. 
No star did I see while shone the bright sun; 
It went down; then I saw one. 

One little star, shining in the blue; 
Another one joined it; that made two. 

Two shining stars, wink at you and me; 
Another hurries into view; that makes three. 

Three bright stars, glance around for more; 
Here peeps out another one; that makes four. 

Four twinkling stars, dance as tho alive; 
Then out pops another one; that makes five. 

Five sparkling stars: — such winking, blinking tricks; 
Another one comes gleaming out; that makes six. 

Six dancing stars, in the distant heaven; 
Smiling comes another one; that makes seven. 

Seven smiling stars, wink at such a rate, 

Till another one comes out; that makes eight. 

Eight glittering stars, how they beam and shine! 
There, I see another one; that makes nine. 

Nine glorious stars, smile on us and then, 
Another comes to greet them; that makes ten. 

Ten merry stars, hide behind a cloud; 
When they venture out again, they find they're in a 

For ten twinkling stars, 

By thousands multiply, 

You'll find you've spangled o'er with lights, 

The distant winter sky. 

Directions for dramatization — Cut out small gold or 
silver stars, and attach one to each of the children. 
Choose ten of these to represent special stars as sug- 
gested in the verses. Let the teacher rcite the lines, 
and as each new number is mentioned a child steps 
forward till ten are in a row. At the words "hid be- 
hind a cloud" they may each turn their backs so as to 
conceal the stars they are wearing, or they may be 
hidden by a white curtain to represent a cloud. Mean- 
while all the other children step forward so that when 
the ten stars reappear they find themselves joined by 
a large number of their fellows. The children may 
dance or skip into their places or otherwise try to 
express the twinkling and sparkling and smiling of the 

What do they do in Babyland? 

Dream and wake and play, 
Laugh and crow, 

Shout and grow; 
Jolly times have they. 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

(book rights reserved) 

(The children wear night-dresses and carry candle 
with shades, bearing the letters, to spell the words 
"Santa Clans.") 

All. Bring the pretty candles bright, 
Bring them on Christmas Eve, 
Light them all, for Santa Claus 
Will come we do believe. 

1st. See the candles large and small, 
We will try to count them all. 

2nd. And who can tell to you or me, 

Which one will deck the Christmas tree? 

3rd. North wind, North wind, are you about? 
Please do not blow my candle out ! 

4th. To shed a little ray of light, 

My candle now is shining bright. 

5th. All the candles in a row, 

Wait for Santa Claus you know. 

6th. Christmas candles with their light, 
Shine like little stars at night. 

7th. Little candles we will see, 

Lighted on a Christmas tree. 

8th. All I have to do 'tis said. 

Is to light one little girl to bed ! 

9th. Upon the window-sill so bright, 

I shine for travelers through the night. 

10th. So light the candles with good cheer, 
For Merry Christmas time is here. 

(A very little child now comes, and blows out the 

All. Puff, puff, puff, the wind's about, 

He'll blow the Christmas candles out, 
So nods each little sleepy-head, 
Soon Santa'll find us all in bed. 

Santa Claus, by gestures, follows out the spirit of 
May's lines, during her recitation of them, answering 
as follows: 

Goodnight! now go to sleep, May, 

While I proceed to work — 
On the job of filling stockings 

You'll find Santa Claus no shirk. 

Santa Claus next distributes the stockings, which 
should be made of bright-colored material and filled 
with candy. 

"Help one another," the snowflakes said, 
As they cuddled down in their fleecy bed. 

"One of us here would not be felt, 
One of us here would quickly melt, 

But I'll help you and you'll help me, 
And then what a splendid drift there'll be." 





This Christmas tree was arranged by Miss Luella A. Palmer, a number of years ago when she was a 
indergarten teacher in New York. Miss Palmer is now assistant director or Supervisor of the New York 
'ublic School kindergartens. 


The beautiful' fraternal spirit among kindergarten 
eachers all over the world, resulting from a real love 
f children, was described by Miss Avis McHenry of 
lilwaukee in her address before the Wisconsin Teach- 
rs' association recently. Miss McHenry spoke on 
lie impressions she received at the convention of kin- 
ergartners at the San Francisco fair. Not only 
/ere delegates present, but thirty-six letters were re- 
eived from foreign countries where the work of 
raining children of tender years is not forgotten 
lthough the nations are in the throes of war. "All 
hrough these letters one could feel a true sprit of in- 
ernationalism," she said. "It was a beautiful thing 
nd each letter was so genuine in spirit. Every single 
ne said in some form or other, "I wish you could see 
ay little children — they are the loveliest in the 
fori'd." Right here lies the secret. They are the 
oveliest the world over, and when this is realized, as 
t seemed to be at the convention, by an international 
nion of workers, great things are accomplished and 
deal's are never lost." 

"It would be a great misfortune to elementary edu- 
cation in this country to have the Montessori method 
supercede the kindergarten," declared State Superin- 
tendent C. Y. Cary, before the kindergarten section of 
the Wisconsin Teachers' association. The kindergar- 
ten is vastly superior from the American educational 
point of view. Nevertheless, the kindergarten teacher 
who turns her back upon the Montessori method with- 
out examination and careful study is failing in her 
duty. With respect to the kindergarten it may be 
said that it has always been in the limelight of public 
discussion. There has been a tendency for the kinder- 
garten to take on a dogmatic attitude of mind. But 
within the last few years this dogmatic spirit has 
been shocked and shattered by criticism from without 
and within the kindergarten ranks. The result has 
been a severe shaking up of dry bones of formalism 
within the kindergarten." 

Better that they had ne'er been born who read to 
oubt, or read to scorn. — Walter Scott. 

An enthusiastic and interested coterie of women met 
in the kindergarten rooms of the Central grammar 
school to take up the study for the year. Mrs. K. 
C. Havens acted as leader and for the day, the mem- 
bers studied the difference in the Montessori and the 
Froebel method. The Montessori conference at San 
Francisco was discussed. 

i i r « ' i ■ i -ii i i ■ '■■ ' 



"Why did not somebody teach me the constellations, 
and make me at home in the starry heavens, which 
are always overhead, and which I don't half know to 
this day?" — Thomas Carlyle. 

As explained in the Commentary to his Mother Play 
of "The Child and the Moon," Proebel feels that the 
attraction of the light of the heavenly bodies for the 
child but prefigures that with which in later years the 
spiritual light will attract his soul. It is for parent and 
teacher to see to it that "the Light which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world" is not dimmed 
but nurtured and strengthened. And one way to nur- 
ture this yearning towards the Light of lights is as- 
suredly to open the eyes of the child to the glories 
and the wonders of the starry skies. Let us see to it 
that the children in our classes will not have to echo 
the plaint of Carlyle, as quoted above. 

In the winter months, when the stars seem to 
scintillate with peculiar brilliancy in the crisp cool 
air, and when there are so few other objects of Nature 
to attract the eye and mind, both moon and stars make 
an especial appeal. In winter, too, when the days are 
short and the stars appear before the children's bed- 
time there is better opportunity to bring them to the 
attention of the little folks. 

In the Commentary to the "Little Maiden and the 
Stars," Froebel reminds us of the tendency of the 
child mind to impute human life and characteristics 
and motives to objects in Nature and would have us 
develop this impulse into a sense of the oneness of all 
life and its ultimate unity with the Divine Creator of 
all. With its theory of the conservation of energy and 
the indestructibility of matter, modern science rein- 
forces this idea of the inherent unity of all life. The 
childish instinct to personify inanimate matter we 
find common to the childhood period of all the races 
of man, as illustrated in the myths of all primative 

There are many beautiful' and interesting star and 
moon myths and of course, at the Christmas season, 
the story of the wonderful Star in the East that 
brought together for a united purpose the three sages 
who sought the Light of the World where it reposed in 
a manger, is the one to make the greatest appeal to 
the children. 

A sense of unity with all people of all time and 
countries can be suggested by reminding the children 
that the same moon and stars that now brighten our 
skies, shone in the days of Joseph and Job and Homer, 
and that the stars and moon we delight to see, are 
gazed upon a few hours before or after, by our friends 
in Europe, and in California. 

Preliminary to urging the older boys and girls to 
study the skies for themselves, remind them of the 

necessity of a study of the heavenly bodies, as a 
foundation for our calendars, and the division of 
time into days, weeks, months and years. When did 
our present calendar, the Julian, come into use? They 
can probably tell you of the importance of the know- 
ledge of the stars to travelers and mariners before the 
invention of the compass, and you can then tell them 
that all accurate surveying, the defining of boun- 
daries between states and the like, depends upon 
practical astronomy — that is, upon lines of latitude, 
longitude, determined by astronomical observations, 
so that the study of the stars is not a vain imprac- 
ticable waste of time. 


Have the children seek the Big Dipper, and as an 
aid, the teacher may place upon the blackboard, dots 
to represent the principal stars, with the handle 
pointing directly downward (southward) which is its \ 
position in winter. Have the children count the num- 
ber of stars ; tell them the name of the constellation 
and also that it is known in England as Charles' 
Wain, and has been called King David's Chariot. It is 
a part of the larger constellation known as the Great 
Bear, which you may later draw, together with the 
Little Dipper or Little Bear. 

A little lesson in number work can demand. If a 
cloud obscured three of the stars, how many could be 
seen? etc. 

Tell them the story of the two bears forever circling 
round the North Star and never dipping into the sea, 
as do other constellations. 

On a piece of paper, punch holes in the proper re- ! 
lation of the Dipper, and then, by aid of this, make 
dots through the holes, and so transfer to sheets of 
blue blotting paper, one for each child. Over these 
dots let them paste tiny gold or silver stars, thus mak- 
ing a Christmas gift. Older children may make the 
more elaborate Great and Little Bears. 

In something the same way, transfer dots represent- 
ing the stars in the Dipper, Bear and Orion to paper, 
and let the children prick in the holes. This is a 
legitimate and natural use for pricking. Then hold 
up to the light and the constellation is visible, to the 
joy of the little people. 

Several such pricked constellations fastened to- 
gether with a blotter for cover would make a very 
pretty gift. 

Let th« children cut stars from paper themselves, 
and a frieze for school-room decoration could be made. 

Older children could make an interesting back- 
ground for a calendar by drawing on paper the signs 
of the zodiac as found in the almanacs, i. e., the stars 
correctly placed. 

(Continued on page 126.) 




HANSEL AND GRETEL, By Jane Minerva McLaren, 
and Edith Mary Harvey. A play for little children. 
Illuminated cloth. 44 pages. Price $1.00 net. 
Published by Frederick A. Stokes Company, New 

This charming little three act play follows the story 
of the famous opera in a simplified form easily re- 
membered by children ten years of age and younger. 
There are parts for forty or more children though it 
can easily be played with sixteen or less. The Ginger- 
bread children may be very young, while older girl's 
may take the parts of angels. Music is given for 
several tuneful little songs and there is plenty of 
opportunity for dances. The simplicity of the play 
and the clearness with which directions for costuming 
and staging, either indoors or out, are given, make it 
particularly adapted to production by kindergartens, 
primary classes or the children of a neighborhood. 
Illustrated by eight photographs of an actual per- 

STORY HOUR PLAYS, A dramatic reader for the 
third and fourth grades, by Frances S. Mintz. Illus- 
trations in color by Clara Powers Wilson. Pictorial 
cover by Hapgood. Cloth, 134 pages, price 45 cents. 
Rand McNally & Company, Chicago. 

A great mass of fables and myths has persisted from 
ancient times, charming by their proverb-like direct- 
ness and quaint simplicity, of invaluable moral signifi- 
cance, and recognized as the most effective and natural 
medium of child-teaching. In Story Hour Plays, 
Frances Sankstone Mintz has chosen thirty-four de- 
lightful fables particularly well adapted to dramatic 
reading by small children; ancient tales of the Pun- 
jab, fables from India, Malay apologues, animal tales 
transmitted to us by the Russian, the German, the 

STORYLAND IN PLAY, A dramatic reader, by Ada 
M. Skinner, Teacher of First Grade, St. Agatha's 
School, New York City. Pictures by Mary L. Spoor. 
Cloth, 143 pages, price, 45 cents. Rand McNally & 
Company, Chicago and New York. 

To the little child, imitation and expression are as 
natural' as they are delightful. In early illustration, 
the little girl; playing lady, minces about in her 
mother's long skirt with a little parasol over her head, 
acting out the manners of her elders. 

Upon this imitative tendency and its impetus for 
more effective reading is based a new set of readers 
for the first and second grades. These are dramatic 
readers, and the first book of the series is Storyland 
in Play, by Ada M. Skinner. No teacher could want a 
better stimulus to expression than this little book. 

THE MEXICAN TWINS, By Lucy Fitch Perkins. 
Illuminated cloth, 185 pages. Price $1.00 net. Pub- 
lished by Houghton Mifflin & Company, Boston and 

The story of Tonio and Tita begins on San Ramon's 
Day, when all the animals and fowls must be taken to 
the priest for a blessing. There are other Saints' days, 
too, and just common days, filled with the little 
tasks and games that make up the life of Mexican 
children, but with strange customs and amid surround- 
ings surprisingly different from ours. Mrs. Perkins, 
as always in her "Twin" books, has caught the atmos- 
phere of the country and her story is as real as it is 
lively and entertaining. 

Charles P. Alvord, and Eugene G. Hughey. Cloth, 
144 pages. Price not given. Published by The Mac- 
Millan Company, New York, 

This is a special book along new lines, the controll- 
ing idea of which may be briefly stated as follows: The 
selection of words; the careful grading of the words; 
the introduction of words in sentences; the systematic 
review of words; the effective presentation of 
homonyms; the presentation of simple spelling rules; 
the teaching of pronunciation. We advise all 
primary teachers to secure samples of these books 
with a view to introducing them in their schools. 

Sindelar. Illuminated cloth. 158 pages. Price 40c. 
Published by Beckley-Cardy Company, Chicago, III. 

A fascinating story about the holidays, and a book 
which is bound to become a prime favorite with chil- 
dren. It relates the story of the visit to Holiday-Land 
of Mr. and Mrs. Nixie Bunny Cottontail and their two 
grandchildren. The bunnies begin their journey by 
visiting Labor Day, and then continuing on through- 
out the .year, making the acquaintance of all the holi- 
days up to and including the Fourth of July. The 
object of every chapter is a lesson on the meaning of 
that particular holiday, and the book is the most 
interesting primary history reader that can be con- 

"THE PIXIE IN THE HOUSE," By Laura Rountree 
Smith, author of the "Bunny Books." Illustrated 
by Clara Powers Wilson. Illuminated Cloth, 123 
pages. Price $1.00 net. Published by Houghton 
Mifflin & Co., Boston and Chicago. 

Children of all ages will be much interested in the 
queer things that happened when a Pixie took it into 
his odd little head to live in a house where dwell 
Mary, Fred and the twins, Jack and Jill. 

A Pixie is a little fairy with a tiny, weazened face 
and a lot of whimsical wrinkles in it which give him 
a funny appearance. Most of the time he hides away 
because he is as shy as Santa Claus and does not care 
to show himself to everybody, preferring only to be 
seen by good children, to whom he is always kind. 



book for teachers, by Joseph C. Sindelar. Cloth, 252 
pages, size 5x8. Published by Beckley-Cardy com- 
pany, Chicago. 

This book aims at a systematic and orderly pre- 
sentation of the morning or opening exercise in the 
elementary school. Material is provided for every 
day of the school year, beginning with the first day in 
September and ending with the last day in June. 
There are as many exercises as there are days in the 
month, thus leaving the teacher free to a choice of 
lesson each day. 

STORIES TO ACT, A dramatic reader, by Frances 
Wickes, teacher of second &rade, St. Agatha's school, 
New York City. Colored pictures by Maud Hunt 
Squire. Pictorial cover by Hapgood. Cloth, 142 
pages, price, 45 cents. Rand McNally & Company, 
Chicago and New York. 

The publication of Frances Wickes' Stories to Act 
by Rand McNally & Company marks the farthest 
advance in dramatic readers as regards teaching 
value. In this little book opportunity is offered for 
original dramatization, an exercise of the greatest 
value for the development of spontaneity, enrichment 
of vocabulary, and creative self expression. 

Pleasing stories of plants and animals, favorite fairy 
tales, and children's poems have been carefully 
selected for their dramatic possibilities. 

THE WATER-BABIES. By Charles Kingsley, illumin- 
ated'cloth. 820 pages. Size 7x8%. Price $2.00 net. 
Published by Houghton Mifflin & Company, Boston 
and Chicago. With illustrations by W. Heath 

There are on the market many editions of this 
popular classic, tut in point of illustrations this book 
excells them all. Mr. Robinson has in "well-bred old 
Salmon," his "very distinguished Lobster," his 
"wicked old Otter," and all the rest pictured the 
thoughts just as we imagined them in our childhood 
and as the children of today will be delighted to see 

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PXJ VJTJ Your Pupils Will Distribute 
IT Xv£j£L 35 Flag Buttons to Get This 

Big Flag for Your School 

OW is the time for every school or room to have a big flag. 
"Old Glory 1 ' is an indispensable feature of every occasion re- 
quiring special decorations, and the sight of "The Stars and 
Stripes" floating in the breeze every day keeps alive the patriotic spirit 
in the children. 

Ask the children to sell 35 Beautiful Flag Buttons at 10 cents 
each to their parents or friends. Send me the proceeds and I 
will immediately forward this handsome all wool bunting flag 
prepaid, free of all charges. 

The flag is a good big one, 4 ft. x 8 feet, with 48 stars. Fully 
guaranteed. Money returned if not satisfactory. Write Now. 

3 5 Free Announcement Cards 

will be sent with the buttons. These cards explain to the 
parents that the class would very much like to have a new 
flag and that each parent can help by simply purchasing 
one of the buttons at 10 cents. If preferred your class can 
sell 70 Deposit Pencil Sharpeners at 10c with aid of suitable announcement cards and remit the S7.00 to get the flag. 


pnpC Any teacher 
I l\!_L w [, agrees 

to show my Deposit 
Pencil Pointer to the 
pupils, and appoint some 
one to take the orders 
forthe class supply, may 
have a free sample for 
the purpose on request. 

Send a Dime and Get my 

Deposit PE8&lk 10* 

Thousands of teachers and pupils are using this 
pencil sharpener and consider it an indispensable ar- 
ticle in the school room. It catches the chips, will 
not break the lead, waste the pencil, nor litter the 
floor. Has adjustable razor steel blade that shaves 
like a plane. It may be resharpened. A real quar- 
ter's worth for 10 cents. Prepaid quantity prices. 

1 doz. 90c; 2 doz. $1.75: 3 do-. $2.55; 6 doz. $4.80; 1 gross $9.00 

100 Johann Fabers Lafayette 
No. 477 Best 5$ Lead Pencils Free 

If your class prefers to distribute 100 of these finest 5c lead pencils to earn 
the big flag, instead of the buttons or Pencil Pointers, I will mail you 100 
free for the purpose. 100 "Announcement Cards" will be included, similar 
to those mentioned above and the pencils will sell automatically by the use 
of these cards. These are the same celebrated pencils that I distribute in 4 
dozen lots to secure the New Era Self Sharpening pencil machine but a 
larger quantity is required for the flag. Both offers are open to you. Should 
you wish the flag in a hurry, send $4.80, and Flag will be sent with the 
pencils. When money is collected you will be reimbursed and have 20c 
profit. All returnable if not abundantly satisfactory. 

"^JfY I 'kt*. I have gone the limit in providing the best three ways to provide your school 

•'■''—' J. AJ. with this beautiful free flag. You should act at once. Satisfaction guaranteed. 

Mail me a postcard today and I "will do the rest 



Small Daughter — "Oh, 
mother, I do think it unfair 
about the Zeppelin! Every- 
body saw it but me. Why 
didn't you wake me?" 

Mother — "Never mind, 
darling, you shall see it 
next time — if you're very 
good." — Punch. 


"Did you ever dream of 
being a pirate . when you 
were a boy?" 

"Oh, yes. Isn't it queer? 
Now I'm in the prosaic 
business of managing an 
automobile repair-shop." 

"Umph! You didn't miss 
it so far." — Birmingham 
Age Herald. 


"I want to see your 
beauty-editor," said • the 
caller at the sanctum of a 
popular magazine. 

"Are you following her 

"I am." 

"Got confidence in it?" 

"I have." 

"Then you don't want to 
see her." — Louisville Cour- 


Lady (in London gar- 
den) — "We always keep 
the hose ready in case of a 
Zeppelin raid." 

Visitor — "But surely, my 
dear, it would never reach 
them at the height they 
fly?"— Punch. 

Prosperity tries the for- 
tunate, adversity the great. 
— Pliny the Younger. 


The Brooklyn Kindergarten Union held an "execu- 
tive party" at the Brooklyn Training School for 
Teachers, Park place and Nostrand avenue, Nov. 19th. 
About 160 kindergartners from all over the city sat 
down to dinner at 6:30 o'clock. There were but two 
men present at the supper, a fiance and a husband. 
When speechmaking was in order and the reporters 
began to arrive, the two men guests were requested 
to leave and the reporters were politely informed that 
"it was just a party, and that really nothing very im- 
portant would happen." 

Something important did happen, however, for Miss 
Fanniebelle Curtis, director of kindergartens, read the 
tentative draft of a State Kindergarten bill that will 
be introduced at the next meeting of the State Legis- 
lature. Dr. John Dewey and prominent superinten- 

dents from every section of the state are on the com- 
mittee. Although the bill is only tentative, and 
although the party was "executive," it was learned 
that the bill is similar to the California State law, 
which establishes kindergartens on the petition of 
twenty-five or more parents or guardians of children 
living in the section where the kindergarten is-desired. 
Considerable discussion was also caused by the recom- 
mendation that one teacher look after two classes, 
morning and afternoon. No action was taken. 

Among the speakers and the guests were: Miss 
Ruth Tappen, head of the Training School kinder- 
garten department; Miss Nellie Roethgen, Adelphi; 
Miss Elizabeth A. Woodward, president of the Kin- 
dergarten Union; Miss Amana Edson, vice president 
of the Union; Miss Helen Brewster and Miss Meta 
Wol'ferz, secretaries, and Miss Jane Nicholson, assist- 
ant director of kindergartens. 



(Continued from page 122.) 

Place lentils on the tables arranged as the stars in 
the constellations. 

Place circles and half circles (tablets) to represent 
the moon and half moon. 

Make clay tablets about four by four inches and on 
these mold five-pointed stars. 

Stars with five points may be laid with the large 
right-angled triangles. 


We are well aware that the teacher's time is already 
so overcrowded that she has no moments for extras, 

Bertha Johnston. 

How many hours of happiness are represented by 
the little toy villages with their wee houses, trees, and 
animal's,' that used to cross the seas from Germany. 
Alas, now they bring up visions of interrupted in- 
dustries, families disintegrated, and many real homes 
and villages destroyed in the war now raging. It will 
probably be possible for some time to come to still 
obtain the little toy, but even before the war broke out 
we have frequently wondered why some good whittler 
did not suggest that in the making of tiny houses and 

. + 

(@ J\Ajtns>* 

but where time for teaching star lore is impossible, 
there should be books placed within reach of the 
children to stimulate and help them in the study of the 
stars. Two which are excellent for teacher and pupil 
are: "The Stars and their Stories" prepared by Alice 
Mary Matlock Griffith (Henry Holt & Co.) which con- 
tains classic myths, stories, and poems by ancient 
and modern poets, inspired by the stars. Also a short 
summary of "Astronomy through the Ages" and an 
interesting extract from Galileo's own account of his 
first telescope, translated by E. S. Carlos. The illus- 
trations are numerous and clear, and include a helpful 
"Band of the Zodiac" which makes clear the relations 
of the sun, earth and the "signs." The teacher will 
find many stories in this volume to make the study 
interesting to young children. 

The other volume is "The Friendly Stars" by 
Martha Evans Martin, (Harper & Brothers) which is 
written in delightful style, has many illustrations, 
and is a charming introduction to astronomy. 

Among appropriate stories in this connection, we 
would note the old fairy tale, "Star Dollars," Dickens' 
"Child Dream of a Star," Thomas K. Beecher's "In 
Time with the Stars" including a volume of short 
stories by the same title. Published by Hosmer H. 
Billings, Elmira, N. Y. The Outlook once reprinted 
this fine little story. 

Mathew Arnold's "Song of Empedocles" and Whit- 
man's "Child on the Beach at Night," and "When I 
heard the Learned Astronomer," will be appreciated 
by older children, of high school age. 

Those preferring to take up the subject of the stars 
in the late winter can of course, reserve these sug- 
gestions until then. 

churches many pleasant hours might be occupied. We 
now put this idea before our readers. 

Let the older boys or girls saw out of cigar-boxes or 
the sides of soap or starch boxes long narrow pieces 
about one inch high. Then saw these into smaller 



pieces the length of the proposed dwellings, or church 
or town hall. Next, with a good jack-knife, whittle 




□ D 




the gabled roof, and with sand-paper, smooth rough 
edges and sides. The church should be so sawed that 
a tower is left which can, if desired be whittled into 
gothic steeple. 

Now the wee buildings are ready for the kinder- 
garten children. Let them paint or crayon the 
facades and sides, and draw the outlines of windows. 



jtownhall can be differentiated from the church by 
Iving the tower in the middle of the roof. 
Trees can be made by tying little strips of excelsior 
ound a match which may stand upright in a button- 
Jold for base. The excelsior should be dyed or 
tinted green. 


Bertha Johnston. 

Swift, swift, over the snow, 

The reindeer are speeding; how noiseless they go! 

High, high, afar in the sky, 

Over the forests and rivers they fly! 

Clip, clip, over the roof, 

Hear now the patter of each little hoof! 

Hark, hark, the chimney a-near, 

Santa's alighting,— hush, shut your eyes, dear! 

"S' — s'hhhhh — don't make a sound. 

Hurrying away, far our neighbor's he's bound." 

"I heard a doll laugh;" "I heard some toy squeal;" 
"And also the whir of a bicycle-wheel." 

"Will daylight ne'er come;" "I never can sleep," 
Till into my longest black stocking I peep." 

"Oh dear, what do they do? 

Rich children who live where is never a flue? 

"But whose homes are steam-heated, with water, 

or gas? 
I hope Santa '11 forget no such lad or such lass." 

We recently reviewed "All for the Love of Laddie," a 
'book for children and those who love them," by C. 
L and H. W. Douglass. The price then quoted for this 
landsome volume was $3.00, but during the holiday 
leason the price has been reduced to $1.50, and thus 
s brought within the reach of many more owners; 
his book is highly recommended by a David Starr Jor- 
lin, Prof. Edw. P. St. John of the Hartford School of 
Religious Pedagogy and others interested in placing 
>efore children ideals of the right relationship be- 
Ween them and the animal world. It can be obtained 
it bookstores now, or of Bertha Johnston, 389 Clinton 
3t. Brooklyn. 

How much Webster's New International Dictionary 
(G. & C. Merriam Co., Springfield, Mass.) will be en- 
oyed in your home! Its contents is a wonderfully 
:ompact storehouse of accurate information, of con- 
stant education and interest. The clear printing and 
beautiful bindings are lasting examples of the book- 
)inder's art. This gift will be treasured, admired, and 
lsed long after the holiday season has passed. 

Trust him little who praises all; him less who cen- 
sures all; and him least who is indifferent to all. — 


Rebecca Strutton, 1025 8th St., San Diego, Calif. 

Kittie, with your coat of fur, 

And your happy gentle purr, 
That you love me, I can see, 
As you nestle close to me. 

I love to sit by the open fire, 
And wonderful pictures see, 

Of this sport, I never tire, 
Oh, come and try it with me. 

My flowers love the sunshine, 
My flowers love the rain, 

They die when Jacky Frost comes, 
When he goes, they bloom again. 

I opened the door last night, 
The stars were shining bright, 

One little star, I sure did see, 
Just look down and wink at me. 

This little Japanese girl lives in Tokyo, Japan. 

Her name is Kogikee Hashimoto. 

She attends a mission kindergarten under the super- 
vision of Miss Harriet Dithridge. 

Miss Dithridge sent several pieces of the children's 
work last year to her former supervisor, Dr. Merrill. 
This is similar to one prepared for each child's 
mother. This little girl mounted her own photo- 
graph, tied the cord, and also mounted a pretty little 
Japanese calendar below it. 

We are not able to reproduce the calendar as it is 
in colors but we are sure you will be pleased to see 
little Kogikee Hashimoto. 

We send next year greeting to our readers in Japan. 
We have " been reading about the great coronation 
ceremonies with much interest. 


TPHIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though now employed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school 


Recommends Te«cher», Tutois and 
School*. No. 120 Boylston street. 


Teachers each 
year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Ag-ency 

Myrick Building, Springfield, MASS 


Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, androtherj teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts of the country. Advises pa- 
rents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 
70 Fifth Avenue New York 


Station A. Spokane, Wash. 
We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. Mo enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 


We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and T.anguage. 


A. J. JOELY. Mtfr. 



Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 








Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City. Okla. 


Mothers' Meetings 


Bertha Johnston 

Address, 389 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y.I 

INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency Kindergartners and Primaf7 Teachenl 

501-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United States. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 



There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A LAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 

Are in constant demand in the South at 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers 3 Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville. Tenn. 

Kindergarten and Primary Teachers! 
exceed our supply. No charge until you' 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Musketfon, Mich. 



Which proves conclusively its 

standing. Try them. Address, 

Stein-way Hall. Chicago; Lincoln, Neb. 

Spokane. Wash. 


We wantKindergarten, Primary .Rural 
and otherteachers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manager. 

The J.D.Engle Teachers' Agency 


A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register for Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 



Always needed in our territory. We have placed over eleven thousand 

brainy men and women with discriminating employers. If you are 

a qualified teacher, write us immediately. No registration fee 





We are the agency for securing positions for Teachers in Colorado, Oklahoma, 
South Dakota, Wyoming, Oregon, Washington, California, Nebraska, Nevada, 
Arizona Montana, Kansas, Idaho, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico. 
Write us to-day, for our Free Booklet, showing how we place most of our teach- 
ers outright. Our Booklet, "How to Apply for a School and Secure Promotion" with 
Laws of Certification of Teachers of Western States, free to members or sent 
prepaid for Fifty cents in stamps. Money refunded if not satisfied. 



Sabins' Educational Exchange 


Wants to hear from kindergarten or j 

primary teachers desiring places west j 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Willi 

answer frankly. 


its influence If it merelv hearsof va-| 
fancies and tells THAT" is some- J 
you about them ' T^ ' thing.) 
but if it is asked to recommend arteach-! 

»; th " a d t RECOMMENDSi| 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C. W. BARDEEN. Syracuse. N. Y. 



Only Competent Teachers Enrolled.! 


. . . The . . . 



TLAY itself into thp elements of an 
This new system Is adapted for home orj 
school training, eoncent-ating the child mind 
on simple lessons in writing and reiding simull 
taneously It lays foundations on which, 
more advanced instruction follows easily. 
33 CARDS, 8Kxi2 inches, in box with In-j 
strut-lions, $2.50 by Parcel Host Prepaid,! 

The Faulkner School, Dedham, Mass. 



TVEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
'-'rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your -work "with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher -who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little ones 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results 'with the small children.and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc. , will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 


"I heard the bells on Christmas Day 

Their old familiar carols play, 
And wild and sweet the words repeat, 

Of peace on earth, good will to men." 


Everybody knows that Christmas Day, falls on the 
5th of December. Of course! So it does — now. But 
t did not always do so. In the early centuries of 
!hristianity the feast was kept up at various dates 
a the months of January, April, and May. For more 
han three hundred years, January 6th was Christ- 
ias day in the Eastern church. The Abyssinians call 
une 21st Christmas day; while among the Armenians 
Ihristmas day has always been January 18th, and so 
t is now; but since the middle of the fifth century 
Jhristians of both Occident and Orient have generally 
greed to celebrate the 25th of December. 


There is no better way to teach the Christmas spirit 
o children than through the study of one of the 
ladonnas. Nearly all children, especially the younger 
>nes, are interested in baby pictures, and the custom 
f giving and receiving gifts can be brought before 
he children in the true and higher significance 
hrough the study of the Christ child. "It is more 
ilessed to give than to receive." Why? 

Madonna of the chair — Raphael. 

Raphael Sanzio, the artist, was an Italian. He was 
he son of a painter and poet; and reared to love art, 
,nd very early showed considerable talent. 

He painted both at Rome and Florence, and while 
.t first his work seemed to bear a very close re- 
emblance to that of his teacher, he soon showed his 
>wn power, and in his favorite line far excelled his 
eacher's work. His best work was done during the 
welve years which he spent at Rome. He painted 
.bout one hundred twenty pictures of the Madonna. 
le was not physically strong, and died from overwork 
it the early age of thirty-seven years. 

The picture — The Madonna of the Chair, is often 
:alled "The favorite of the world." The scene is very 
limple, and may have been taken from any happy 
talian home of mother and children. 

The original was painted upon wood. 

The Madonna is seated in a low chair, clasping the 
Christ-child who is nestling close to her. The little 
St. John stands in the background with his hands 
slasped, -and with the cross, the sign of sorrow, against 
lis shoulder. 

Attention may be called to other paintings by 
Raphael: — Sistine Madonna, St. Cecelia, The Trans- 
iguration, and Christ's charge to Peter. 
' In connection with this study we suggest that the 
imall Brown or Perry pictures, which may be pur- 
ihased for one-half cent each, be placed in the hands 
)f every pupil, and when the study is completed use 
he picture to decorate a Christmas card, booklet, or 


Children may make most of the decorations for 
:heir school rooms. Paper chains of red and green 
paper which the children have doubtless made using 

other colors earlier in the year. Stars may be cut of 
gold and silver paper, and a large number suspended 
from the ceiling. A very large one may be used to 
represent the star which guided The Three Wise Men. 
Instead of the Christmas tree it might be well to 
use the Christmas ladder. Cover with green tissue 
paper. Suspend from the rounds of the ladder tiny 
wax candles. Marbles may be covered with colored 
paper, and some with tinfoil or silver paper and used 
for decorating. Artificial snow sprinkled upon white 
cotton may be used in many ways in decorating both 
the room and the ladder. 


An exercise for seven small girls and boys carrying 

W — We bring you good tidings of great joy. 
E — "Everywhere, everywhere, Christmas tonight! 

For the Christ-child who comes is the master of 
all — 

No palace too great and no cottage too small." 
L — Loud ring the bells of Christmas, ring, 

Bidding earth His praises sing. 
C — Come let our voices join 

In one glad song of praise. 
O — "O praise the Lord with one consent 

And magnify his name." 
M — Merry Christmas time is here, 

Bringing joy for all the year. 
E — Everybody welcomes me, 

Friends from far and near, 

For I, the Christmas, bring the joy! 
For all the long, long year. 
All — May every one our welcome feel 

And share our Christmas greeting 

Christ's love in every heart made real 

Will bless our Christmas meeting. 


Place Cards. — The children will enjoy making place 
cards for the Christmas dinner. One for each member 
of the family. These cards may be about three by 
four inches made of white Bristol board, and decorated 
in some suitable Christmas design, as holly, Santa 
Claus, Christmas stocking, the Three Wise Men, stars. 
etc. Finish with ribbon bow of redand green. 

Match-Scratcher. — Use mounting board cut in var- 
ious shapes, oblong, bells, star, or circle. Mount on 
the lower half a small piece of sand paper cut in some 
design to suit the shape of the mounting board, 
decorate the upper part with an appropriate design, 
and complete with ribbon hanger. 

Grocer's Pad. — Every mother will enjoy such a use- 
ful article. Cheap paper, manila or print may be used 
for the inside sheets. Place on the outside a decorated 
card. Telephone-pads may be made in the same way, 
and the names of those most often called placed on 
the few inside sheets or cards. 

Blotters. — Tie a number of fancy blotters together, 
decorate the upper cover only. The blotters may be 
taken off one after another when too much soiled. 


Place sentences upon the board, and ask the child- 
ren to tell a story about each by means of a picture. 
Write a paragraph on the board, and have all the 



words of one syllable placed in one column, again all 
words containing two letters in one column, three 
letters in another, four in another. This will develop 
number as well as reading. 

Let children make a picture clock, with the real 
clock before them. Have them use the Roman num- 
erals. Test the children on telling the time. 

Give picture cards, and have the names of all objects 
seen in the picture written out, then have short sen- 
tences written about some of the words selected. 

Draw a ladder and place words or problems on the 
rounds. See how many can go to the top without fall- 

"To make the sad world merry awhile, 

And to frighten sin away, 
And to bless us all whatever befall, 
Is the task of Christmas Day." 

know something of what it is like to pick cranberries. I 

Cranberries used to be picked all by hand one by 
one, but now the pickers use a wooden scoop, some- 
thing like a large comb with strong teeth. It is 
pulled through the bushes as they spread over the 
ground, and picks them clean of berries. 

The scoops are emptied into boxes, and taken to a. 
screening house. 

The berries used to be cleaned and sorted by hand 
from the bits of leaf or small green berries, now it is 
all done by a machine. 

There are machines that grade the berries, sending 
along the ones of the same size to boxes which collect 

The cranberry bogs are drained and they can be 
flooded when necessary. They are often flooded to 
protect them from frost. 

By P. G. Saunders, Toronto, Ont. 
Christmas would not be Christmas without Turkey 
and cranberries. 

Where do the cranberries come from? 
We see barrels of them in front of the grocers. 
Do they grow on a tree, or in the ground, or where? 
They grow on a low bush in a cranberry bog. 
If you have picked blue-berries in the summer, you 

Miss Ruth Evarts will open a kindergarten in the 
Noants studio on Church street. 

The man who trusts men will make fewer mistakes 
than he who distrusts them. — Cavater. 

The greatest homage we can pay to truth is to use 
it. — Emerson. 

£» 75. S 




Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c.. and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 

January, 1916. 

Entered at the P. O., Manistee, Mich., as Second Class Mail Matter. 



Trite it is that "there never has been a time when 
the church was so surely aware of its mission, and 
so earnestly and successfully engaged in it as now." 
This may be just as truly said of the school. What 
hope for humanity when these two great factors in its 
uplift are pulling so hard and so well for its uplift! — 
Moderator Topics. 

"Now let us as kindergartners resolve for 1916 
that we will be more earnest, patient, and consecrated 
in our work with the little children. Help us to feel 
our responsibility, to realize how short the time these 
little ones will be with us, how quickly they pass on 
beyond our help and influence, and how important 
that we should act quickly and efficiently in our work 
with them." 

That most excellent publication, The Kindergarten 
Review, which has been published at Springfield, 
Mass., by the Milton Bradley Co., has been discon- 
tinued, and in its place is a bright, new, well edited 
and beautifully printed 50 page publication entitled 
"The Kindergarten and First Grade." Miss May 
Murray, is_ the editor, Mabel E. Osgood, associate 
editor. We wish the new publication every possible 

Through an oversight notice was not made in these 
columns of the death of Mrs. John N. Grouse, which 
occurred at Chicago, November 6th. Mrs. Crouse has 
had a prominent place in the building of the kinder- 
garten cause in America. She began her investigation 
of the kindergarten work in 1884, organizing a 
Mothers' class at the Immanuel Baptist church in 
April of that year. At this time there were few be- 
lievers in the Kindergarten cause. The thought that 
an un-married kindergartner could teach something 
to mothers of their own children was considered 
ridiculous. Two years later Mrs. Crouse, and Miss 
Elizabeth Harrison established a training school for 
kindergartners. She was an earnest advocate of 
kindergartens in the public schools, and assisted in 

establishing the first one in Chicago in the fall of 

In company with Miss Harrison she visited Ger- 
many to study kindergarten work, and in 1894 called 
a Mothers' Conventon, to study the welfare of chil- 
dren. This and other meetings that followed were 
highly successful. She also helped to establish the 
National Kindergarten College of Chicago, and in- 
stitution which has done very much for making effi- 
cient kindergartners in America and with which she 
has been affiliated for many years. 


1. I believe in purpose, in a goal higher than a little 
pile of money, higher than fine examination records, 
higher than a wedding outfit — a goal that touches the 
stars — a goal that I can never reach, but that shines 
before me like a beacon light. 

2. I believe in loyalty, first to the great profession 
which I have embraced, next to the system of which 
I am a unit. 

3. I believe n growth in gaining from year to year 
a wider outlook upon he world and its people, as well 
as a deeper insight, a more thorough knowledge of 
myself, my powers and limitations. 

4. I believe in sympathy, first with the children, 
and the homes from which they come, next with my 
fellow workers, whose joys and sorrows are like my 

5. I believe in earnestness, in putting my heart 
into my work. 

6. I believe in faithfulness, in doing unasked the 
regular duties and cheerfully adding those which are 

7. I believe in honesty, in acknowledging a blunder, 
being proud of a success, in trying to make successes 
many and blunders few. 

8. I believe in always looking for good in my 
fellow workers that I may receive much inspiration 
from the recognition of worth in the work of others. 

9. I believe in system, in forming and possessing 
orderly habits of work and play. 

10. I believe in cheerfulness, in radiating sun- 
shine, then watching for reflections. 

11. I believe that the Great, Good Power will help 
me to live up toward my belief. 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D., New York City " 

Once upcn a time a little boy came to kindergarten 
after Christmas bringing with him a little box of 
carpenter's tools which Santa Claus had given him. 
Can you tell me some of the tools that were in his 
box? Can any one think of any other tool that a car- 
penter uses? I have a little box of carpenter's tools 
like that little boy's to show you. Here it is. 

(Give time for any child to tell of his.) 

Harry may come and lay these tools in a row on the 

What is this? and this? and this? Show me what 
the carpenter does with a hammer — with a saw — with 
a plane. Let us sing one song about the carpenter. — 
(If the children do not know one, sing one to them — 
or promise to teach one. Imitate "pounding," "saw- 
ing" and "planing" with the hands. 

It may prove better to leave the song until the game 
period or for rhythms, and concentrate upon the tools 
during this first conversation, rather than upon imi- 
tative movements. 

A little real pounding, sawing and planing with the 
toy tools may prove more attractive, and lead to more 
correct imitation later. 

Whose birthday was it on Christmas? What was 
Jesus' mother's name? Have you heard who Joseph 
was? Did you know that Joseph was a carpenter? Do 
you know that Joseph let Jesus help him in his shop 
when he was a little boy? 

Here is a new picture for our New Year. Let us 
lock at it carefully. — Who is it? It is Jesus in the car- 
penter's shop at Nazareth where he lived when he was 
a little boy. 

I think it is very nice for any little boy to have a 
present of carpenter's tools at Christmas time. Why? 

Shall we play today that our kindergarten is a car- 
penter's shop? What shall we make? Where can we 
get some wood? 

Listen to any suggestions attentively. If you have 
kept the fir tree lead the children to see if they do not 
that they can get wood from the Christmas tree. 

Let them try the saw on the smaller branches, and 
finally decide that a larger saw is needed. Suggest 
that the janitor may lend us his big saw, to help us 
get some larger pieces of wood from the trunk. Real 
sawing has been found to be a delightful experience in 
many kindergartens. It brings the child near a real 
tree, — the source of wood; it opens the way for talks 
about wooden objects in the school and other uses of 
wood in the home and the community. 

Children to be sure have become quite familiar with 

wood during their four or five short years, but this is 
a good time to help them organize what they know of 
it, and to add to their interest in wood and in first- 
hand knowledge of its properties by actual experi- 
ments in hammering, sawing and planing. 

It is not to acquire skill in using tools at this early 
age that we introduce the New Year with this topic, 
but it is to give these few first hand experiences with 
wood and with tools — not to talk about them merely 
but rather to come in personal touch with them. 

Man has been called "the tool-using animal." Chil- | 
den are always interested in workmen and other tools. 

If the line of thought I am suggesting is adopted ! 
for the opening week of the New Year, it will lead i 
naturally away from the excitementof the Christmas ! 
vacation into work, and at the same time make no 
breaks in continuity of thought. 

It has seemed to me best to recommend kinder- ; 
gartners to remove during holidays Christmas decor- ! 
ations and all pictures of Santa Claus. The good saint 
is a transient visitor who speeds away on his "min- 
iature sleigh with his eight tiny reindeer." Of course 
we should let the children talk of him, tell of their 
pleasures, bring toys to show each other and should 
even continue to play the toy-shop if the children ask 
for it, but we should also try to lead them to interest in 
less exciting topics as soon as possible. 

"January brings the snow — Jack Frost must have 
his share of attention. Children will see ice and snow 
in many places outside and yet if a single snow ball is 
brought into the kindergarten and kept until it turns 
into water, it will awaken new thoughts, suggest 
connections which children do not see of themselves. 
I well remember how the story of a southern child 
who had never seen snow until he visited his northern 
cousins, interested me when I was a child. Such 
stories widen the child's horizon and gradually pave 
the way for geography. A story I heard told of a child 
who had a snow-ball in a trunk to take back south! 
The surprise at the result amuses very much our wiser 
little people. 

Have you read Maud Lindsay's story of the little 
fellow who saved a snow-ball to show mother, then fell 
asleep? awakens to find a little puddle of water, he 
wondered what had become of his snow ball. This 
story is fascinating in its simplicity and in its happy 
touch with the child and with nature's magic. 

January has several interesting Nature lessons for 
the little ones besides those Jack Frost suggests. 

The lengthening day may be noted and used to start 



in interest in watching the sun — when does it rise? 
Watch its movements by the shadows and by the 
ights in the room. 

Do not force instruction. Observe rather. 

Play the light-bird and lead on to new interest in 

The Christmas story of the "star" may be used to 
iwaken more interest in watching for stars in the 
;arly evening. "A child's story of a star," may be 
simplified, and "Good night, little Star" of this story 
may make the stars more dear to the child who re- 
peats it night after night as the children in the story 
did. It will help in case a child has lost a near 

Name a few stars. Teach "Lovely moon, sailing so 
trigh," and "Twinkle, twinkle little star," 

Some are nearing "promotion day" in many kinder- 
gartens. To prepare for this transition, talks on the 
"lock and the calendar will be helpful this month. 
The youngest child is interested superficially in time. 
Probel's clock songs are truly psychological. Regular- 
ity develops slowly and must be based on stories of "a 
time for every thing." The definite hours for school 
duties help in deepening these ideals — the need of 
keeping appointments, of promptness, of punctuality. 

The child of kindergarten age does not grasp the 
idea of a year, and yet he joins heartily with his eld- 
ers in wishing "Happy New Year." Ideas of deep 
value seem to start in embryo and grow gradually into 
their fuller significance. We must take care not to 
load the little mind with unmeaning words, but we 
may use words like calendar, before they can be fully 

Making a calendar in a simple way is the best way 
to start. 

Nothing aids the primary teacher more than exten- 
sion of the child's knowledge of language when this 
knowledge has been founded upon real experiences. 

Experience — knowledge saves the child from many 
difficulties in later grades. The kindergartner who 
gives the child many real experiences on walks and 
in the kindergarten room does more to help in the 
approaching reading lessons than one who tries to 
teach letters. 

Be sure to review the Mother Goose nursery rhymes 
this month as they are now often used in the early 
reading books. The children who know them by 
heart enjoy finding them in the reader. It is like 
finding an old friend. 

There would be some advantage in making a reading 
chart of one or two nursery rhymes in the kindergar- 
ten during this month, encouraging those older ones 
who seem ready to point to Jack or Jill's name — to 
Bo-peep's and Boy Blue. Interest them also in their 
own name day by day as you write it on their work. 

Just seeing others write is a preliminary lesson in 

It delays writing to teach children to print letters. 
Mass coloring strengthens the hand for writing, and 
the "push-pull" exercise amuses even the babies. 

Draw a see-saw, a hammock, a hill with crayon to get 
freedom and sweep, thus avoiding cramped writiDg. 



Purpose. — To encourage social communication by 
means of language, to enlarge vocabulary; incident- 
ally to increase knowledge of nature and common ob- 
jects, their uses, colors and other properties. By 
means of stories to put the little one in touch with 
good literature at an early age and to give them plea- 
sure. To train attention by learning to listen. 
First week. — Conversations, toys, Harry's' tool chest, 
the workshop at Nazareth, the New Year, win- 
ter months, short days, when children rise, when 
the sun rises, the clock tells the hours. 
Stories. — Little New Year (improvised) show calen- 
dar, Wait a Minute, Hickory, dickory dock. 
Songs. — The Carpenter, O, I am the little New Year, 
Over there the sun gets up, (Quith.) 

Second week. Conversations, snow sports, stars in 

the snow, — in the sky. The moon. 
Stories. — The Esquimau Baby, Agomack. Story for 
St. Bernard's Day. Story of the South where 
the children have never seen snow. 
Songs. — Lovely white. There's a Little Old Man 
made of Snow. Lovely Moon. Twinkle, twin- 
kle little Star. Jack Frost. 
Third week. Conversations. Workers in the neigh- 
borhood. Trades — review carpenters — possibly 
add the blacksmith or the cobbler — their tools — 
what made of — where men get iron — the min- 
Stories. — Building a House. Maud Lindsey. The 
Shoemaker and the Elves. Longfellow's Village 
Songs. — The Blacksmith. This is the way to make 
a shoe. Lullaby. Song of the mines. (Gaynor, 
No. 1. 
Fourth week. — Conversations. Lengthening days. The 
light-bird. A light-house. 
Stories. — When Noah saw the rainbow. Brave Mary 

of the light-house. Re-tell old stories. 
Songs. — Review. Children choose. The scale — 
that they will sing when promoted — play it. 
(The Finger piano — Mother Play. 


The toys children bring may suggest to them what 
they wish to make. Let them suggest their own prob- 
lems. The first week, the interest may center on 
drawing and cutting out tools. Making shops in small 
boxes is very pleasing, especially the carpenter s shop 
and the blacksmith's. Be sure to cut out a man to 
stand in the shop — and possibly a horse. Such pic- 
tures give life. If the children are interested in the 
box of carpenter's tools, let them fold a box, and fill 
it with paper tools. They may cut out their own 

Let them draw snow men and snow balls to their 
heart's content. It is good practice and strengthens 
the hand for the writing lessons which they are ap- 



Use gray paper boxes if possible, with white crayon 
for snow scenes. 

Draw windows and fill the sills with snow. Draw 
snow shovels, and wagons to carry snow away if 
streets must be cleaned. Ask why. 

Encourage initiative. Have days each week when 
the children choose materials and make whatever they 

In connection with snow, free cutting on folded 
squares or circles to resemble stars is appropriate. 
Mount a few of the best results cut from white paper, 
on the window panes. 

Give the older children who are to be promoted, a 
week on weaving. They may weave now without 
strain. They love to weave and number ideas are 
developed by the regularity of the counts. Introduce 
at least weaving by ones, twos and threes. 

Try to increase the children's interest in "practical 
exercises of life," as Dr. Montesspri calls them. They 
are a kind of hand-work as, buttoning their own coats, 
putting on mittens, gloves, overshoes, clearing up the 
room, tending plants and pets, placing chairs, clean- 
ing the blackboard, etc. 

Make scrap-books in review if possible of selected 
children's drawings for the month or even term for 
those who are promoted, as reminders of kindergarten 
days. Encourage mothers to keep them for compari- 
son with later work. Connect story and songs with 
these books. 


Let the children make dramatic games based on 
the stories told. 

They love to play in this way after they once catch 
the idea. 

Gradually let this dramatic play crystalize into a 
game accompanied by song. Do not use the piano at 

Introduce sense games and finger plays at odd mo- 

These will help- in primary work by strengthening 
the hand and by encouraging close application. 

Play ball games informally. 

Foot ball and ball thrown in the basket or a box 
from a distance give valuable practice. 

Let the children make a few simple rules to lead 
them towards self-government. 

The following rhythmic motions are suggested by 
the topics suggested in conversations, story and song: 
Hammering to the "Anvil Chorus," rocking baby dolls 
to lullabies, twinkling about like snowflakes, skating 
or sliding to music. Drumming may be suggested by 
the toy drum; many kindergartners develop a "music 
band gradually, much to the children's delight. 

The tune sense is developed best in this way. Strik- 
ing two of the oblong blocks together is yery satisfac- 
tory, using different counts as 1, 2 — 1, 2; 1, 2, 3, 1, 
2, 3, etc., etc. Introduce the triangle if possible. 

Vary the marches. March by twos, fours; divide 
and meet again; under arches; stepping backwards, 
sideways, as well as forward. 



Georgia R. Locke, San Antonio, Texas. 

The kindergarten child does not read "I-see-the- 
blue-bird" in a dull, uninterested way. He reads with 
animation, "I see the blue bird." He has been in the 
park and seen a blue bird ; he has played being a blue 
bird; he has picked out the children dressed in blue; 
he has drawn a crude picture with blue crayon. He 
has been busy having the experiences about which a 
reading book will tell. He has heard stories and 
repeated them. He has learned some of the best 
verses the language affords. 


The kindergarten child does not have lessons in 
numbers, but he uses numbers in a practical, concrete 
way. He and his companions are told to march today 
in twos and that if that is well done they may march 
in twos and wtos, thus making fours. He is told to 
choose six children to play a game and that the next 
time he may choose nine if he can count the number 
correctly. And so by using numbers and their com- 
binations he learns numbers. He applies what he 
learns, too. 

The kindergarten child learns actual position and 
direction and other elements of geography. He visits 
the railroad yard across the way and afterwards 
builds a railroad yard in the sand in right relation 
to the kindergarten; he visits a business street and 
reproduces it afterwards with blocks in right direc- 
tion from a residence street. Simple geography, of 
course— very simple— but the surest kind of founda- 
tion for later lessons in a book labelled geography. 

The preparation a child gets in a good kindergarten 
for later lessons in music, art, handwork, nature 
study and physical training, is so obvious that it need 
not be dwelt upon here. 

The kindergarten child likes to go to kindergarten. 
(His mother sometimes punishes him by making him 
stay at home). This is not because it is all easy 
there. The work given to him to do is as difficult 
as he is capable of doing — but the teacher is a friend, 
a comrade; she sympathizes with him in his attempts 
and has faith in his desire to succeed. 


Self-reliance and independence are characteristics of 
the kindergarten child. He is called upon constantly 
to look out for himself, his surroundings, the younger 
children. ffl 

The kindergarten attempts to send children forth, 
neither bashful nor precocious. The misfortune of 
Loth faults is obvious. Two little boys who entered 
kindergarten at the same time were the extremes of 
these two types. The difficulties of the kindergartner 
in handling each case according to its needs were 
many and trying, but they are now forgotten in her 
pleasure in knowing that both children are doing 
well in the grades, hampered neither by shyness nor 

The kindergarten, then, in relation to the primary 
grades is a period of preparation. The farmer does 
not think to enhance the value of his crops by plant- 
ing his seed sooner than the prescribed time, but by 
fertilizing, ploughing, studying the kind of seed in 
relation to the. kind of soil. So the kindergarten 
breaks the ground, gives fertilizing experiences and 
prepares the soil for the seed which will soon be 
planted there in the shape of primary school lessons. 

THE fctttfcEfcGABT Ett-£ RDtAftt MAGAZINE 



(Translated from the German of Froebel. ) 

By Bertha Johnston 


Motto for the Mother (prose rendering.) 

How can looking through a window to see the light, 
Rejoice the heart of the child, so early? 
Out of piirity blossoms life: 

With clean, pure life, 

To surround the child, 

Mother, take pains. 


So clean these window-panes of mine, 
Into the room the sunbeams shine. 
If you would always 

Rejoice in light, 
You, too, must keep, 
Clean, pure and bright. 


Motto for the Mother (prose rendering.) 
Nurture gently the child's dim presentment, 
That life is one, at one with itself. 
Make a pathway for the certain feeling, 
That he is a member himself thereof (of this uni- 
fied life.) 
Help him to see the inner in the outer, 
To trust in the inner, not in the outer. 
Let him feel that what may appear widely separ- 
Yet are united by an inward unifying life, in 

And that all things, even if inaudibly, 
Speak to man symbolically; 

And that who rightly understands this language, 
Goes through life, peacefully, and happily. 


Through the clear, clean window-pane, 

The sunshine bright is streaming; 
"I want with babykin to play, 

And see his bright eyes beaming." 
"Good day! Good day, dear sunshine! 

Your child awaits your smile." 
"To see you, baby darling, 

I've traveled many a mile. 
I've hurried on my long, long flight, 

Thinking of baby, here, • 

For babies love the shining light, — - 

Ne'er shrink from it, my dear." 

The above mottoes and songs are accompanied in the 
Mother Play Book by two pictures, respectively, which 
illustrate the ideas to be conveyed. There is one Com- 
mentary for the two pictures, as follows: 


The external side, and the positions of the two 
hands, for what is here to be presented to the reader, 
follow plainly from the drawings. With regard to 
the plays themselves, who does not know the delight 
that children take in contemplating the light through 
a narrowed space — through the openings made by lay- 
ing the separated fingers of one hand across the separ- 
ated fingers of the other; through perforated paper, or 
between interwoven splints! This appears to express 
or to interpret for us, an attribute of the human mind, 
and spirit. For the appearance, the vision, of the 
higher, spiritual light, can be borne, only in propor- 
tion to the development of the inner, the spiritual 

It is general knowledge that this little play may be 
carried out in the daytime, with sunlight, as well as 
indoors, by artificial light. 

Wth regard to the education of the mind, soul and 
spirit, these plays present one side quite different to 
the two last (i. e., The Rabbit on the Wall and The 
Wolf and Pig, two shadow plays.) As, by means of 
and through the formar, we learn, in one respect, how 
to avoid awakening what is low ,and vulgar, so 
through these, the feeling for what is high and noble, 
should be awakened and nourished. And, mother, as 
formerly, you fostered his pleasure in what is clear 
and pure, so nurture now, your child's joy in what is 
bright, luminous, shining. 

Just see, how whole-heartedly, the children there, 
have surrendered themselves to the dear phenomena 
of light. And what should more enchain the heart and 
soul of the child, than the perception, as if he breathed 
it in, of what is bright and luminous. Your child 
seems to have a premonition: 

"Pure in heart, to be! That is the last, the steepest 
Height, of which the wise ones dream, and which 
the wiser ones attained." 

Mother, early strengthen his virtue; Father, early 
reach to him your hand, your arm, to help him mount 
this height and attain the summit. 

"What is the boy standing in the window thinking 

"He sees how the bright sunlight shining through 
the clear water, makes such lovely colors." 

"Mother, Father! Come here quickly! Sister has 
set a glass of clear, clean water in the sunshine in 
the window; just see the beautiful colored circles and 
rays, just like rainbows and dew drops! Oh Mother, 
dear, how beautiful they are! Just see how the colors 
play so beautifully with each other, when sister moves 
the glass, just as when, dear Mother, you play "Catch" 
with us." 

Thus the high-minded, noble, striving, human being 
is blessed, if he sees how, by regarding and fostering 
purity of body, mind and soul, blossom their nobler 
joys of body and spirit: 

See to it, O Mother, the maiden and youth, 
Preserve what as children, they experience of 

"But why is the boy up there, crying?" ■ ■■ ... 



"Alas, through carelessness, he has broken the clear, 
transparent window, and now he must go to the dis- 
tant glazier's, to have him restore the damage, unless 
for a long time, he wants to keep the dear, bright light 
out of the little room, with an opaque board or paper. 
You see, my child, we must not, through negligence 
or levity, forfeit the passage of the light, into the 
heart or soul, for then it must be redeemed with trou- 
ble and loss of time, that our hearts and minds be not 
left in gloom and sadness. But if, as the dear child 
in the picture opens the cellar-door for her Mother so 
that the light may shine in for her, so you open the 
doors and windows of your heart, at the right time, 
to the light, it will reach into life's profundities and 
obscurities, luminous, clarifying, illuminating: 

Then will the eye see clearly, 
The breast will swell, as, wide a-field, 
Nature in all her glory, 
Before you lies revealed, 

as it does before the two children, (here on the moth- 
er's lap, and, in the mother's arms), who cannot grow 
weary of rejoicing over the approach of the dear sun. 
And "Come!" says the second boy to his second little 
sister, "Come, we will ask mamma, if she will let us 
go into the garden for a little while, 

"It is so very nice out there." 

"Yes, yes, my dears, it's fresh and fair; 

Only be gentle, sunny, bright, 

Clean and pure, like the morning light." 

Every mother should be able to tell her child stories. 
She should make the attempt at least, and each trial 
brings the story into better form. When she turns 
the child away from her with the remark: "I can't 
tell stories — read your own story," she is building an 
invisible barrier between herself and the child. As 
the child grows older he does read his own story, and 
is not apt to ask in regard to the selections which he 

Mothers are very particular about what their child- 
ren wear and what their children eat, but while avoid- 
ing foods that would poison, they permit them to 
absorb into their lives food for the mind which is the 
rankest poison. "I wonder how my boy and girl ever 
thought of such terrible things," is the cry all too 
late when the child, desiring to emulate some of the 
unworthy heroes and heroines of his story world, has 
put into his own life their deeds. 

The love for good literature begins in the nursery 
with a story toll. Then, later, the child will desire 
the best and will choose for himself good books to 
read. — Georgene Faulkner, Chicago. 

Miss Fannie A. Smith gave the children of her kin- 
dergarten and primary classes a Thanksgiving party 
on Wednesday. It was a delightful time for the little 
ones who had individual pumpkin pies and other 
things associated with the feast, that holds for them 
many entertaining stories and games. — Bridgeport, 
(Conn.) Standard. 


Among the 400 women taking advanced courses in 
the School of Education of Teachers' College, leading 
to the degree of master of arts, are twenty-six who 
are preparing to be deans of women in colleges or 
normal schools. The demand from women with edu- 
cational experience for preparation in this new field 
of work has been so great that the cottage authorities 
have recently provided for the first time courses aim- 
ing to give women the specialized training necessary to 
perform adequately the functions of a dean. 

Among the courses taken by those who are studying 
in this new department are the education of women, 
history of the family, educational sociology, problems 
in administrative work, religious education, hygiene, 
sex education, educational psychology, philosophy of 
education, economics, and social usage. The program 
varies for each student, and is made up under the 
guidance of a faculty adviser, who studies carefully 
the needs presented. Nearly all the women enrolled 
in this work are here on leave of absence from admin- 
istrative positions involving duties as deans. They 
bring with them definite administrative problems for 
which they are seeking solutions. 

The college has also established in connection with 
"his work a new diploma for dean of women, which 
will be granted to candidates who finish the course 
with a high grade of scholarship, who possess the 
personal qualifications necessary for success in this 
field, and who have a record of satisfactory previous 
administrative experience. It is planned further to 
increase the facilities for preparation in this new 
work in the near future. 


The kindergarten room was transformed into an 
Indian and a Puritan village, the decorations consist- 
ing of wigwams, canoes, tripod, head-dresses., etc., 
made by the children. The scene of the Mayflower 
landing the Pilgrims on Plymouth rock with an 
Indian village on a nearby hill, were pictured in the 
sand tray. 

The Pilgrims, impersonated by the little children 
were dressed in colonial style, the girls wearing bon- 
nets, and the boys wearing collars of that period. 
Indians and Pilgrims sat down and ate Thanksgiving 
lunch together in the utmost harmony. The little 
playlet was in charge of Harriet Hoyt Barnes and 
Margaret A. Tuttle, assisted by the principal of the 
school, Miss Cornelia Comstock. 


At the Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Prospect Park, 
Dec. 11, certificates in children's gardening were pre- 
sented to those who have completed the year's course 
for the preparation of teachers of children's garden- 
ing. An address was given by Miss Alice E. Fitts, 
director of the kindergarten department of Pratt In- 
stitute, on "The Value of Gardening to the Child." 

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Mother Play Picture— « The Window" 





Clara J. Denton, Grand Rapids, Mich. 
Glad are we when snow comes 

And the days are cold, 
When the North Wind beats his drum, 
North Wind wild and bold. 

Yes, we're glad when snow comes 

Sparkling in the sun, 
How we love its whiteness 

This is time for fun. 

We have made a snow man, 

See him where he stands, 
Funny little snow man, 

With his frozen hands. 

Hurrah, then for winter! 

And the falling snow! 
Where there are no snow-flakes 

We will never go. 

The Snow Man. 

I'm a little old Snow Man, ha, ha, ho, ho, 

The children made me last night you know, 

They gave me nose, and mouth, and eyes, (point to 

And put on a hat to make me look wise, (point to head) 
When the sun comes out, I'll laugh and shout, 
They'll not find me anywhere about, 
Then clap the hands, ha, ha, ho, ho, (clap hands) 
For the funny little old Man of Snow ! 


Sixty seconds make a minute, 

Tick, tick, tock, 

Tell me what can you do in it? 

Tick, tick, tock, 

Tho I am but a child at play, 

I'll do some kindness every day, 

Sixty seconds slip away, . 

Tick, tick, tock. 

Cold winds may blow, 
And snows may fall, 

But well we know 
God cares for all. 

When the winter's sun is shining, 
Though the ground is white with snow, 

With our prism in the window, 
We can make bright colors glow. 


(Children wave the right arm to and fro to imi- 
tate the swinging of the pendulum.) 

Tick, tock, tick, tock, 

Busy school-room clock; 

Early rising is the rule, 

We must not be late to school, 

Tick, tock, tick, tock, 

Busy school-room clock! 

Tick, tock, tick, tock, 
Happy school-room clock! 
I'll be happy all the day, 
In my work and in my play, 
Tick, tock, tick, tock, 
Happy school-room clock! 


Jessie Andrews. 

When sister reads to me, 
I wish she wouldn't be 
Jus' thinkin' of herself ! 
The books on my book-shelf 
Are jus' the ones for me — 
But sister doesn't see ! 
She reads an' reads me books 
She likes herself — and looks 
Surprised when I jus' frown 
An' wiggle, an' jump down — 
'Cause I don't like her books — 
Don't like their soun' nor looks! 
O' course her books are red, 
Or green or blue instead — 
But 'tain't no pictures in ; 
An' stories, my they're thin! 
My books jus' suit my head — 
But she reads hers instead! 




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Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

Lack of self-control is the ruin of many a career. 
A serious defect of school systems is that they all 
too frequently fail to outfit the pupil with principles, 
and that they do not accustom boys and girls to plan 
their proper course of action. We see also many men 
and women who possess no reasoned rules of conduct 
that usually parents and teachers regard it as im- 
possible, and not worth while to try to get boys and 
grls to consider what they should do, and conduct 
themselves accordingly. Yet, if properly approached, 
children only four or five years old will make their 
own rules very sensibly, and put them into practice. 

What I witnessed recently in a model kindergarten 
should be a valuable hint to mothers. Twenty chil- 
dren, none of them as old as five years, had been 
taken an exercise in rhythm for several mornings, 
each child clapping two blocks of wood together in 
time to the music. At a given musical signal the child 
was to lay his blocks on the floor. Naturally, some of 
the children did not put them down as quickly as oth- 
ers, and there was a tendency on the part of some to 
play with the blocks. These irregularities were per- 
mitted to pass unnoticed for a few days. Then one 
morning the teacher said: 

"Yesterday I noticed that some of you did not put 
your blocks down quickly on signal. One boy played 
with his after he had put them down. It is time to 
have a rule about this. What shall it be?" 

"Take his blocks away," "He must put his blocks 
back in the tray," were some of the responses. The 
tray was on the floor in the center of the ring of chil- 

"All right," said the kindergartner, "I think that is 
a good rule. Can ou all remember it? Some of you 
have heard a big band play. When the man up in 
front taps with his stick they all stop playing. We 
want to learn to stop together, don't we? Now, listen 
for the signal from the piano that tells us to put our 
blocks on the floor." 

"Can we stand them any way we like?" asked one 
little chap. 

"Yes. Any way you like," said the teacher; but do 
not touch them afterward." 

This answer, it seemed to me, was a good stroke of 
policy and required quick judgment and decision on the 
part of the kindergartner. Her decision was wise, be- 
cause children must not be hampered by too many re- 
strictions. Possibly this boy was a little rebel, anxious 
to preserve his liberty in one way if not in another, 
and it was quite wise to meet him halfway, and not 
force him too far. 

The children began again to clap their blocks, all 
evidently listening for the signal. It came. Down 
went the blocks in unison, but one little girl of four 
changed the position of her blocks after she had put 
them down. 

"Mildred forgot. She must put her blocks in the 
tray," was the unanimous cry, for children are very 
strict about their own rules. 

Mildred wept; but she was not excused. The kin- 
dergartner, without a word of reproach, took Mildred 
kindly by the hand and walked with her to the middle 
of the ring, to keep her company while she deposited 
her two blocks. It was quite an ordeal for Mildred. 
She hung her head all the way back, and then hid her 
face in the kindergartner's lap. Nothing further was 

At this time there was a chance for two errors in 
discipline, both of which were avoided. The kinder- 
gartner might have excused the first delinquent — 
especially as she was one of the youngest little girls — 
or she might have insisted that the little culprit go 
alone to the center and deposit her blocks. It was 
most wise to cover the little one's confusion by going 
with her, else I am sure there would have been a most 
unhappy scene. The kindergartner was kind, but firm. 
Every child felt the force of a rule which he had helped 
to make, and his sense of justice was satisfied. 

Later in the morning there arose an occasion for a 
second rule during games, for, after several weeks of 
freedom, the moment had arrived to bring about closer 
restriction, and greater respect for law. The best dis- 
cipline is a growth. 

The second rule, like the first, was formulated by 
the children, but the occasion was quite different. The 
object of a certain game with a ball was to keep the 
ball rolling from one to another, but to take care that 
it did not roll out of the ring. The purpose of the 
game was evidently to train each child to observe and 
act quickly as the ball approached. 

After the ball had several times slipped out of the 
ring, through lack of attention or alertness on the part 
of some child, the kindergartner said, "I think we 
should make a rule about this game to help us to be 
more watchful, so that our ball will not roll out. What 
rule will help us?" 

Quick responses came from several at once, such as, 
"If any boy lets the ball roll out, he must go after it;" 
"He cannot play any more;" "He must sit outside." 

"Well," said the kindergartner, "these are good 
rules. Suppose we have it this way: The first time a 
child misses, he goes and brings the ball back to us. 
But the second time, he must sit out." 

All agreed to these rules. One child asked, "How 
long must he sit out?" Another answered, "Until 
we play another game." 

"Perhaps," said the kindergartner, "not as long as 
that. We must give him a chance to improve. I will 
call him back, when I think he is ready to watch and 
do better." 

Much depends on the tone and the spirit with which 
rules are enforced. Children are likely to be too 
severe with punishments. The adult must guide and 
explain when it is desirable to show mercy or consider- 
ation, but must always maintain a strong, firm tone of j 
good cheer and hopefulness. 

In the home, self-government should begin in a: 
similar way. Let the child help to make simple rules 
governing his own actions, and suggest punishments 



winch he ihust suffer when he breaks his rules. For 

"Harry, you have been late at your meals several 
times this week. Father and I do not like it. We 
have decided to ask you to help us make a rule about 
this tardiness at the table. What do you think would 
be a good rule?" 

"I guess I shouldn't have anything to eat, when I 
am late." 

"Oh, no, dear. That would be a little too severe 
punishment. Suppose we make it a rule that you get 
no butter or no sugar when you are behind time. 
Which do you choose, no butter, or no sugar?" 

"I choose 'no butter' first, and if I am late two times 
in one day, I mustn't take either," says Harry. 

"That will do very well, my son. No one need know 
about our rule except you and me. If any one passes 
you the butter, you can say. 'No, thank you.' " 

"3ut if I say 'No' to sugar, too, mother, every one 
will notice it, and be surprised." 

I hope that one lesson will be all you need. Perhaps 
you will be on time after this, and will place my chair 
for me. I always like my little son to do that." 

Conversations of this nature appeal to the child's in- 
telligence and do more to make him thoughtful than 
any amount of undignified scolding. Take another in- 
stance. Suppose Mary has a habit of delaying when- 
ever you call her, and says "Wait a minute." 

"Mary," you say to her, "do you know how many 
times you have said, 'Wait a minute,' to mother this 

"No, mother." 

"Well, Mary, I have counted five times. What are 
we going to do about it?" 

"I don't know, mother, I didn't mean to say it so 
many times." 

"How would you like to try this rule?— Every time 
you say, 'Wait a minute,' sit down and count sixty and 
wait just a minute?" 

"That is a very funny rule, mother, but I think it 
will help me to remember." 

Take the instance of the noisy boy : 

"Jack," you say, "it isn't polite to slam the doors, as 
jyou have a habit of doing. Can't you make a rule to 
help you break this habit?" 

"I could go back and shut the door quietly, as you 
told me to the other day." 

"All right, Jack. Will you make this your own 
rule? You know you were quite cross about it when 
it was my rule and I don't like cross boys any better 
than noisy ones." 

"I'll do it, and I won't be cross, either. And, if I am 
cross, you must tell me I promised not to be." 

It is not to be 'expected that all boys and girls will 
respond so amicably, but if, from quite early child- 
hood, children are treated as reasonable beings, they 
will soon be able to obey to some extent self-imposed 
rules. A child more easily sees the right of a rule, if 
he helps to make it. He is inclined to submit more 
graciously when his own rules turn upon him. Not 
alone is the child less rebellious, but the equanimity of 

the parent can be maintained more easily when such a 
method is employed to check naughtiness and careless- 

Great care must be taken not to be too severe, and 
also not to make exceptions. Keep strictly to the rule. 
Simple, steady discipline results in establishing good 
habits while severe penalties turn the child's attention 
away from his offense and toward his suffering, and 
often create contumacy and obstinacy, or a cringing 
fear, which destroys character. 

Many schools and colleges are making attempts at 
self-government. The principle is the same at all ages, 
and, as I have tried to illustrate, may begin in the 
"school of infancy." Its application to older children 
may be of interest and help to establish the principle. 

Some girls in an institution had become impert- 
inent, to their own injury and to the bad example of 
younger girls. You know there is an age when girls 
rather enjoy "answering back"; it becomes a kind of 
repartee. As these older girls were earning a trifle 
each month, and thought a great deal of the money, 
it was decided to impose a fine for each impertinent 
answer. Not the slightest improvement resulted. The 
fines seemed only to make them angry and provoke 
additional impertinence, naturally directed at the per- 
son imposing the fines. 

Finally the superintendent of the institution called 
a meeting of these troublesome girls, and said to 
them: "My dear girls, we do not want to take your 
money from you, but we do want to keep you from 
being rude girls. Perhaps we have been too severe. 
In future, we will not collect fines, but we shall enter 
them in this book. As soon as a girl stops her insolent 
replies, we will cancel all her fines. Do you accept 
this new rule? Will you help yourselves to improve? 
Will you remind each other?" 

Moderation of the punishment, and the conference 
at which the girls were led to think, caused a revul- 
sion of feeling, and finally the impertinence was alto- 
gether stopped. 

The value of co-operation in punishment was clearly 
shown by another case, in which theft was the offense. 
The rule was made that the first offense should be 
punished by writing the name, the date, and the of- 
ense with a lead pencil in a special record book, with 
the proviso that if there were no repetition of the 
fault within a given time, the offender should have 
the privilege himself of erasing the incriminating 

Making such a formal record is impressive and 
somewhat mysterious to the child, and such a punish- 
ment is more dreaded than you might suppose. There 
was marked eagerness for the arrival of the date when 
the record could be expunged. The rule provided that 
a second offense should be recorded in ink; the prom- 
ise of erasure was still given, but the use of ink made 
the purging of the record more difficult and added to 
the penalty. 

In the home there are many minor deprivations 
that the child may be led to suggest, according to his 
age. If he is led to forecast and suggest rules him- 



self, he is more likely to become thoughtful nd self- 
governing. When there is no such co-operation be- 
tween parent and child, all the child's mental activity 
may be directed into opposition or brooding. If he is 
treated like a human being, the child is led to see the 
relation between the deed and its result. His mind 
is largely concerned with his own part in the transac- 
tion, and therefore not as likely to dwell morbidly on 
the punishment imposed by parent or guardian, or to 
assume an attitude of martyrdom or of having been 
unjustly dealt with. 

Within the past decade a great deal has been said 
and written about self-government in schools. Much 
of this savors too strongly of adult life; but these 
simple plans by which the child enters through co- 
operation naturally and gradually into self-govern- 
ment, are not too formal. They recognize the child's 
rights, tend to establish politeness and minor morals, 
and will assuredly prove a stepping-stone to the 
thoughtful conduct and character as the years ad- 
vance.— Mothers' Magazine, Elgin, III. 


Every mother of a lively youngster just out of baby- 
hood, hanging about her skirts most of the busy day, 
faces the question before she is aware of it: "How 
soon will this child need more than I am able to 
give? How can his little head think of all the things 
he asks me? Where did he ever get such an idea? 
Why doen't he play by himself? How in the world 
shall I keep him busy and contented all through today 
and tomorrow and then the next day?" 

Where there are two or three little heads in the 
family the case is not always so urgent; on the other 
hand, it sometimes means three questions instead 
of one, not to mention the pretty constant settling of 
difficulties between the older, who know, and have, 
and the younger, who know not and have not! Too 
often it is not the mother who faces this rapid fire, 
but the less competent nurse or the wholly incom- 
petent nursemaid, if not the housemaid, cook, laund- 
resses or whoever can be drafted for a few hours of 
emergency relief. 

What about the kindergarten, then! The quite na- 
tural first impulse is to exclaim: "My boy is too 
young for that — he won't be even three until next 
month. 1 don't want him forced. True, it is only 
three hours a day, but I can tell him all he needs to 
know right here." The mother cannot realize that 
the little fellow is no longer a baby, and so the inevi- 
table "turning off" process goes on as best it can, 
with the incidental help of the domestic staff or the 
neighbors' children so far as opportunity will permit. 
But what is the kindergarten after all? What does 
it really do? 

No greater mistake could be made by the thought- 
ful parent than to imagine the kindergarten, for 
children from three to five or six, a forcing institu- 
tion. Just the contrary. Its real effect is nearly al- 
ways an immense gain in the child's contentment and 
happiness, a general "easing-up" of the high-strung 

little organism, because of the order and rhythm of 
the new surroundings for these morning hours, the 
thoughtful and never impatient attention to his grow- 
ing needs, and the more varied and interesting outlet 
for his superabundant energies 

The simplicity and naturalness of the Froebel sys-i 
tern, when applied as its devoted founder intended, 
and not mixed up with showy fads and individual 
"isms," adapt it perfectly to the state of mental devel- 
opment and physical activities of children no more 
than three years of age, in many cases even younger. 
It meets them upon their own level, grows and ex- 
pands with them from week to week and month to 
month. The true kindergarten goes hand in hand 
with the child, never drags or pushes. Based as it is 
upon a faithful and scientific study of the natural rela- 
tions of mother and child, it is found that children 
of three and even less, interest themselves in its sim- 
ple occupations as readily as and usually much more 
happily than they do in the numberless things that 
attract their constant and more or less unsatisfied 
attention at home. 

The kindergarten is not a "school." It is in truth, 
a "child's garden," wherein their own normal and 
healthy activities are given wider play and interest. 
Their energies are merely guided, in the simplest 
ways and without pressure, so as to form the begin- 
nings of right ideas of form, order, color, sound and 
nature life, as well as the right habits in their rela- 
tions with each other, all of which can hardly begin 
too soon, and if begun wrong must be unlearned at 
cost, later on. 

The normal child, from the time it is able to walk; 
and speak, is a little engine of incessant activity,; 
whether at home or on the street or in the kinder- 
garten. He is in constant search of information about! 
everything he touches, and of new means of activity! 
and will find them, whether we wish it or not, in what- 
ever is nearest at hand. To keep him at home does 
not lessen or suppress this inquisitive energy. It may 
even increase his irritability and nervousness by rea- 
son of the inability of busy parents to give the little 
mind the serious and patient attention it demands. 

The kindergarten simply meets this condition. It 
does not go beyond it, does not force upon the child's 
attention anything in advance of its own needs and 
powers as they normally develop. There is no "keep- 
ing up with the class;" the youngest and slowest find 
at all points and all times occupation and interests 
suited to the individual needs and state of develop- 

In other words, it is in no sense "schooling." It 
is merely the natural guidance of energies and de- 
mands implanted in the child nature, and which will 
inevitably find outlet and expression, if not in one 
way, then in another. — Boston Transcript. 


Miss Anna R. Leonard, a former kindergartner and 
later teacher of Visable speech, died in Boston, Dec. 



Little Games For Little People 


;Latjra Rountree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 

The children stand in two lines. They choose 

Cupid who runs between the lines. He holds a large 

pasteboard heart on which are written the days of 

the week. 

The children in the lines skip forward and back 
singing, Tune, "Yankee Doodle." 

Oh February days have come, 

And we will play this morning, 
Saint Valentine is coming soon, 
We give you all fair warning. 

Who will get the valentine? 
To and fro we're going, 
Who will get the valentine, 
There's no way of knowing. 

The children in the lines now pause and Cupid runs 
through the lines with his heart. He skips up to any 
child naming, "Monday" or "Tuesday," or any day of 
the week he wishes. 

The child called upon must spell the name correctly 
or step out of the line and be out of the game. 

If he answers correctly he and Cupid change places. 

The children in the lines skip to and fro as before 
and the game continues. 

It may be played any length of time. 

> Laura Rotjntree Smith. 

(Book Rights Reserved.) 
The children stand in a circle and pass a bell from 
one to another singing, Tune "Coming Thro The Rye." 
"Oh the New Year's bells are ringing, 
In the steeple high, 
Merry, merry bells of New Year, 
Sing, "Old Year, good bye." 
Ringing, singing, ringing, singing, 
We can hear them call, 
A happy, happy, New Year, 
Happy year to all." 
The child who holds the bell runs inside the circle 
and says "How many days in January? (or any other 
month.) The child he asks must answer correctly, or 
go out of the game. 

They all form a circle again and pass the bell 
around while singing as before. The game may con- 
tinue until only two are left. 

The bell is made of paste board and has the names 
of the months written upon it and the correct number 
of days in each month, so the child holding the bell 
will know the number of days in each month. 

A New Year Game. 

The children sit in chairs and choose January. He 
points to them quickly, giving them names of days of 
the week. The children say; 

"January has come to town, 
January in snow-white gown, 
Oh January, whom do you seek? 
For here are all the days of the week !" 

January now points to any child, as Monday, and 
Monday says : 

"I am Monday, I hope you know, 
I will go with you over the snow." 

January and Monday skip out of the room, return, 
and Monday takes her place. 

November chooses another day who replies in the 
same way. 

They skip out of the room and this continues until 
January has chosen all the days of the week. 

January then says : 

"There is one day that is very welcome here." 

The children reply : 

"Oh, can it be the Little New Year?" 

January says : 

"Yes, it is Little New Year's Day." 

Th » children now rise and form a circle around Jan- 
uary and he tries to break through the circle; if he 
does so the game is ended. If he cannot break through 
he may name a child to take his place. 

This game should help children to become familiar 
with the days of the week. 

This little rhyme may be learned and the first child 
in the circle to give it may take January's place. 

Oh New Year, Happy New Year, 

We'll all be good and true, 

We'll all shake hands ,and bowing say, (shake hands, 

We will do a kindness every day ! 

These little games may be played in a variety of 


Seven Days. 

Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 

Who will follow after? 

Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, 

Saturday, with laughter ! 

If these lines you can recall, 

You will name seven days in all. 

He that can have patience, can have what he will.- 

Persecution is not wrong because it is cruel, but 
cruel because it is wrong. — Whately. 


(No Glue or Gelatine) 
Make 50 from one examination pa- 
per, music, map or anything written 
with pen, pencil, typewriter. No 
curled copies, no sticky substance 
on paper. Prices, $2.10 up. Booklet 
and samples free. Write 

419-420 Park Bldg., 

Pittsburg, Pa, 



Secretary of the Interior, Lane, in his annual re- 
port, urges the improvement of the rural schools, 
which no longer represent American ideals. They 
have not kept pace with industrial advancement, with 
the development of society by leaps and bounds, with 
the radical changes in mode of living and thinking in 
the last fifty years. The "little red schoolhouse," ex- 
cept for no longer being red, is about what it was 
when we used dirt or corduroy roads and oxen and 
thought that the history of the United States, of 
England and of the Ten Tribes of Israel constituted 
the only known records of the human race. 

Indeed, Secretary Lane says that our rural edu- 
cational methods are worse than they used to be when 
they were considered good. The rural teacher, on the 
average, is paid less than the sewer digger, and 
teaching positions in the country schools are held 
only by young men who get out of them just as soon 
as they can get another job, even if it be nothing 
better than a job as clerk in a store. If good teachers 
are by misfortune compelled to remain in country 
schools they find themselves, because the system is 
fifty years and more behind the times, as much handi- 
capped as if they, too, were incompetent. 

Nobody could be much more helpless than an 
American school boy when he graduates from a public 
school of the rural type, and some city schools are 
also of that type. The late Booker T. Washington 
gave the Southern negroes better educational ideals 
than the Southern whites possessed. The Tuskegee 
Institute was the other day characterized by Dr. 
Woods Hutchinson as a contribution of genius which 
we may all freely copy. It is small wonder that the 
Southern whites needed the "grandfather clause" to 
protect themselves against the educated negro vote 
of this generation while preserving the vote of the 
illiterate whites. 

If the Secretary of the Interior can shake off the 
fetish of the old recitative rigmarole from the rural 
schools, he will be doing much. The country is full 
of people who boast of their useless derivation from 
the ritual of the little red schoolhouse, with its prison- 
like grip and its educational insufficiency, but who are 
very careful to adopt in their industries and business 
modern methods which they most certainly did not 
learn in school. There are also those absolutely hope- 
less people who think that they have modernized 
education when they have extended their compulsion 
methods in playing with blocks or making tiles. 

The school should be a world in miniature which 
the individual child is encouraged to explore. The 
Gary plan, the Tuskegee plan, the German industrial 
plan, the Montessori plan and all the rest of those 
new educational devices are more significant as pro- 
tests against prevailing futility than attractive as 
perfected methods. 

For every sunny hour, 

A drop of rain. 

For every cloudy day, 

The stars again. 

For every passing care, 

A mother's kiss. 

And what could better be, 

My child, than this? 

If a task is once begun, 
Never leave it till it's done. 

Be the labor great or small, 
Do it well or not at all. 

I see the moon 

And the moon sees me, 
God bless the moon, 

And God bless me. 

Softly from the sky are falling 
Snowflakes white as lilies fair; 

Gently to each other calling, 

As they float down through the air. 

Merry bells, Christmas bells, 
All the world's humming, 

All you see are full of glee, 
For Santa Claus is coming. 

This is the way the snow comes own, 

Softly, softly falling. 
So He gives His snow like wool, 
Fair and white and beautiful. 
This is the way the snow comes down, 

Softly, softly falling. 


Satella J. Penman, San Diego, California 
In a play-room screams from Lassie, 

Brought a mother quick to see, 
Little daughter frantic, crying, 

"Oh! Oh! Baby's killing me." 

Gleeful baby, all his fingers 

Into tousled yellow curls, 
Thinking they were made for playthings, 

Big boys think the same of girls. 

Mother rescued Lassie, saying, 
"Yes, it hurts, but he don't know 

How it hurts. Of course we'll teach him 
When he's big and tell him so." 

Moments later, shrieks from baby. 

And again the mother goes. 
Lassie answered, "Yes, me teached him; 

'Twas weal hard. But now, he knows!" 




Who that has ever enjoyed lying on her back on a 
sunny day, gazing at the sky and sun through the 
interstices of a straw hat, or looking at the light 
through the pinholes pricked in the outlines of a draw- 
ing, can dispute Froebel's reminder of the child's 
pleasure in such experiences? The wise mother and 
teacher will take to heart the lessons Froebel derives 
from these inclinations of the child, and so will be 
ready when a fitting opportunity comes to inculcate 
helpful and inspiring ideas that will benefit and sus- 
tain the child throughout the trials and temptations 
of life. 

The thought of the first little song is impressed in 
the Pestalozzi-Froebel School (at least we were inter- 
ested when visiting Sesame House, London, to see 
it thus emphasized) by having the children wash the 
window-panes. A little boy stood on a little bench 
and with water in a basin and cloth, gave the panes 
a vigorous cleaning, which truly exercised the larger 
muscles. Other little folk washed the glass vases for 
the flowers which they later placed in them. When 
all was clean and bright, the children listened to the 
story of "The Golden Windows." 

In Mothers' meeting, this Commentary would be 
excellent to discuss and the mothers could be asked 
to occasionally let the children help in washing vases, 
and the glass globes of the gas and electric lights so 
that the light will shine through undimmed. 

Let us study the pictures in some detail and see 
what suggestions they offer for Gift, Game, or Occupa- 
tion work, either for kindergarten or the grades, re- 
membering that the thought of the second picture is 
the child's delight in the sunshine and his feeling that 
there is a common bond between them, altho so widely 

Looking. at the first picture, The Little Window, we 
note the principal drawing, with the three children, 
one barefoot boy gazing intently out of the small 
diamond panes of the window with its broad seat. 
There is the little girl looking through the perforated 
paper, and the small boy peering through the inter- 
woven splints. We see the glass and the jug, and the 

In the upper right-hand picture is the child at the 
top of the cellar-steps, with the mother below, filling 
a jug with cider or vinegar. In the left-hand picture 
is seen the crying boy, walking beneath the beautiful 
over-arching trees, through which the sunlight flickers 
in a lovely pattern on the path. There is the rustic 
fence of interwoven boughs, and in the distance the 
house with its two sorts of windows, those in the wall 
and the dormer in the roof (derived from dormir, to 
sleep, since they were first associated with sleeping- 

Compare this leafy arcade, with the columns and 
groined ceiling in the second picture. What relation 
may the one have to the other? 

Stories — Appropriate stories, suggested to some de- 
gree by these pictures, are "The Golden Windows," 
"Prince Harweda," and also the old fairy tale of 
Clever Elsa. We see also, the hands at top of page, 
and the beautiful lilies and fuchsias, that so love the 

In the second picture, there are two mothers, with 
the babies, so absorbed in looking through the win- 
dows at the rising sun. We can just see a few of the 
diamond panes of one odd-fashioned window, and the 
railings at the base. Then there are the beautiful 
gothic window at the end of the hall, and the columns 
previously referred to. Through the window we see 
a church steeple, with windows, and a picturesque cor- 
ner window. 

Gifts. — With blocks, the various shaped windows 
may be imitated, the bench, the steps. 

Let the Second Gift box represent the cellar. With 
six Fourth Gift blocks make steps descending into it. 
The two remaining bricks place at the other end of 
the box and upon them rest the cylinder, as the barrel. 
The two large cubes may form the floor of the kitchen 
at top of the steps. The sphere is the little girl who 
runs down the steps sometimes, on an errand for 
mother. Or, place one cube on top of one end of the 
box, the other at the other end, and use the tops of 
three Second Gift boxes to form sides and top of cel- 
lar. Use- the cover of a small box for the cellar door, 
to let in the light. 

Make window frames of sticks for various shaped 
windows; also make design for fence out of sticks, 
and out of twigs saved from Christmas tree. 

Make window frames of sticks and peas, and let 
children hold up and tell what they see through their 

Clay. — Make jugs and cups to carry water. Form 
in clay outlines or frames of windows and put in these 
small pieces of glass that can be saved from honey 
boxes. Let clay dry like putty. Allow only older 
children to handle the glass. 

Splints. — Weave splints and have children peer 
through them. Also let sunshine filter through. Ask 
children to observe patterns they see made by sun- 
shine through foliage or between leafless branches. 

Paper. — Prick some design in paper and hold up to 
light. This will connect with the making of the con- 
stellations suggested in the December number. 

Tell children of how in many countries, to raise 
money, the Government formerly taxed every window 
that had glass in it, and so many people used oiled 
paper instead of glass. Put oil on some paper and let 
children see the difference. How thankful we should 



be that we are not so taxed. How can we show our 
appreciation? By keeping our windows clean and 
shining. Let children wash some of the kindergarten 
windows. Let them watch reflection of light from a 
water-filled glass. 

When science proved by the light refracting spec- 
troscope that distant stars contained the same ele- 
ments as our own world, it showed indeed, that a 
physical unity exists between all created things, and 
that an inner unity unifies things that may be as 
widely separated as the wee baby and the far-away 
star that sends down its beams to gladden us all. 
Altho it may not do this consciously, literally, for 
love of the baby, yet metaphorically we may use this 
language, which expresses our sense of kinship with 
all life. 

Why did people, originate stained glass windows? 
Because light in Italy was too brilliant to be borne, 
hence it was dimmed somewhat by.coloring it, and then 
the artists made beautiful designs to make the church- 
es more glorious still. When we look at an eclipse 
of the so brilliant sun, we look through smoked 
glasses. Our eye may not bear the unobscured light. 

Talk about the many shining things we have seen. 
The moon, stars, sun, phosphorescence, light of fire- 
flies, Christinas candles. 

Tell how sunlight kills disease germs. Importance 
of lighted streets. Do evil-doers like the light? Should 
we be afraid of having the light suddenly thrown into 
our cellars or our closets? Or our characters? 

If light in some countries or in our own, at some 
times of the day or year is too bright, how can we 
adjust ourselves or our home to it? 

By Bektha Johxston 
Teddy is a poor shot — 

He threw the ball too high, 
And broke John Tompkin's window, 
Who straight began to cry: 
"Bad boy! Bad boy! 

Why do such children their neighbors 

Teddy told his mother — 

She shook her troubled head, 
Then sent him to the glazier's 
A mile away, who said : 
"Good lad! Good lad! 
To own a fault shows you're not very 

The glazier mends the window, 

(Taking a board away.) 
Then Teddy calls on Tompkins, 
Who shakes his hand, to say: 

"Brave child, not afraid of the light; 
Take some of my flowers to make your 
room bright." 
Ask the children what is meant in the foregoing 
verses by the line, "Not afraid of the light?" Is it to 
be taken literally? 

Have older children stand a pencil, or some other 
slender stick, in a spool on the floor in the sunshine 
at nine, twelve and two o'clock each day or perhaps 
only once a week, marking on the floor where the 
shadow falls, and note the difference from week to 
week. Describe sundials and tell how they were used 
to tell the time of day. Also how woodsmen tell the 
time approximately by noting where the shadows of 
the trees fall, and their length. 


To teach the children how to tell time by the clock 
make a cardboard face of a clock, with movable hands,. 
and point them so that they say the exact hour 
"nine," "ten," "eleven" o'clock, as the case may be. 
Then, when the hours can be told correctly, teach the 
fifteen minutes past, the half hour and the like. The 
children must have previously learned to know the 
numerals used upon the clock face. 

When they know pretty well how to tell time, let 
them play this little game: 

Place twelve children in a circle, each with a nu- 
meral attached so that they represent the face of the 
clock. Let two children stand in a small ring drawn 
in chalk in the center. They represent the hour and 
the minute hand respectively. 

Another child stands at the cardboard clock face 
and moves the hands so that they say "nine" o'clock. 
Then the two "hands" run to the indicated numbers- 
in the circle. If right, they return to the center and 
the cardboard clock is changed perhaps to ten twenty- 
five. The children run again to the numbers in- 
dicated. If one makes a mistake she must change 
places with the one in the big circle who takes turn 
as a hand. 


The Department of Superintendence will hold its- 
meeting in Detroit, Mich., February 21-26, 1916. 

The Tuller and the Statler Hotels have been desig- 
nated as headquarters, being situated directly across- 
the street from ^ach other and but one block off Wood- 
ward Avenue, the main thorofare of the city. 

The general meetings will be held in the Arcadia,, 
on Woodward Avenue. The smaller meetings and the 
meetings of the affiliated organizations will be held 
in the Convention Hall of the Hotel Statler, in the 
Auditorium of the Y. M. C. A., in the Board of Com- 
merce Auditorium, in the Cass Technical High School, 
and in the Twentieth Century Club. 

It is now expected that the commercial exhibit will' 
be divided between the Roof Garden of the Hotel Tul- 
ler and the Convention Hall of the Pontchartrain Ho- 
tel. It has been impossible so far to secure any place 
sufficiently large to hold the entire exhibit. 

The Central Passenger Association, the Trunk Line 
Association, and the New England Passenger Asso- 
ciation have each granted open rates on two-cent mile 
basis in connection with the meeting. — For further 
information relative to dates, etc., address D. W. 
Springer, Secretary, Ann Arbor, Mich. 




EAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your -work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little one9 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children, and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in these columns. 


"Manners are something with everyone and every- 
thing with some." I 

The Golden Rule is the basis of all good manners. 

An educated rascal is far worse in his influence 
upon society than an uneducated one. Character build- 
ing should be the principal aim of all really good 
teaching. Good manners should be the outgrowth of 
good will, and good manners if properly taught the 
child, react upon his heart and produce a genuine 
desire to give others no discomfort. Strive to have 
courteous acts spring from the desire to be kind rather 
than for the sake of appearing well. 

It is true that he who does nothing for others, does 
nothing for himself." 

The following topics may be used for morning 
exercises: — Entering and leaving a room; laughing 
at others; treatment of strangers; treatment of 
parents; how to eat; conversation at the table; noisy 
and boisterous conduct on the street and in public 
places; making yourself agreeable. 

"Kindness — a language which the dumb can speak 
and the deaf can understand." 


The holiday toys will in many cases be interesting 
material for drawing lessons. The children will 
enjoy bringing them to school, and after des- 
cribing each toy, they may draw all, or if too compli- 
cated the simpler parts only. They may be colored, 
and stories written about each. 

Suggestive models for the month besides toys are 
dinner-boxes, pails, cups, winter vegetables, snow 
flakes. The same models may be used for paper cut- 
ting and folding. 

Do not neglect the January calendar which may be 
decorated with a snow scene, the Eskimo dog and boy, 
the Eskimo house, boys with sleds, snow-balling, or 
snow forts. 


Straw ornaments— Cut straws in pieces one-half to 
an inch in length, cut pieces of card board in different 
shapes as circles, squares, four pointed stars. 

Strings of these may be made in a variety of ways, 
by using a straw then a circle, then a straw, follow- 
ed by a star, thus alternating till the string is com- 
plete. By the use of colored Bristol board very at- 
tractive strings can be made. 

Bead work — For the very young children we suggest 

the wooden beads and cubes, and for older children the 

■ round and long beads. Make strings by using several 

j beads then a cube, or several round beads followed by 

i one or more long beads. 

Drawing stencils — Procure a box of stencil draw- 
ings, as these are both instructive and interesting. 
The outline of the object may be drawn by short lines 
through the openings on the stencil, then the copy may 
be removed and the lines connected forming the com- 
plete animal or object. Pupils may' complete the de- 
signs by adding to same shading or coloring. 

Paper weaving — Cut long strips of card-board about 
one-half inch in width, also strips of construction 
paper about one-fourth inch in width. Pass the 
narrow strips across the cardboard diagonally in 
various ways. The designs thus made may be used 
for bookmarks or picture frames. 


During the winter months there are many days 
when it will be uncomfortable for children to play 
outside long at a time, and indoor games should be 
provided for the recess time, and for pupils who re- 
main at school during the noon hour. 

With Balls — The pitcher throws to each child in a 
row, who returns it, and if the pitcher fails to catch 
the returned ball, another takes his place. 

Suspend large rings or covered hoops from the ceil- 
ing, and practice throwing through them at different 

Pupils may bounce the ball upon the floor, or 
against the wall, catching it with both hands, or with 
left hand, then with right hand. 

With Bean-Bags — A regular board may be made 
with openings through which the bags may be thrown, 
or pegs may be placed on the board and circular bags 
used, the aim in the latter case being to throw the 
bag over the peg. 

Place a small ladder against the wall, and throw 
the ball between the rounds. 

With balls or bean bags pass them down each row 
with the left hands, and return to front with right 
hands. The object of the game is to determine which 
rows can pass them most rapidly. 

Running games. — Select a number of pupils, one 
more than the number of vacant seats to be used in 
the game. 

Send the pupils some distance from the seats to 
be occupied. At a given signal all are to run for a 
seat, the object is to see who looses his seat. 

The game of tag in various forms is enjoyed. All 
the pupils may be seated, except two or more leaders 
who tag the pupils who are to catch them before they 
reach a seat vacated. 


The Dog — In connection with this study secure as 



many of the following noted paintings us possible, and 
make a study of one or more of them: 

My Dog, The Highland Shepherd's Chief Mourner, 
and a Member of the Humane Society, by Landseer; 
The Shepherd Dogs, by Rosa Bonheur; Miss Bowles, 
who holds in choking embrace her spaniel, by Rey- 
nolds; The Mastiff, by Flambeau. 

Bring out one of the strongest characteristics of 
the dog, its devotion to its master. The children will 
be interested in stories of the Eskimo and dogs, the 
Laplander's, dog, the St. Bernards and the rescue sta- 
tions for lost travellers among the Alps mountains, 
and the shepherd and his dog. 

There is no better way to teach kindness and gen- 
tleness, and manners are but the outward expression 
of a kind heart. 

"The trouble is, that folks won't learn 

A little dog's plain speech; 
If they'd only pay attention, 

Most any dog could teach." 


F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

"Listen boys and girls" said Mother Nature, "and I 

will tell you the hiding-places of some of my children. 

They are now safely tucked away in a snug spot where 

they will sleep till cold winter is past. 

".The frogs, toads, worms and mud-turtles have 
burrowed into the ground. They have holes just big 
enough for their bodies. 

"Father Bruin and his family are sound asleep in 
their holes in the forest, or on the mountain-side. 
They dug the holes with their paws and lined them 
with leaves. 

"The busy bees have crept into a honey-filled hive. 
They have sealed up the door, and are now having a 
well-earned rest. But the wasps have to be satisfied 
with a corner in a barn or a crack in a chimney. 

"The caterpillar now swings in its winter cradle or 
cocoon. No matter how cold the blast is, it cannot 
harm the sleeper. 

"The raccoon crawls under the barn and burrows 
into the earth. The barn shields him from Jack Frost. 

"Squirrels and chipmunks lay up a good store of 
nuts in their nests and so they do not need to mind 
how long they sleep. 

"The rabbits do not want a rest so they take refuge 
in deserted ground holes or in brush piles, and come 
out at night to pick at the weeds, bark and twigs. 
Their track in the snow can be easily seen. It looks 
like this 


"The song-birds flew south at the beginning of J 
winter but the sparrow and many of our hardy birds 
remain with us. 

"If you find any of these hiding-places, do not waken 
the sleepers." 


Under the auspices of the New York Chapter of the 
Montessori Association a tea was held Dec. 14, in the 
East Side Settlement House, 520 East Seventy-second 
street, New York. Miss Adelia McAlpin Pyle, who 
traveled with Mine. Montessori for many years, spoke 
on the adoption of the Montessori system of education 
in the schools of Spain. 

The Grand Rapids Kindergarten training school 
gave a most enjoyable Thanksgiving entertainment 
at Grace parish house the afternoon before Thanks- 

Miss L. Po.xu 
I'm such a very little girl, 

I can't do much but play. 
And kisses are the only things 

I have to give away. 
When given to my dear mama, 

She always calls them sweet. 
But how she knows I cannot tell. 

For they're not good to eat. 
When papa buys me pretty things, 

He always loves to say, 
Give me some kisses, little one, 

I'll take a few for pay. 
I put my arms around his neck, 

And give him three or four, 
"My little honey-bunch," he'll say, 

"Your daddy must have more." 




One day when studying about the life in Holland, 
he windmill, the fine cattle, the farmer's cheeses — not 
orgetting the gorgeous tulip fields — we had made so 
nany mental pictures of a Dutch farm we decided to 
nake one in miniature. Each child's interest was 
iwakened to contribute something of their cutting for 
his wonderful farm. Of course this work took several 
lays to accomplish, and some four or five pictures 
,vere made in the school. A piece of drawing paper 
arge size, was colored to represent the grass and one 

placed on the bridge. Several men and horses, cattle, 
a goose, a pig, etc., were arranged about the farm. 
These were cut with longer legs so that a trifle could 
be folded and pasted to the ground and thus make the 
figures stand about. These also make interesting 
work for their color lessons. Of course color before 
pasting them. 

In January we will live over and over the happy 
experiences of the Christmas season, for little ones 
love to tell their teachers of their gifts, their sports 
and their happy surprises and how better can they 
express their stories than in picture making, when the 
heart is full of joy and the mental pictures are so 
vivid, so real — there are few children, indeed; who say 
"can't" — all have a firm belief in their ability to make 

Fie. 1. 

narrow stream. The Holland canal — A long narrow 
picture, (Fig. 1,) was then cut of windmills, house and 
trees. The best cuttings were chosen and pasted 
along the back edge of the field paper, this was folded 
to stand upright and thus give the effect of distance. 
We were now ready for the farm. First make a large 
windmill. Some of the people live in the upper stories 

a picture, at least, crude seeming as it is as the 
Cubists claim a sincere expression of their thoughts 
and emotions, and they can see far more in their pic- 
tures than can the casual observer. 


Fig. 2. 

of the mill. So it would be home as well as mill. 

A paper "6x12" fold and cut as shown in Fig. II. 
Out on the solid and fold on the dotted lines. Cut out 
a door and line the windows. The laps at the bottom 
are to paste the mill to the paper ground. The fan is 
made of a "4" square cut on the diagonals from the 
lour corners quite near to the center. Roll back four 
ends and fastened to the center with a bit of paste; at- 

Fiff. 3. 

tach to the mill with a pin. The bridge is a strip of 
paper V/ 2 x5 in. cut as Fig. Ill, the projections in the 
sides being folded up to look like the side railings. 
The ends are pasted one on either side of the stream 
so as to make a slight curve. A women's figure was 

They laid the little bundle in the crib — ■ 
It was whimpering and shivering with cold; 

Oh, mine the tongue that always chattered glib! 
Oh, mine the fingers powerfully bold! 

But I touched that silken head 

And my heart-strings snapped and Jjled, 
And I sank before it pitifully old — 
Wee bundle! 

I craved its nearness with a holy fear, 

And the mother-passion in me hungered, torn. 

Upon its forehead glinted wet my tear, 
But my body cowered impotent and worn. 

And I called out in my pain 

To the mother down the lane 

And the seven sturdy younglings she had borne, 
"Wee baby! 

But before her footsteps echoed on the way, 

There came a plaintive peep from out the nest. 
I started back at first in my dismay, 

Then I hugged the little being to my breast! 
All God's promises came true! 
I mysteriously knew! 

And the baby, cooing, taught me all the rest — ■ 
My baby! 


Miss Hilda Allen has opened a kindergarten on 19th 
street, Wheeling, West Virginia. 


Jenny B. Mebeill, Pd. D. 


During January, the children in the first year, will 
enjoy finding on the calendar the numbers already 
learned. Secure several calendars and if possible, 
include one which shows but one day at a time. 

Upon such a calendar the figures are large and im- 
press themselves forcibly as the leaf is turned or torn 
off each day. ■ o 

It will be a fine result if all the children learn thus 
to read numbers to 31 during January, slowly but 

Save the leaves as they are removed, letting a dif- 
ferent child remove one each day and put it carefully 
away in a pretty box. 

In seat work, let children take turns in having this 
box to play with. Suggest mixing the numbers up, 
and re-arranging them in order. 

Have a large calendar on which the whole month 
appears on one sheet to aid the children in reproduc- 
ing the order correctly, or otherwise write the order 
on the blackboard. 

Secure a large advertisement calendar of 1915 and 
use the old sheets for cutting out the numbers. 

The children may play a game with these numbers, 
similar to the well known French "Lotto," by placing 
or pasting the numbers cut out upon another sheet of 
the calendar, as 15 on another 15; 26 on 26, etc., until 
all the 31 numbers are covered. 

This practice reviews the first three groups of tens. 
It is best at first not to explain about "tens" place. 

Another old leaf of a calendar may be given each 
child with directions to color all the "odd" numbers, 
or all the even ones. 

Dr. Montessori suggests a simple game of "odd" and 
"even" numbers. 

Give the children a definite number of small objects 
and let them practice with the numbers from 1 to 10, 
arranging them in twos to see which numbers always « 
have "one" left standing alone, as: 

(i) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 




























All the numbers that have "one" left standing alone 
are odd numbers : 

1, 3, 5, 7, 9. 

All that have only twos are even: 

2, 4, 6, 8, 10. 

After some practice, the children can play it as a! 

Give each of ten children a large number on a card.' 
All who have the even numbers step in line — All who 
have odd. 

Appoint a captain to walk down each line and see 
who are right. 

The calendar may be used in later grades for im- 
pressing "sevens." Each column may be used to prac- 
tice addition of seven, or reading up instead of down. 

The subtraction of sevens. 

This will also aid in finding dates, as, name the 
dates on which Sundays come, this month's Mondays, 

The advantage in using a well known object like! 
the calendar in number work is this:— Use always! 
appeals strongly to the child, and he is likely to see 
the calendar in constant use at home and in stores. 
In the home, old calendars are often thrown away. ! 
The child will now rescue them and invent plays with I 
them, thus using them himself in review. Children 
love to find their own birthday on the calendar. 

As the year advances, let the children hunt for the 
months that have 30 days, then 31. February will! 
serve to fasten 28 and 29 in memory. When older, let 
the children add all these days to find how many days 
in the year. 


Some practice is given in the kindergarten incident- 
ally in grouping blocks, sticks and seeds by 2's, 3's, 
etc. Such practice is also very marked in the kinder- 
garten "weaving formulas." Weaving has been often 
omitted on account of the possibility of eye strain 
in young children, but it could well be used in the 
first year. Then mats may be veritable number tables 
of twos, threes, fours and fives. 

The children delight in arranging blocks and sticks 
in regular procession, two by two, thus forming a two 
table. Their own marching may occasionally serve as 
a lesson in counting by twos, threes, and even fours. 

The regular groupings on dominoes is very helpful 
in fixing the number combinations to 12. It would be 
well to take a few dominoes at a time. Draw them 
on the board for the children to copy. Represent some 
of the combinations with seeds or shells. These ar- 
rangements strike the eye and help the memory, as: 
(See illustration on following page.) 

All of the combinations need not be used. A few 
that the children find more difficult than others may 
be impressed in such games. 



Practice in quick vision is helpful and amusing. 
Make cards or use dominoes for this exercise, or raise 
fingers and hide them quickly. 


All this grouping paves the way for addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and division tables. 

Grouping by tens is most important as a basis for 
our decimal system of notation and also for money 

Sunday, Jan. 25, 5:34. 
Monday, Jan. 26, 5:36. 
Tuesday, Jan. 27, 5:37. 
Wednesday, Jan. 28, 5:39. 

— Bertha Johnston. 

The United States Bureau of Education published 
in 1914, two valuable bulletins. One by Elizabeth 
Harrison, principal of the National Kindergarten Col- 
lege, Chicago, 111., discusses the Montessori Method 

• • 

• • 













• • 


• * 





Ten splints or strips of cardboard should be tied 
in bundles. Have the children count the bundles as, 
one ten, two tens, three tens, etc., etc., to ten tens. 

Let them illustrate numbers as you call for them 

Three tens and four sticks: 34, 

Much practice in this exercise is needed to enable 
the children to understand our notation. Write the 
numbers in regiments — calling for the captain of each 
regiment, as: 

10 ^ 























50 etc. 

Have the numbers read thus: 

2 tens, 20, 3 tens, 30. 

2 tens and 1, 21. 3 tens and 1, 31, etc. 

When in London, during the winter of 1913-14, our 
attention was attracted by the following notice: 

Asking for enlightenment, as to what such an- 
nouncement meant, we were told that it originally 
was addressed to bicycle riders and informed them of 
the hour at which they must light their lamps, under 
penalty of the law. At present the same rules hold 
good for automobiles, unless they have been discon- 
tinued on account of the war. This will interest 
children when taking up the subject of light, and 


Today, 5:24. 

Tomorrow, Jan. 21, 5:26. 

Thursday, Jan. 22, 5:28. 

Friday, Jan. 23, 5:30. 

and the Kindergarten. The other reports upon the 
Kindergarten in Benevolent Institutions and includes 
a map showing the number of children enrolled in 
each state as compared with the total number of chil- 
dren between the ages of 4 and 5. These bulletins 
may be obtained by applying to the Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washing- 
ton, D. C, at 5 cents a copy. 


(Extract from letter to The Times on Sunday: "All 
sorts of courses at reasonable prices are open to those 
who seek knowledge. The summer months give teach- 
ers a chance to equip themselves for better work and 
higher station. Too many teachers refuse to consider 
the vacation at all seriously, and it will not be until 
it is taken from them that they will realize what 
opportunities have slipped by.") 

Oh, sea, thou rapturous, rolling symphony, 
Oh, pines, rich slakers of the beauty-thirst; 

Oh, wind and earth and heavens over me, 
Oh, blessed stillness after sounds accurst, 

What oil of quiet, what wine of inspiration 
Binds now my raveled brain, my spirit worn! 

What mounting pulses grip with exultation 
My jaded heart; my body is reborn. 

My mind reviews the world afresh, my eyes 
Look far unseeing, back, within and on; 

Leisure and solitude, those luxuries. 

Spur me to paths and labors of my own. 

No Summer school, no crowded class, no train 
Of wise professors with insistent themes, 

Can bring me to the little ones again 

As do my books, my mountains, and my dreams. 

What do they teach in all the tedious day? 
I've learned to be a child again and play. 






The proposal of the committee on economy to re- 
duce the force of kindergartners in the New York 
public schools, and to place one teacher in charge of 
a morning and an afternoon session, aroused an enor- 
mous amount of adverse comment not only from New 
York kindergartners, but from kindergarten experts 
all over the country. Kate Douglas Wiggin (Mrs. 
Riggs) one of the pioneer kindergartners, telegraphed 
a strong protest, and Miss Elizabeth Harrison, presi- 
dent of the National Kindergarten Association, Chi- 
cago, wrote to Miss Fanniebelle Curtis, director of 
kindergartens in New York, her disapproval of the 

The measure proposed was, in detail, a suspension 
for one year of the by-laws governing kindergartens, 
so that one teacher shall be on duty from 9 until 12, 
and from 1 until 3, having charge, unassisted, of two 
classes of not more than forty each. In her letter to 
Miss Curtis, Miss Harrison says that such a plan 
would result in a lowering of the standards of educa- 

"Let the thinking citizen of New York ask himself 
the question," wrote Miss Harrison. "Can any woman 
take charge of eighty little children under six years 
of age for five days each week and do it vitally and 
with quickening of the higher spiritual nature both 
of herself and the children? It is impossible. The 
question then resolves itself into: Shall we lessen the 
higher life of the children of America and save a 
small sum of money, or shall we find ways and means 
of keeping this gateway into American citizenship free 
from deadening drudgery and from a dropping into 
mere mechanical methods? Surely the financiering 
genius that has made New York the center of the 
money market of the world can find some way to 
escape robbing its thousands of young children of 
their right to free, joyous guidance into the comrade- 
ship and community life of the higher grades of the 
school. Nothing as yet discovered can do this as 
effectually as a kindergarten in which health and 
joy and intimate personal touch are not stifled and 
dulled by weariness of body and soul." 

Dr. Earl Barnes was also quoted. At the National 
Educational Association Dr. Barnes said: 

"A well-organized mind moves easily along the 
lines of its normal action compelled to turn 

hither and yon in an attempt to follow the accidental 
movements of a child's mind. It is quickly tired out. 
This is also the reason why any real work with little 
children is so fatiguing; and it explains the constant 
struggle between kindergartners and Boards of Edu- 
cation over the double sessions in kindergarten work. 
It is true that there is little difference between chil- 
dren in the last few days of the kindergarten and the 
first days of the primary grades; but there is a vast 
difference between kindergarten children and primary 
children as a whole, and this difference is mainly 
due to the quality of fragmentariness in the activity 
and in the attention of the little ones." 

In conclusion the women principals quote from a 
petition sent to the president of the Board of Educa- 
tion by kindergarten training teachers and special 
instructors of graduate work in New York City. These 
include such authorities as Miss Susan Blow, New 
York Kindergarten Association; Miss Patty S. Hill, 
Teachers' College; Mrs. Maria Kraus-Boelte, and Miss 
Alice Fitts, Pratt Institute; Miss Anna E. Harvey, 
Adelphi College, and others. 

"We are convinced," declared these authorities, 
"that doubling the number of classes for which one 
kindergartner is responsible would degenerate into 
mass instruction and day nursery procedure rather 
than educational work. 

"We believe that the change proposed of having two 
different classes of children for one kindergartner is 
a backward movement. 

"We believe in conserving the fundamental prin- 
ciples of the kindergarten for the sake of future kin- 
dergarten education in this city. 

"If it is imperative to save money in the educa- 
tional activities of our public schools and if the kin- 
dergarten must be involved, we beg you to still hold 
to a high standard of excellence. 

"As an emergency measure only, we wish to go on 
record as favoring a smaller number of kindergartens 
under the present organization rather than a larger 
number of kindergartens with a lower standard of 
excellence, such as the double session kindergartens 
would introduce. 

"Finally, we are so thoroughly convinced by investi- 
gation and experience that the most distinguishing 
characteristics of the kindergarten will be lost by a 
doubling of kindergarten classes under one teacher 
that we wish to go on record against such a measure." 

It is to be regretted that these suggestions went 
unheeded by the Board of Education except that pro- 
vision was made for an assistant kindergartner where 
there were over 35 pupils in a room. 

This change takes effect Feb. 1st, and reduces the 
kindergarten teaching force by 350. 

JANUARY DRAWING*-j»y F. G. sanpers 




All patrons of the magazine are cordially invited to 
use these columns for announcing lecturer, recitals or 
entertainments of any kind of interest to kindergart- 
ners or primary teachers. Reports of meetings field, 
and miscellaneous news items are also s ilicited. 
In writing please jjive your name anil address. 


Trained kindergartners of Chicago, a few days ago, 
cared for the little ones in the neighborhood of the 
Forrestville school while the mothers assembled in 
the school building to hear Florence Holbrook recite 
her peace poem. 


The closing exercises of Miss Edith Tracy's kin- 
dergarten school were held yesterday afternoon in 
the school building, at the corner of Main and Market 
streets. A program of music and recitations was 
given and there was a Christmas tree, gifts being pre- 
sented to the pupils. Refreshments were served. 
Mothers of the children were present during the 


The annual Christmas exhibition of the work done 
by girls in the manual training classes at the Perkins 
Institution for the Blind, Watertown, was held Dec. 
18 in the assembly hall of the school. Despite the 
storm there were about 200 visitors, among them a 
number of Mexican young men, who are studying in 
colleges in Greater Boston. 

There were more than 600 articles displayed, in- 
cluding examples of sloyd work, knitting, typewriting 
and other practical things done through the Brail 
system of instruction. All classes from the kinder- 
garten to the high school were represented. 

The articles, for the most part, were made as Christ- 
mas presents for relatives and friends and the pupils 
were allowed to take them when they went home for 
the holidays. The articles included household re- 
quisites in wood, knitted stockings, sweaters and 
gloves, and ornaments that were made from clay 


The Southeastern Passenger Association has grant- 
ed the same reduced rates as the other associations. 

Among the interesting features not given in the pre- 
liminary program are the following: 

United States Commissioner of Education, P. P. 
Claxton, will give an address on "A National Edu- 
cational Campaign." 

, There will be a debate on "The Differentiated versus 
the General Essentials Courses of Study for the 
Seventh and Eighth Grades," Messrs. Spaulding and 
Snedden taking one side and Messrs. Coffman and 
Bagley taking the other. 

One session will be known as "School Board Ses- 
son," the speakers being Thomas W. Churchill, presi- 
dent, Board of Education, New York, N. Y.; G. C. 
Creelman, Guelph, Ont; E. P. Cubberley, Stanford 
University, Cal.; A. E. Winship, Boston, Mass.; and J. 
George Becht, Harrisburg, Pa. 

"The Junior High School— Pro and Con" will be the 
subject of a discussion led by Charles H. Judd, 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., and Carroll G. 
Pearse, presdent, State Normal School, Milwaukee, 

Two or three other prospective debates are in sight 
and the present outlook for a successful meeting is 


A large number of mothers and friends of the chil- 
dren of the Harriet street kindergarten attended the 
Christmas party held at the kindergarten. The school 
was decorated with Christmas trimmings, and a tree 
lighted with electric lights and hung with tinsel and 
colored bulbs were very attractive. 

Sitting in a circle around the tree the children 
gave a program of Christmas songs and stories, in- 
cluding "Once a Little Baby Lay," "Once Within a 
Lowly Stable," "Merry Christmas Bells," "Old Father 
Santa Puts on His Cap," "Santa Claus Sat in His 
Den" and "Merry Christmas to You." Then came 
dances and games, after which the gifts the children 
had made for their parents were distributed. Each 
child on leaving, received a stocking containing candy 

The children also visited the homes of those of their 
class who were ill, singing carols. 

Similar exercises were held in all the public 
school kindergartens of Providence. 

New York City is departing from the high standards 
which she has maintained since 1893, when her first 
public kindergartens opened. 

Economy is the plea, as usual, but in the recent de- 
cision of the Board of Education that one and the same 
kindergartner must be responsible for 70 little children 
in one day, that is, 35 at each session, without any 
assistance, the need for more women on the School 
Board becomes manifest. 

It is said that the man most urgent for this econ- 
omy has no chldren in his family. We can well be- 
lieve it. 

No one kindergartner can become acquainted with 
so many children to know their individuality. 

No one kindergartner can visit so many homes. 

No kindergartner can prepare so many children for 
the next grade. 

No kindergartner can really love sympathetically 
such a number of little ones. She will be fortunate 
if she does not grow irritable. 

Our advice to kindergartners subjected to such 
strain is to accept the positions now open to them 
in the primary and our advice to mothers is to keep 
their little ones at home, until the Board of Educa- 
tion realizes the backward step they have taken. 




Progressive Development of the Kindergarten Course 

of Study in the Elementary School 

Lillian B. Poor. 

The tragedy of our school system is the fact that 

we do not utilize to the hest advantage the experience 

of the preceding year, and, consequently, we fail to 

recognize the richness of the work of the previous 

grades as we plan our program for the year. This is 

not only true of the kindergarten and primary grades, 

hut of the grammar school, high school, and college. 

One great problem of today the blending of these 

breaks in the school system and so eliminating the 

loss of time which is bound to occur in the adjustment 

of the pupil to the new grade at each promotion. 

A child's education should be continuous, his de- 
velopment normal, natural, and along lines of in- 
terest. At home he sings and plays, runs and jumps, 
and talks freely of his experiences to a sympathetic 
listener. When left to his own direction he follows 
the interest which appeals to him most strongly. 
This type of existence is quite generally approved for 
the little child, and the kindergartner, knowing the 
home life of the child, builds her work on this natural 
activity and its an expression of the home. She does 
not make the mistake of teaching the boy or girl that 
he has two feet to run with, or two eyes to see with, 
but begins at once to teach hm to walk gently, to see 
right things, and to classify objects seen. 

There should be no break between the kindergarten 
and first grade. There is no break in the child's life 
to demand it, and there is every reason why there 
should be a natural expansion of the ground already 
covered so happily and with such richness of experi- 
ence. The addition of new material reawakens the 
interest in doing, and the spirit of play continued 
throughout the grades stimulates the desire to achieve- 
ment, and should be given the joy of having achieved. 
Every child works with the hope of achievement. 
These are the inducements to hard work which satisfy 
and profit grown-up people, and the kindergarten sets 
them before little children. Joy in doing is the motive 
of the kindergarten and should be the motive of all 
education. Here he learns the beginnings of citizen- 
ship, principles which are aroused by recognition of 
the rights of others, and his duty toward the world, 
which knowledge comes by degrees to a child. The 
first step is built on the relation of the child to the 
home; his outlook on life is broadened gradually, 
losing nothing by the way. Daily experience grows 
more and more interesting through the use of oc- 
cupation suited to his. stage of development and pre- 
sented progressively, from the simple toys of home 
to the more complicated technical material of the 
kindergarten. Thus, through her knowledge of the 
home, the kindergartner is able to plan for the pro- 
gressive unfolding of the life of the child in her care. 
So, too, the good primary teacher knows the work 
of the kindergarten, knows enough of its aims to 
have a clear idea of the type of experiences compassed 

and a general idea of the amount of work accom- 
plished. She will know how to build on this basis and 
how to give the child who comes to her his just right,|i 
that of the next step in the particular type of workji 
under consideration, instead of starting him again) 
with its ABC, for it is essential for the highest good 
of the child that the two grades should work together 
without loss either of interest or power on the part of 
the children. The error of ignoring the work covered 
by the kindergarten year is a grave one; particularly 
true is this if the primary class is made up of kin- 
dergarten trained children. To this error is due much 
of the criticism of the kindergarten trained child. 
For no child will maintain interest in the formal 
development of a lesson long since thoroughly learned 
through the play of the kindergarten. 

The kindergarten child should come to the first 
grade with increased powers of observation, gained I 
through actual experience during walks, talks, and I 
practice with the technical materials common to the 1] 
kindergarten. He should have added powers of self- 
expression and creative ability, the former the out- 
come of a wider interest in all life around him, the 
latter due to opportunities for representing experi- 
ences by means of the varied materials offered in kin- 
dergarten. His vocabulary should be increased 
through the freedom of the conversational periods 
connected with nature talks, home experiences, and 
story telling, which fill so large a place in the kinder- 
garten program. He should have better physical con- 
trol gained through plays, games, and rhythmic 
exercise, together with sympathetic conferences be- 
tween the mother and kindergartner in relation to 
the early forming of habits. He should know definite 
facts of form, number, and size, position and direction, 
color and design. 

All this he has with the beginnings of the for- 
mation of habits, — we do not claim fully created con- 
ditions but beginnings, — ideas of cleanliness, regular- 
ity of attendance, punctuality, neatness, attention, 
happiness through obedience in its various forms, 
and a dim recognition of the general harmony which 
prevails when one comforms to such ideas. We only 
claim that he has these characteristics in a greater 
degree than he would have had without the kinder- 
garten training. None of us expects a child of five 
and a half years old to be stored with a collection 
of unrelated facts, still a primary teacher will find 
knowledge of a legitimate nature ready to reveal 
itself, and this should serve as stepping-stones in the 
new field of work. 

In considering the progressive development of edu- 
cation in the kindergarten— primary unit of the school 
system which extends through the third grade— let us 
always remember that the change from grade to 
grade should be natural, interests of one grade should 
overlap those of another. There can be no dividing 
line; the change in method of instruction should be 

The busy work of the grades should be the out- 
come of the manual work of the kindergarten, and 



hould be practically self-directed. We may safely 
issume that the child knows how to handle certain 
uaterial common to both kindergarten and the grades, 
md that he knows how to create with these materials 
such forms as are suited to a child of five years of 
ige, and is now ready to progress at the suggestion 
>f the primary teacher. If the primary teacher is 
10 t familiar with the work of the kindergarten, 
mowledge of what has preceded in the child's ex- 
jerience in these particular lines can be gained in 
nany ways: through conference with the kindergart- 
ner by questioning the children, by visits to the 
Kindergarten. One primary teacher reports five 
minutes' visit to the kindergarten daily, leaving her 
-lass alone, an experience which she considers valu- 
able to the children, as well as essential to her own 
acquaintance with the needs of childhood. 

Children bring from the kindergarten definite ideas 
of number. They are of the type which deals largely 
with relative size and proportion, the natural outcome 
of ther play with the gifts of the kindergarten 
material. These number experiences which the chil- 
dren have unconsciously appropriated have not been 
tabulated, but the experiences are there, ready to be 
further developed in the first grade and formally 
tabulated in the later grades. The teacher who be- 
lieves on the spirit of the kindergarten will agree with 
me that such number experiences should continue in 
the first grade through continued use of objects 
similar to those in use in the kindergarten. The num- 
ber work of our kindergarten extension classes in 
Boston is developed through lessons with sticks and 
| rings, building blocks and surface measures, together 
with certain occupations; and more definite work in 
grouping is encouraged in these classes than is 
practiced in the kindergarten. The teacher knows 
the ground which has been covered, and takes up the 
extension work at that point, progressing from step 
to step giving new number experiences, or varying 
the old through use of new arrangements or new 

material. - 

Definite problems are offered to the class, the 
solution to be individual, and it is characteristic of 
the kindergarten child that each one works out his 
problem according to his own plan. In a lesson 
! recently observed the problem was the making of 
i oblongs on a large sewing card. In the class of 
twenty-five children, seventeen different plans took 
shape-each child absorbed in the problem, caring 
nothing for the ideas of his neighbor, but definitely 
working toward the goal set for the class, happy and 
absorbed until the goal was reached. Again, a lesson 
in double stringing was in progress. "Make me a 
chain so beautiful that I shall want to wear it home 
said the kindergartner. Again there was silent 
absorption for ten or twelve minutes. When the 
chains reached sufficient length to be interesting to 
the observer, the children were invited to tell the 
color combination and the color story. In no case 
was there repetition of another's chain— variety of 
form, size, color, and number groups were prominent, 
and no child failed to tell just what he had made 

how many of one color in each group and how many 
groups in the chain. One child said, "This is a very 
hard chain to make, for this is four and this is eight, 
and I have to think, 'large, small' all the time." When 
a definite task is set, it is always an advance on any 
previous class work. We also give many opportuni- 
ties for original work requiring accurate statements 
descriptive of the results accomplished. 

Definite number experiences may also be realized 
by the so-called ruler measurement exercise, which is 
a more accurate development of the free-hand straight 
line drawing of the kindergarten. In this series of 
lessons the child rules the paper into spaces one inch 
wide by merely laying the ruler on the paper even at 
the front edge and drawing a line at the back edge, 
then moving the ruler even with the line drawn and 
again drawing a line at the back edge, continuing this 
until the paper is ruled throughout its width. The 
spaces thus made may be used in many ways for num- 
ber development. Original number stories may be 
drawn — sidewalk pictures the art teacher calls them. 
The units used in these stories are of the child's own 
creation and the groups of his own arranging, the 
only requirement being that they shall conform to 
the number story of the day. These are followed by 
original number stories without restriction. Such 
lessons give a field of richness for developing language 
and satisfy the child's innate desire for picture writing 
— a desire whch properly belongs to this period of 
development. In lessons of this type in the first 
grade we see the results of the trained observation 
and the initiative which comes from a readiness to 
express what is within, and an eagerness to try the 
task set before him — or, as one of our primary teach- 
ers expresses it, "The child has formed the habit of a 
kind of joyous expectancy that makes him greet the 
unseen with a cheer, instead of approaching his task 
with a fear that hinders his advance." 

The child brings from the kindergarten such 
knowledge of form that the introduction of reading 
seems to be a natural step of progress. The forms of 
the letters are new and the mechanical difficulties in- 
volved in reading and writing must be overcome, but 
it would seem logical to claim more rapid progress be- 
cause of this general preparation in kindergarten. 
The acquaintance with nature, with human life, and 
with literature, which the child brings to his reading 
lesson, will give a meaning to the words which will 
help to make them his own, and which cannot fail to 
enrich his progress through the early days of reading. 
The development of language takes on a more 
definite form in the first grade. The kindergarten 
awakens the interest in good stories, touches a little 
on dramatization, and makes a beginning of original 
story telling. 'The first grade naturally builds on 
these beginnings. The dramatic instinct of a six- 
year-old child seems abnormally out of proportion to 
certain other tendencies, and opens up a wide field for 
character building, since the child who creates a part 
in the drama, lives that part. He lives in a land of 

(Continued on page 158.) 




[XOTE:— Vnder this beading we shall give from time to 
time s i] eli items us come to our notice ielati\ e to tlie estab- 
lishment of new kindergartens as well as articles or state- 
ments in the public press or from noted educators favor- 
able to the kindergarten cause. 

Joliet, 111., is considering the establishment of public 
school kindergartens. 


The campaign of the City Federation of Women's 
Organizations for increased interest in kindergarten 
work, which is being started by the educational com- 
mittee of the federation, was inaugurated by an en- 
thusiastic public meeting. 

The women expect to urge the introduction of kin- 
dergartens in the public schools. They point out that 
the child requires some simple and natural transition 
from the home to the school, inasmuch as the child's 
habits of thinking are formed before he is in school. 


The new kindergarten building at St. Paul, Minn., 
is one of the handsomest and best appointed in the 
northwest. It is modern in every respect, particular 
attention being given to light and ventilation. It is 
finished in white enamel. 

Mrs. Louis Mahoney has opened a kindergarten on 
West Clinton street, Huntsville, Ala. 

Sawtelle, California, has established a public school 

Mrs. C. C. Bradford, state superintendent of public 
instruction, Denver, Colorado, said in a recent address: 
"We must have peace in order that the United States 
may care for its children. I think that child labor is 
the greatest indictment that posterity will be able to 
bring against our American civilization of today." 


Miss Louis Whitney, of Iowa, has charge of the 
training class which it is claimed, promises to be the 
largest in years. The students' home at Neighborhood 
House is being made ready under the direction of Mrs. 
J. Neal, the "house mother." 

The North Dallas Kindergarten School, in the 
Neighborhood House, Cedar Springs road, under the 
direction of Miss Emma Ewing, assistant supervisor, 
will have an enrollment of eighty-five. The club work 
and sewing classes are held in the large auditorium 
of the building, under the direction of Mrs. W. Lieb- 
man, first vice president of the association. 

The South Dallas Kindergarten, in the new field- 
house at Trinity Play Park, under the direction of 
Miss K. B. Blair, is now being equipped with every 
new and sanitary convenience. The large schoolroom, 
it is said, probably will not accommodate all the chil- 
dren from the district served. 

The Dallas Free Kindergarten Day Nursery, situated 
in Trinity Park fieldhouse, and which has been in 

operation throughout the summer months, is unde 
the management of Mrs. Charles Block. It is said thi, 
institution takes care of twenty to thirty babies daily 
Babies ranging from two weeks to- three years old an 
cared for and fed through the day for the nomina 
sum of 5c. If the price is not available, the babies an 
received just the same. 


"The Relations of Instruction in Religion to Public 
Education" will be the topic for the first three days ol ' 
the meeting in thirteenth annual convention of Thtt 1 
Religious Education Association in Chicago, Feb. 28' 
29, March 1 and 2, 1916. The last day will be devoted 
to departmental conferences on religious training inj 
colleges, churches and other institutions. 

At this annual meeting no time will be spent inj 
popular mass meetings, but the whole period devoted 
to carefully planned conferences. The discussions wilM 
be based upon a series of investigations into the vari-t 
ous experiments in correlated instruction, especially 1 
in the so-called "Gary" plan, the Colorado and North 
Dakota plans and the different systems of parochial 
schools and of week-day religious instruction. 

The Association has no special plan to advocate; the] 
conference will afford opportunity to study the present ' 
situation and the various solutions proposed. Some 
of the topics of discussion are: 

The Attitude of the Religious Communions con- 
cerning the Relations of Church and State in Edu- 

Upon what Conditions can Churches of Differ- 
ent Denominations Combine in Giving Week-day 

What are the Reasons for asking the State to 
give School Credits for Religious Instruction? 

To what Extent are the Churches Competent to ' 
Undertake the Educational Task Involved? 

Why some Citizens believe that the Plan Endan- 
gers our Religious Liberties? 

What Influence will the Week-Day Instruction 
Plan have on Parochial Schools? 
Two Sessions will be devoted to a study of Moral 
Conditions in High Schools. 

All persons interested in week-day religious instruc- 
tion are invited to the conference. The sessions will 
be held in the Congress Hotel. Programs may be ob- 
tained by writing to The Religious Education Associa- 
tion, 332 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, 111. 

He that never changes his opinions, never corrects 
Ms mistakes, and will never be wiser on the morrow 
than he is today. — Tryon Edwards. 

Murmur not at the ills you may suffer, but rather 
thank God for the many mercies and blessings you 
have received at his hands. — H. L. Wayland. 

I would desire for a friend the son who never re- 
sisted the tears of his mother. — Lacretelle. 

THE &Ert>fiftGAai?Etf -£ RtMABt MAGAZDft 



C.MiRir. L. Wagner. 

When we are talking about the north land and the 
skirnos, it leads us to the subject of light, for we 
ieak of the northern lights, the bright stars and the 
oon which give the Eskimos light during the long 
irk winter. The children will enjoy modeling from 
ay. stars, crescents, the sun, painted yellow, with 
How sticks stuck in to represent rays. Candle sticks 
e pretty made of clay, with the clay candle painted 
hite; put a one inch stick in the top of the candle, 
id paint black to represent a burnt candle. Paint 
le candle stick yellow. A lamp may be modeled and 
anted. Also an electric light bulb with yellow. 

Did you ever hear of the Cheshire cat 
That grinned from ear to ear? 

It's strange you never heard of that, 
Well, this is its picture here. 

Sun Cresent Star Eskimo House 

Eskimos, sleds, dogs, seals and polar bears may be 
olded, and placed in the sand table. It is nice to 
iinpare the different kinds of homes and the children 
ill enjoy trying to mold as many houses as they can, 
rds houses, and homes of different people. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Can. 


Where does snow come from? 
What shape are flakes? 
What use is snow? 

To plants. 

To people. 

To ground. 

To air. 

In city. 
Describe a snow shed in the mountains. 


How is ice formed? 

Does it contract when melted? 

What is an ice bridge? 

How is ice preserved in summer? 

What is ice used for? 

My grandma has a chest of drawers, 
In it she keeps her clothes, 

It smells so sweet with lavender, 
I can find it with my nose. 


Continue in same way with talks on 
Sun, moon and' stars. 
Clothing, wool, fur, feathers. 
Shelter, iron, stone, lumber, coal. 
The story of fire. 


Grosbeak . 

The kindergarten club of Brigham City listened to 
an entertainment program at their last meeting. A 
lullaby "whisper" was sung by Miss Dorothy Wright. 
Mrs. Eddy ga^e a short talk and demonstration of 
strip work with its special application to making 
holiday decorations for the home. Miss Peterson, 
primary supervisor for Boxelder county, read a paper 
on "The Value of Hand Work for Children," which 
she illustrated with many projects. 

Prof. Patty S. Hill addressed the Women's Discus- 
sion Club of Teachers' College, New York, December 
6th, on the "Progress of the Kindergarten." 




Progressive Development of the Kindergarten Course 
rof Study in the Elementary School 
(Concluded from page 155.) 
make-believe, facts of life are crammed with interest 
if clothed in play, and he really loses himself in his 
chosen character as few adults can do. 

We also have a great field in the primary school for 
original story telling. The child in kindergarten will 
tell a story that meets every requirement of a good 
story. It will have a beginning that catches the in- 
terest, a series of events, a climax, and an end, and 
all be compassed inside of forty words, and told in 
forty seconds. The story telling of the kindergarten 
will naturally be continued in the grades, for the 
children have plainly shown their need. They are 
ready for stories of experiences of little children of 
their own age — little children who really do possible 
things are absorbingly interesting to a six-year-old 
child — in fact they will accept any story of children 
as long as it takes them out of themselves and into 
life. - Through these stories we present ideals from 
which the children unconsciously create their ideal. 
The continuation of story telling and picture study 
opens up new vistas to the primary child, and has an 
assured place in every primary school program. 

The primary teacher also builds her program on 
the child's love for color, not by giving formal lessons, 
introducing the standard colors one at a time, as is 
provided for in the provisional courses of art, but by 
assuming the possession of knowledge of simple facts 
of color and progressing to harmonious combinations, 
to various color tones, to "color seeing" in nature, to 
reproducing colors to match given flowers, leaves, and 
outdoor scenes.- No child can show sustained interest 
in a formal lesson on the development of some point 
which is quite familiar, as, for instance, the color 
blue. He has known the color with many of its shades 
and tints for months, has found the blue of the blue- 
bell and cornflower, and has related it to the ever- 
changing blue of the sky. All of these experiences 
have come to him as a part of the loving familiarity 
with nature which is fostered in kindergarten. He 
has reproduced his color experience with crayon and 
paint brush and thus made permanent the new im- 
pression months before. 

In fact, the kindergarten child has already mastered 
much of the art work prescribed for the first grade. 
He is accustomed to the manipulation of materials 
and to the arrangement of simple designs. He has 
learned the names and characteristics of simple 
geometric forms and will not need to dwell long on 
the description of a square or circle, nor will he 
need the reiteration prescribed in the average course 
of study. More time can well be given to drawing 
from nature, to reproducing stories both in drawing 
and in free cutting, to definite construction work in 
folding and cutting, followed always by free work, to 
creative work with clay or plasticine and to weaving. 
The development of applied design to objects made in 

paper construction adds interest to the form and give< 
an opportunity for artistic expression. 

May we touch on music as one of joyous beginning; 
made in the kindergarten. The child sings in kinder 
garten because he loves it, he sings at his play an< 
often unconsciously sings as he works. With man) 
children it is a natural expression of inner harmony 
and any child, after sympathetic encouragement, lifts 
the low voiced monotone to the singing voice which is 
desired. The primary teacher is happy who finch! 
herself in the midst of a class of singing children and 
will encourage singing, not only in the morning exer 
cises and during the few minutes allotted to the 
subject in the program, but will use it as a bit oi 
leaven when the children need a rest or change ol 
interest. A song sung while the children are working 
at their desks is a happy innovation. She will also 
encourage the making of sentence songs after any| 
particularly rich experience. 

I have tried in this brief paper to show how the 
activities of the kindergarten produce a good founda- 
tion for the work of the grades, how the teacher of 
the first grade who knows the kindergarten program 
can build progressively upon this program. 

The spirit and purpose of the kindergarten obtain 
in our best primary schools, but the conditions are; 
such in many schools that the freedom of the kinder-l 
garten cannot be maintained in the primary grades, 
for the spirit of play seems to disturb the spirit of 
order, yet we recognize the fact that the child needs 
short study periods with rest periods between and 
that during such rest periods there should be oppor- 
tunity for physical freedom. 

We are watching with interest an experiment in 
play in one of our primary schools in Boston. A 
special play teacher has been assigned to the building 
of six rooms, whose duty it is to supervise the play 
of all grades. At no time during the day is the yard 
unoccupied, groups from various classes play for 
twenty minutes, return to the class rooms, read or do 
prescribed class work for twenty minutes, which is 
followed by twenty minutes' desk work elective but 
relative to the lesson of the day and finally by repeti- 
tion of the same program. 

The children move quietly to coat room and yard, 
return to seats, and take up work without a word 
from the room teacher, who is occupied with the 
second section. There is no disorder, and at four 
o'clock the classes as fresh as it was at nine in the 

It certainly demonstrates the value of play in edu- 
cation. It also shows that freedom is not disorder, 
unless you choose to permit it to lapse into that con- 
dition. The child must play his way through the 
early years of his education if he is to receive all that 
rightfully belongs to him. He cannot settle down into 
adult manners and customs without losing the glory 
of being a little child. A happy childhood is the just 
heritage of every child, it is the greatest gift we ean 
give him and every joy we can bring into a child's 
life helps in the general uplift of the world. 



It rests wth the primary teacher to decide whether 
e, recognizing the necessity of the play spirit in the 
udergarten, — the play spirit which shows us how 

clothe facts of life in play, — will find a way to 
ntinue what we believe to he the natural way to 
in a response from childhood. 

Hill climbing is a difficult experience until we con- 
cr it in this spirit, the actual physical effort re- 
ired to reach the crest is the same, but the mind 
d the spirit are engrossed by a delightful exper- 
|ice, not burdened by a continuous consciousness of 
e wearisome act of foot-lifting and placing. 
Points of adjustment are coming to us, one at a 
ne, so that in these days of progress the teacher who 
shes with all her heart will see the fulfillment of 
r -wish, and the day cannot be far distant when re- 
gnition of the kindergarten as a basis of all edu- 
tion will be general, and when the ideals of the 
ndergarten will be uniform and will be based on 
e best interests of childhood. — Address given at I. 

U. convention, San Francisco, Calif. 

When the parents of the Blaine school kindergar- 
n pupils gathered to hear the Christmas program of 
e little folk the kindergarten orchestra was the 
nter of attraction. Under the leadership of Miss 
idget, their teacher, they played several selections 
id scored a tremendous "hit." The orchestra was 

anized some time ago and has been practicing 
ithfully for their first public appearance. 
So great has been the rivalry for places and instru- 
ents that Miss Padget had to increase the number of 
eces so as to give almost every member of the class 
part in the little symphony. The drum and the tri- 
lgles proved the most popular. 

The children showed remarkable ability to keep 
me with the piano, and regardless of what knd of 
iusic was played, adapted their rhythm to suit that 

the piano. 


By Dora H. Stockman 
152 pp. — 21 Excellent Exercises 



Jolly, Catchy, Snappy, Happy, Easy, Pleasy,. Popular, 
Inspiring-, Varied, Character-building. 


Such heart-warmers as "The Golden Wedding:," "A 

Master Stroke," "The Bird's Convention," "The shadow 
on the Home" and "The Old and New Santa Claus." 
Then the nerve-thrillers like Neenah's Gratitude "A 
Modern Hero," "A Patriotic Party" and the brain de- 
veloper and educators, such -as "Guessing- Game of the 
Trees," "Michigan Playing- Fairy," "Stunt Corn-stalk's 
Lesson." Can be put on in an ordinary schoolhouse, or 
will grace an opera house. Address — 


By Dora H. Stockman. 

Seventy Sprightly Jingles full of nature lore. A 
Mother Goose recall to the farm! 

"Parmerkin, Farmerkin, 

In wonder- world of joy, 
Who -would not wish to be 
A little farmer boy?" 
Ethical lessons subtly veiled. 

Fine supplementary reading for first three grades. A 
beautiful present. Good for the school library. 

Handsomely and durably bound with a three-color 
artistic paper cover. 

Price, 40c postpaid; $3.60 per dozen. 
.A. d. d r c s s 

HENRY R. PATTENGILL, Lansing, Mich. 


Frances Jenkins Olcott and Amena Pendleton. 

Cloth, 408 pages. Price $2.00 net. Published by 

Houghton Mifflin & Co., Boston. 

Seventy-five humorous stories drawn from the best 

riters of all countries and arranged in six groups 

ith headings that suggest what a truly "jolly" 

look it is: Stories of Wit and Waggishness; Adven- 

pres of Boys Brilliant and bold; Doings of Girls 

[iddy and Glad; Tales of Beasts and Birds Bad and 

flithe; Histories of Princes and Princesses Proud and 

rudent; Terrible True Travelers' Tales. 
Miss Olcott, who is one of the best known children's 
brarians in the country, knows from long experience 
ast what young people like to read and ought to read. 
The Jolly Book for Boys and Girls" will satisfy the 
istinctive craving for amusement and at the same 
ime help form a taste for the best literature. 

Let the child's first lesson be obedience, and the 
econd may be what thou wilt. — Fuller. 

How Old do You Look? — Stop,Think 

If you look older than you are. it is because you are 
treating yourself badly— neglect — is the word. If you 
took as old as you are. still you are unjust to yourself. 

Ju3t how much less than your age you look depends 
upon how faithfully you follow the instructions which 
come to you with the Grace-M'Idred Course of Physi- 
cal Culture for the Face. 

"My exercises for the face are just as effective as my 
exercises for the body have proven to be in over 70,000 
cases. Results are quick and marvelous. In from 
6 to 10 minutes a day you can do more with these ex- 
ercises at home than massage will accomplish in an 
hour a day in a beauty parlor." — Susanna Cocroft. 

Miss Cocroft after many years' experience has per- 
fected instructions for this course, which include the 
care of the Hair, Eyes, Hands and Feet. 
Wrinkles Flabby.Thin Neck Sallow, Freckled Skin 

Double Chins Crow's Feet Dandruff 

Tired Eyes Pimples Thin, Dry or Oily Hair 

Pouches Under Eyes Sagging Facial Muscles 
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THE KIJn&EitGABtEtf.PfttMAkY MAGAZitffc 



S. Plessner Pollock, Gotha, Germany. 

On the baptism day of the little Heartleaf baby — 
Brother, Herman and Gertrude awoke very early. 
Who could sleep long, when such important events 
awaited one. The children were to go for the first 
time, to church! That was a weighty matter in itself. 
Best of all it would be, if the baby could be named for 
them and could call them "Godfather Herman" and 
"Godmother Gertrude." As they spoke of this, Father 
and Mother and Grandmother nearly laughed, but for- 
tunately they were able to keep an earnest face and 
only called the children "Little monkeys." The chil- 
dren slept in Grandmother's room. On awakening, 
one had looked at the other, Herman had given a sign, 
Gertrude had understood it — and they had arisen 
softly, not to disturb Grandmother, dressed themselves 
just as quietly and slipped out of the door and down- 
stairs. There stood Nero and stretched and yawned. 
Puss washed face and paws, but the useful Rollo had 
already gone to town and Dora and the milk cans with 
him. Father and mother were also already busy about 
their work, only little Brother slept. There lay the 
little thing, both hands clasped around the little 
bottle. He slept so quietly, had no idea that today he 
was to be baptised. After Herman and Gertrude had 
gently kissed his little hands, they went to their 
favorite meadow, where grew so many flowers, they 
picked a bunch and wound a little wreath and trim- 
med with it, the pretty picture, which hung over the 
sofa. It was a Christ, about whom children were 
gathered and beneath stood the words he once spoke — 
"Let the little ones come unto me and forbid them 
not." Now the dear Saviour would also accept their 
little Brother therefore the children wreathed this 
picture, The evening before, they had spoken about 
it, that they would do it. 

The mother had, after the breakfast, brought clean 
garments for the children; as if it were Sunday, Ger- 
trude must put on her light blue calico dress with the 
embroidered collar, which Godmother Krany had her- 
self embroidered for her and for Herman was the 
scotch plaid frock and the new leather belt with the 
shining buckle. In the middle of the week such 
finery? it was unheard of! "Now be careful, children," 
said the mother "That you do not soil your clothes!" 
Last of all, little Brother was dressed in his rose pink 
baptismal garment. O, how perfectly dear the tender 
little Hartleaf baby looked, exactly as if it were the 
hearleaf of a rose bud. 

"Do you know," said the father, "That your little 
Brother will today receive a name? Mr. Pessumhr 
has written to the inspector that he shall go to the 
church in Lis place and hold the little one for its bap- 
tism and baby is to have his name!" 

"Little Brother is to be called Mr. Pessumehr?'! 
called out Herman and Gertrude astonished. 

The father laughed — "Mr. Pessumehr has othei 
names," he then said, "These names were given to hinj 
when be was baptised — Pessumehr is his last name 
his family name." 

"And what is his baptised (baptismal) name?" ques 
tioned the children. 

"Reinhard Wendelin Bathhasar," answered th<: 

"And that is what we shall call little Brother, but" 
that is a long name, hard to remember!" 

"It is three names" said the father, "Reinhard, we 
shall call the little one." 

With that the children were contented, for truej 
enough, cnecould not call little Brother, Heartleaf nisi 
whole life and the name Reinhard sounded very welli 
beside they could call him pet names. 

Now everything was ready for the start to Lerum.j 
The house was locked, the dogs were left behind to 
watch it. Rollo had returned and sat still and obedient 
beside Nero. Dora though, went with the others to 
the church, the faithful Dora must be present at the 

How beautiful the church was! inside was a great) 
space filled with seats, — upon the altar, was a silver j 
cross and beautiful flowers and tall candlesticks with: 
wax candles. 

Beside the altar, was the baptismal font with the: 
basin, into which water was poured. The preacher in' 
his long robe, came in and the Inspector with Mrs.' 
Inspector came into the church and Godmother Krany: 
with Frank, all stood before the baptismal font, — the 
preacher began to speak — he spoke somewhat long hut 
the children comprehended very little, for he was not 
so easily understood as the dear Grandmother. Her- 
man and Gertrude felt how right their father had 
been, when he had said, "The children cannot yet 
understand a sermon," but they saw the water poured 
over little Brother's head, they heard when the name, 
Reinhard Wendelin Bathasar, was given him. At last 
a hymn was sung, this the children knew, so they sung 
it softly, once, when Gertrude stopped singing, Her- 
man nudged her and said "Sing Trudie," and because 
she did not exactly know the words, he whispered 
them softly to her. Then the preacher prayed aloud, 
"Our Father who art in heaven," that, the children 
had long known, they prayed it every day in the 
quiet hour. Now Brother had been baptised and was 
not only named Heartleaf, but also, Reinhard. 

"Why was the water poured over Reinhard's little 
head?" asked Herman of the grandmother on the way 

"When one has been baptised," answered Grand- 
mother, "They must try to be like Jesus, free from 
evil. — the water, that was poured over him, meant 
(symbolically) the washing away of evil. A Christian 
child knows, for example, that he must fulfill God's 
commands and one of these is, 'Children obey your 
parents. (Thou shalt honor thy father and thy 
mother.) When then, the parents command some- 



ling and the children act otherwise, — that is an evil, 
tendency, desire,) which must be overcome. He is 
Christian child and must think that he wishes to be 
ee from sin." 

"Herman understood very well what Grandmother 
leant, for it sometimes happened, — that he did not 
ke to mind: i. e., when he was playing in front of the 
ouse and must stop in the midst of it and go to bed, 
ecause it was bed-time. Often it was necessary to 
old before Herman minded. Now he thought to him- 
i\l, because I have been baptised and water poured 
ver my head, it is a sign that I must keep myself 
-ee from evil — and disobedience is evil, therefore I 
mst always mind immediately, when the parents and 
randmother tell me to do, — or not to do something. 
When ?jl had again reached the little house in the 
ood, the rose-pink dress was taken off of little Rein- 
ard and put away in the wardrobe, but Herman and 
ertrude could remain in their festival dress, the 
lother only said, "Think that you are nicely dressed, 
1 case you should have a notion to splash in the 
j^ater, or to dig in the dirt. Godmother Krany and 
tie Inspector and his wife, came in the afternoon to 
be little house in the wood, where all drank chocolate 
nd ate raisin cake, — the children also had each a cup 
f chocolate, with cake, that is, only the older chil- 
ren, the little Heartleaf drank only milk from his 

'The little fellow," said Herman "He does not know 
hat on his baptismal day, there is such a feast in the 
ttle house in the wood." 

Doka Mo>moRE, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

One day Jesus attended a wedding in Galilee. Not 
nly Jesus went to this wedding, but Jesus' mother 
.nd his best friends were there. Besides, there were 
nany other people who attended. 

All those people were enjoying the wedding dinner 
vhen it happened that the wine was gone — there was 
lot enough left to serve until the dinner was over. 
.Vhen the servants noticed that there was not enough 
jvine, they felt worried, for it did not seem very nice to 
|iave invited these people to a dinner and, then, to not 
jiave enough wine to serve to the guests. They won- 
ilered what they should do. 

i But Jesus' mother was a very thoughtful woman. 
She, too, had noticed that there was not enough wine 
:o pass around, so she thought she would tell Jesus 
ibout it. She knew that Jesus could do something 
to make the dinner all right, so she told him, "They 
liave no wine." 

After she had told Jesus that there was no more 
wine for dinner, Jesus' mother said to the servants, 
'You must do whatever Jesus tells you to do." 

There were six large stone jars standing in the 
room where the servants were. The first thing Jesus 
told the servants to do was to fill these jars with 
vater. They did exactly as Jesus told them to do, 
Riling the jars full of water up to the brim. 

Then Jesus said, "Take some of this water and 

serve it to those who are at dinner." Again the ser- 
vants obeyed Jesus' orders. 

They saw that the water had been changed into 

The man at the head of the table did not know that 
all the wine had been gone, but when he tasted of 
this wine, which Jesus had made out of water, he said, 
"Why, the first wine we drank was excellent, but this 
wine is the very best we have had!" 


Of the 12,000 conspicuous positions, largely of an 
administrative character, listed in the 1915-6 Edu- 
cational Directory just issued by the Interior Depart- 
ment through its bureau of education, 2,500 are held 
by women. There are women who are college presi- 
dents, state superintendents of public instruction, 
county superintendents, directors of industrial train- 
ing, heads of departments of education in colleges and 
universities, directors of schools for afflicted and ex- 
ceptional children, and librarians. 

Twenty-four of the 622 colleges and universities 
listed in tbe directory are presided over by women. 
Of the nearly 3,000 county superintendents in the 
country, 508 are women. The tendency to fill this 
position with women is almost wholly confined to the 
west. One state, Montana, has not one man as county 
superintendent. Wyoming has only two. Kentucky 
is the only southern state that utilizes women in this 
office; the state has 26 women as county superin- 
tendents. On the other hand, there are only 26 
women city superintendents in a total of over 2000. 

Seventy institutions for the blind are listed in the 
directory. Of these 15 are directed by women. Of the 
75 state schools for the deaf, 10 are under the leader- 
ship of women; and of the 22 private institutions of 
the same character, 16 have women superintendents. 
Of the 31 private institutions for the feeble-minded, 20 
are under supervision of women. 

Fourteen out of 86 directors of industrial schools 
are women; and 48 of the 200 schools of art are in 
charge of women. Of the 31 private institutions for 
the feeble-minded, 20 are under supervision of women. 

Fourteen out of 86 directors of industrial schools are 
women; and 48 of the 200 schools of art are in charge 
of women. Women have almost a monopoly of library 
positions. Out of 1,300 public and society libraries 
given in the directory women supervise 1,075. 

The Government Bureau of Education itself ex- 
emplifies the call for women in executive educational 
positions; 11 of the 33 bureau officials listed in the 
directory are women. 

The DePauw Free Kindergarten, in New Albany, 
gave its first free entertainment for the mothers and 
fathers of the pupils at the kindergarten building at 
West Tenth and Floyd streets, Nov. 19th. The school 
was endowed, by the late Washington C. DePauw, a 
New Albany philanthropist, and is devoted to the care 
and education of children whose mothers are em- 



(Author of the Bunny Cottontail 

A most delightful book 
for the young' folks. Beau- 
tiful and artistic; a splen- 
did Christmas gift. 

Price $ l.OO 

A. C. McCLUBG & CO. 



The Story of Bethlehem 

A Beautiful Nativity Play 

Told n Ten Old Carols 
Translated and Arranged by 


Full Directions For Staging' and 
Price, 25 Cents 
..In "The Story of Bethlehem" 
Miss Holer has arranged a jtla> of 
unusual interest; it is impressive 
and attractive. .The music dates 
back several centuries and, while 
a little unusual, in that it hasn't 
the familiar ring of present day 
tunes, it is rich in its melodic 
content and beautful — a whole- 
some character of music to know. 
Some of the numbers can be ren- 
dered by full choir of mixed voic- 
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the arrangements for such use. 

The play can be given by chil- 
dren or adults. 


64 East Van Buren S.t, Chicago 


\I7"E have trained 
"thousands of 
women in theirown 
homes to earn $10 
to $25 a week as 
nurses. Send for 
"How I became a 
nurse' ' — 248 pages 
with actual exper- 
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Fifteenth Year. 

557 Main Stre e*i 
Jamestown, N. Y 

The Chautauqua School of Nursing: 

We Have Permanent Positions ;° a r p a a S 

Teachers who can devote their whole time to introducing 
a standard educational proposition in towns having high 
schools. Substantial remuneration. Address P. 0. Box 
736. BUFFALO, N. Y. 


Writing one moving picture play a week. 
Demand Greater Than Supply. You can wr te 
them. We show yon how. Send for fre a boik- 
let, valuable information and special poze 
offer. Chicago Photoplaywright College, Brio 
278-E-10, Chicago. 

PLEASE •when answering any 
adv. in this column say "I saw your 
adv. in the Kind.-Pri. Magazine. " 


Song, Jack Frost. 

Song, Santa Claus is Coming. 

Recitation, A Christmas Problem, 
Elizabeth McKinley. 

Recitation, Ready for Santa Claus, 
Everett Shippee. 

Song, Little Jack Horner. 

Recitation, Grandma's Stocking, 
Avis Kenfield. 

Recitation, A Schemer, John Den- 

Song, Luther's Cradle Hymn. 

Song, Snowtime. 

Recitation, A Possibility, Hasib 

Recitation, Sitting Up for Santa, 
Bernice Grimley. 

Recitation, The Longest Day, Mer- 
rill Jones. 

Songs, Winds Through the Olive- 

Recitation, A Wish, Martha Tie- 

Dance, Kinderpolka, by eight chil- 

Story and Dramatization, The 
Night Before Christmas. 

Visit by Santa Claus. 

"Gentlemen," remarked the pro- 
fessor, "the general function of the 
heads of several learned members 
'of this class is to keep their neck- 
ties from slipping off." — Harvard 

Pat — "I hear you and the boys 
struck for shorter hours.. Did you 
get 'em?" 

Mike — "Sure. We're not working 
at all now." — Columbia Jester. 

Katherine and Margaret found 
themselves seated next to each other 
at a dinner-party and immediately 
became confidential. 

"Molly told me that you told her 
that secret I told you not to tell 
her," whispered Margaret. 

"Oh, isn't she a mean thing!" 
gasped Katherine. "Why I told her 
not to tell you!" 

"Well," returned Margaret, "I 
told her I wouldn't tell you she told 
me — so don't tell her I did... — 

f-I i =» tat c» l"l-» E» Dramatization of. f 

nidWaina Primary Grades; attr 

tive 29-page booklet; 1 1 scenes; illustrated; 15c. po 
paid. C. L. MCCARTHY, Rufus. Oregon. 

Send me 25c,} n wm a £&« 

NEEDLECRAFT for 12 mos. James Senior, Lamar J 

W E 

ff Am 


Announcements, etc., 1 OO for $3.5 
enyravrd and printed. Correct Styl 
ioo Visiting Cards. 50c. Write for sample I 
F. B. ESTABROOK, 144 Summer Street, Boston, Hal 

OR ATIHNS Addresses. Special Panel j 
V/IVrV 1 lurid, Kssai s Debates, etc., pi ' 
pared for individual requiremettp. Ori(riai 
accurate writings for all events. The kilt 
tliat ling true. Five hundred words, 1 dollaii 

113 East 129 St., New Toil 



A collection of poems for use 1 
the first three years of school life. 

Some point or moral is embodie 
in each poem. They have been trie 
in the classroom and their useful 
ncss proved. 

A valuable book for primar 
teachers to have in hand. 

Paper. Price 25 cents postpaid. 

New England Publishing Cc< 


When answering- this adv. say tha 
you saw it in the Kind.-Prim. Mag 


A sixty page pamphlet, wel 
illustrated and full of suggest 
tions for the primary teacher 
Send 25 cents for a copy. 




New Mexico Journa 
of Education 

Santa Fe, N. M. 

Poverty is very good in poems 
but very bad in the house; ver 
good in maxims, but very bad i 
practical life.— H. W. Beecher. • 




Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years;, 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 


^lass Rooms and 
students' Residence 


54 Scott St.. Chicago. 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 


Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, S4 Scott St. 





SUMMERSHOOl, June 14 to Aug. 6 

Kindergarten and Primary Methods. 
Playground Work. Model Demon- 
stration Schools. Credits Applied 
•■ Regular Courses. Resident 
Dormitory on College Grounds. 

Come to a school where Instruc- 
tion received -will have practical 
value In your fall work. 

For full Information address 

Box 000, 2944 Michigan Boulevard, 




Organised In 1881 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
school in Chicago. Located In Fine 
Arts Building, overlooking Lake 
Michigan. Regular two years' dip- 
loma course. Special courses open 
to teachers and mothers. Universi- 
ty Instructors. University credits. 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

Room 706, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 


In Affiliation with New York University 

Two vears normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 


May be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 
For information address 


New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 



1 874— Kindergarten Normal Institution— 1916 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W WASHINGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Address M. DAUGHERTY, Baltimore, Md., 637 West North Avenue 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park — 
Garrett Co., Maryland 


Trap resets itself. 22 inches high, will 
last for vears. Can't get out of order. 
Weighs' 7 pounds. 12 rats caught one 
day. Cheese is used doing away with 
poisons. This trap does its work, never 
fails and is always ready for the next 
rat. When rats and mice pass device, 
they die. Rats are disease carriers, also 
cause fires. These Catchers should be 
in every school building. Rat Catcher 
sent postpaid on receipt of $3. Mouse 
catcher, 1(1 inches high, $1. Money- 
back if not satisfied. 

H. D. SWARTS, Inventor and Mnfr. 

Universal Rat and Mouse Traps, 
Box 56C, Scranton, Pa. 

nilPI IfATflR^ 100 copies made from 

UUTLlLrtlUAJ y om . (lW ,, p pn fy pe . 

writer or drawing. Fur $i or c O. D. we 
will send postpaid one No. i. printing-surface 
4}/>x7; Ink and Sponee complete. Satisfaction 
ormoney back. SPECIAL OFFER to TEACH- 
ERS. W. Fisher Co. 1 U Amsterdam Ave 


_ __^^^ 30 CLEAN CUT ANIMAL 

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BuUV 1 " |S ' l! 
■»*^""^" $1 .00. Sample stencil 10c. 

M2433 No. Gieenview Ave. Chicago. 


Fourth Year 
Instruction In the theory and un» 
of the Montessorl materials. Resi- 
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building adjoining AH Saints Epis- 
copal Church. Elementary and col- 
lege preparatory courses, 

For illustrated folder address 
Mrs. J. SCOTT ANDERSON, Direct- 
ress Torresdale House, 
Torresdale, Philadelphia, Pa. . . 



316-22 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Overlooking Lake Michigan. J 

19th year. Regular Two' Year's Diploma 
Course. Post-graduate, Primary, and 
Playground Courses. Includes oppor- 
tunity to become familiar with the 
Social Settlement Movement at Chicago 

For circulars and information wiite 

Box SO, 616-22 South Michigan 
Boulevard, Chicago. 111. 

T lie 
P r ofe 

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Training for Playground Workers 
Folk Dancing, Pageantry, Games'.' '-to- y 
Telling, etc. Address Pestaloz/i-Fioebel 
Tr. Sen. Bov 60 616 South Michigan 
Boulevard Chicago 111. 


Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two y-ears. Graduate 

ind Special Courses. 

200 Commonwealth Avenue 


IEACHERS! The Ideal Report Ms 

for pupil's monthly reports 
made out for ten months or less l'or 
every subject taught in the grades. 
Two forms, each 15c per dozen, 2c 
extra per dozen for postage. Envel- 
opes 5c per dozen. Sample free. .Ad- 

A. E. BISHOP, Iron River, Mich. R. 1 

literary Service Based on Merit 

debates, essay! 



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prepared to order on given s.ul je — . 
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I I 








Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust, at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa, Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 

February, 1916. 

Entered at the P. O., Manistee, Mich., as Second Class Mail Matter. 



The 23rd Annual Convention 
of the International Kindergar- 
ten Union 

Will be held at Cleveland, May 
2 and 5. Every Kindergartner 
who can possibly do so, should 
plan to attend. A beautiful city, 
accessible by water or rail, ample 
accommodations and a hearty 
welcome for all, will be among 
the advantages. 

We hope to give the preliminary 
program in our next issue. 


If you can fully and unreservedly believe in any 
human being, do so, and let him know how sincere 
and satisfied is your belief. It will be the greatest 
thing you can do for him. 

Dr. Snedden said, "The greatest weakness of the 
American teachers is, after they acquire a method or 
device in teaching they carry that method or device 
into the teaching of all subjects." 

Few men in the South were better known or had 
more constructive work to their credit than had 
Booker T. Washington, president of Tuskegee Insti- 
tute, Alabama, when he died a few days ago. Born a 

slave, and reared under the most unfavorable sur- 
roundings, he worked out his own education at 
Hampton Institute, and soon after graduating from 
that institution, he began to teach the sons of slaves. 
This became his life's work and he gave to industrial 
education in the South a new meaning and worked out 
a type of education for the sons and daughters of the 
colored race that has become an object lesson for the 
white race as well. And his works do testify to his 
greatness. — North Carolina Educator. 

We, who live in Michigan, should be especially in- 
terested in the success of the meeting of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence at Detroit, February 21st to 
26th. The selection of Detroit for this important meet- 
ing is of itself a credit to our state, and the nearness 
of the location will enable many who could not attend 
meetings at distant points to be present. A larger 
and a better meeting than ever in the history of the 
organization is anticipated. For full particulars and 
railroad rates, address D. W. Springer, secretary, Ann 
Arbor. Mich. Flagg Young, who resigned the superinten- 
dency of the Chicago schools in December last, is a 
woman of remarkable ability and force. She at- 
tempted a big program for Chicago, and succeeded 
largely in her undertakings. She aroused public 
opinion as it has seldom been aroused before. The 
vacation on the Pacific Coast which she is now en- 
joying is well earned. 

Fou more than fifteen years the editor of this publi- 
cation has been urging the importance of rural school 
improvement, setting forth the fact that these schools 
are the weakest link in the whole educational chain. 
We are pleased to note that the Secretary of the 
Interior is greatly interested in rural school improve- 
ment, and is urging a nation-wide campaign along 
that line. He suggests consolidation of schools, the 
standard school, the county unit, or any other mea- 
sure that will bring results. Many states are working 
along this line, and the outlook is hopeful. 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D., New York City 

This month even the little children will talk about 
"Leap Year" in imitation of the older folks at home. 

Their interest in the new calendar will carry over 
from January into February and warrants a short 
story about a little boy whose birthday comes only 
once every four years! It is too soon to offer any 
explanations of this fact. The little ones are usually 
quite willing to "take the world as they find it" and 
to them it is all a wonder world. 

With older classes, and for our own instruction, it 
is most interesting to have the history of the calendar 
and especially of this clever device of adding the four 
quarter days together, and thus making a whole day 
for the calendar once every four years. This is attri- 
buted to Julius Caesar. 

It is quite amusing to listen to the chatter of the 
little ones about topics so far beyond them as "Leap 
Year." On the first and again on the last day of 
February, let the children count the 29 days, pointing 
to the figures on the calendar of 1916. Then show 
a last year's calendar and let them count the 28 days 
of last February. 

February always is a great month even with its 
few days. It seems that it holds almost too many 
remarkable days, but the little ones are ready for 
them all. Be sure not to make much of history. 

The historic sense develops later, but simple stories 
about Washington, Lincoln and St. Valentine may be 
prepared and pictures shown of scenes in their lives 
without reference to the big events of their great lives. 
(See Kindergarten Magazine, Feb. 1915.) 

In schools where promotions are made twice a year, 
this month brings new pupils even to the kindergar- 
ten. This necessitates talks of home similar to those 
usually given in September. 

As father and mother are the principal ideals in a 
child's life, this month of "ideals" does well to em- 
phasize by pictures and songs and conversations "the 
ideal home." 

In the early part of the month, then, present again 
"Family life" with a fireside scene if it can be pro- 
curred, also review the duties of each day of the 

Secure Millet's "First Step" in which father and 
mother and child figure. Too often we seem to ex- 
clude father in our zeal for motherhood. Froebel's 
book cover for the Mother Play in the original, shows 
father, too. 

Miss Poulsson, several years ago prepared a book 
called "Father Play" which I wish to commend to all 
kindergartners. Use it in mothers' meetings. 

Lincoln had a large family and a picture showing 
him as father would not be amiss. 

The beautiful home at Mt. Vernon would be appro- 
priate to impress an ideal country home with a river 
near by. 

Consider decorations this month from the national 
side, as it is the best concrete way to reach the chil- 
dren thru their handwork. Let them make red, 
white and blue chains early in the month and decide 
where to hang them. 

Make much of the flag throughout the month and 
especially on the 12th and the 22nd. 

Talk about naming children for Washington and 
Lincoln and St. Valentine. Who is named for his 
father? for her mother? 

Usually there is more than one child in the family 
and we like to name the others for good, kind men 
and women. (Tell of a few good women. How many 
are named Mary! ) 

Do not dwell too much upon the soldier ideal, yet 
we cannot ignore it. My own views have been modi- 
fied somewhat this year by reading of the disrespect 
in which the soldier is held in China! In China there 
are five grades, as it were, of citizens — but the one 
who is to defend all citizens is despised. We should 
not carry our repugnance to war as far as this. It 
was a sad sight to see such a great old nation as 
China so unprepared to defend itself. 

Let us try to impress simply that soldiers are like 
our good policemen who watch when we are asleep 
lest any one harm our city. Treat the fireman in like 

Perhaps we can save a week at the end of the 
month for Nature work with twigs and buds and 
sap. A maple-sugar talk appeals to every child, es- 
pecially if followed up by a "Maple Sugar party." 

If there are those who want help in organizing the 
program by weeks, let us suggest as follows: 


Home week. Mother and father as ideals, also other 
members of the family as grand parents, uncles, 
aunts, cousins. 

Care for the new pupils. 

Dolls, toys. 

The brave fireman. 


Stories of Lincoln to prepare for the holidays. 
Collecting pictures of monuments. 
The Lincoln cent. Why? 
Lincoln and the slaves. 



Story of Uncle Tom — Eliza and her escape with her 
baby. Kindness to animals. Pets. The kind police- 
man and soldier. 


Valentines. St. Valentine. 

The postman who brings us valentines. 

Pictures on stamps. Who? 

Washington on his horse. 

Washington's home. 

Washington's monuments. 


Nature work and leap year. 
Horse-chestnut twigs. 
Lilac twigs and others. 
Snow melting — where does it go? 
Sap — what is it for? 
How can it climb to the highest twig? 
Maple sap makes maple sugar. 
How do we catch it as it runs up? 
Picture of a maple-sugar camp. We must be care- 
ful not to catch too much. Why? 


Follow the child. Listen to his questions. Listen 
to his remarks. Follow them up to lead him to the 
next higher step. 

Give him a chance often to suggest what to do. 
Let him feel his own problems and try to find solu- 
tions. For example, let the children organize the 
game of postman if they want to play it. Work upon 
their suggestions. Let them select a mail box, find a 
place for it, etc. 

These childish problems are very small ones, but 
they lead to decisions and choices which, tend to 
develop the will. Constant dictation in handwork or 
constant fully regulated games prevent the develop- 
ment of initiative and originality. 

Remember five sound categories for Kindergarten 
Method are: 

1. Locomotion — activity of body. 

2. Nurturing — love of each other and of our pets; 
care of plants. 

3. Communication — social life, talking, telling. 

4. Constructing — making. 

5. Exploring — trying to find Out. 


l. a. Free illustrative drawing in connection with 
many of the topics. Drawing is another way of talk- 
ing or communicating ideas. City children have 
drawn very vivid pictures to illustrate the work of 
the fireman. Of the postman and the policeman. 

They have drawn the maple sugar camp especially 
if a miniature camp is arranged in the sand tray with 
blocks and the kindergartner illustrates on the black- 
board as she tells the story. 

b. Single objects mentioned may be drawn as the 
ladder, the axe, the postman's cap or bag, an envelope, 
a light-house. 

c. Designiug decorative borders for valentines from 
a given unit. 

2. Free cutting, after folding for valentines. 
Free cutting of maple sugar cakes, etc. 

3. Mounting fancy cuts for valentines, mounting 
pictures, making flags, chains, badges. Use cancelled 

4. Building monuments. 
Building Washington's home. 
Building Lincoln's log cabin. 

5. Sand table scenes. Winter Soldier Camp. Mak- 
ing maple sugar. 

6. Clay Modeling. Dishes for home week. 
Twigs, trees, buckets for sap in Nature week. 

Cakes of sugar. 

7. Painting. The flag (free), twigs, their growth 
shown from day to day. 


Little Boy Hero of Haarlem. 
David and Goliath. 
Brave Mary of the lighthouse. 
Search for a Good Child. 
Lincoln's Love of Animals. 
Washington's Garden. 
Washington's Prayer at Valley Forge. 
How a Letter Travels. 
Good St. Valentine. 
The Red Cross Nurse. 

Farmer Brown takes Johnny to the Maple Sugar 
Camp — what the do. "Sap's runnin'." 


These should grow out of the experiences of the 
month. Conversations and stories suggest them. 

Practice marching by ones, twos, fours; make 
arches by touching flags; salute the flag often this 

Dramatic play helps fix the stories told. A few 
children will lead in dramatizing any story. 

In dramatizing "Brave Mary," let the children 
make suggestions; if they do not, suggest a child 
standing on a chair for the light-house. 

Perhaps they will choose other children to stoop 
for the rocks. 

Still others will make a boat. 

The game of postman is very readily dramatized; 
adapt it to city, village or rural environment. 

The children love to play doctor and nurse at home. 
Why not in kindergarten? Important points are em- 
phasized by this concrete play. In this play they chil- 
dren could cut the red cross and use it on the arm. 
It is not necessary to play the whole story. A few 
hints carry it out sufficiently. Let it grow gradu- 

Imitate several musical instruments in connection 
with the marching, beat time with two blocks. It 
may be a good time to plan a "band" which so many 
kindergartners find a success. A very simple one is 

The drill in beating time together develops the time 
sense, trains the sense of hearing, and requires close 
attention. The kindergartner may use a baton. A 



good piano accompaniment helps but is not absolutely- 

Sing, "Left, right, listen to the music." (A dozen 
and two Songs.) 

A few children may be given paper horns to toot, 
several have blocks to strike together, a triangle or 
bell may be added.. 

A trombone interests, too. 

Invite children to bring any musical toy. Secure 
a drum if possible. At least imitate its rub-a-dub-dub 
at intervals. 

Let the band grow little by little. Do not attempt 
all at once. Tell how music helps the soldiers to 
march long marches without getting tired. 

Sing "Marching Thru Georgia," or any other Soldier 
Songs in the various collections as Neidleiger's or 
Bentley's. Consult the index of all your song books. 
You may have overlooked just what will help you. 

Continue winter snow games if the weather war- 
rants, as snowballing, skating, snowman. 

Throw balls at a target, into baskets, etc., for train- 
ing the eye. (Consult "Games and Finger Plays for 
the Kindergarten" as compiled by the N. Y. Public 
Kindergarten Association. These are merely classi- 
fied lists giving the books where each game can be 



M.uuox Thomas, in The Graded Sunday School 

On Lincoln's and Washington's birthdays the 
kindergartner told stories appropriate to those days. 
There was a noticeable improvement in the children's 
interest and attention, but still the kindergartner -was 
not satisfied, and then one day she met Parker's 
mother . 

Parker's mother exclaimed: "I have been hoping 
that I might meet you, for Parker's father and I 
would like to inquire concerning the idea of good- 
ness which our son has obtained as a result of your 
instruction." This sounded rather serious, and the 
kindergartner was startled and troubled until she dis- 
covered the twinkle and the suggestion of laughter in 
the mother's eyes. Then she urged, "please tell me 
what has happened." 

"On Lincoln's birthday," the mother continued, 
"Parker came home from kindergarten and announced 
that Lincoln was a good boy and killed his mother's 
turkeys. Now, tell me, please, how did my son get 
the idea that when Lincoln killed his mother's turkeys 
he was being good?" 

"I haunted the public libraries for days," explained 
the kindergartner, "and read histories, biographies, 
and school magazines without number for facts and 
story incidents about the childhood of Lincoln which 
would appeal to my boys and girls and help them in 
their own character building. The turkey story was 
the best, and I have no doubt that Parker understood 
it and got just the meaning I wanted him to get, but 

he has twisted it in the telling. Lincoln did not kill 
his mother's turkeys. He did kill turkeys for his 
mother — but they were wild turkeys, turkeys Lin- 
coln caught and killed and brought home for food at 
a time when his mother needed all the assistance it 
was within the son's power to give her. 

"In telling the story," the kindergartner explained 
further, "I pictured the mother's need, Lincoln's 
willingness and desire to help her, and all that Lin- 
coln did to aid her. Parker's generalization that Lin- 
coln was a good boy was correct, but he certainly did 
twist the story." 

"I knew that an explanation could be made if only 
I might meet you," said the mother. "And I thank 
you, for now we know how to retell the story at home 
and to make certain that Parker has the right ideal 
of goodness." 

The mother smiled as she went her way, but the 
kindergartner realized that the question had been 
rather a serious one after all, and right then and there 
she decided that next year the children's own personal 
interests and needs should take precedence over 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

Soldiers caps, large enough for the children to wear 
may be made from white paper with a decoration on 
either side of a red and blue rosette. These caps 
should be worn while the children 'march around the 
room singing a patriotic song. 

The main thought brought before the class on this 
day should be that of love for home and country, and 
respect for those who gave their lives in defence of 

The spirit of peace and harmony rather than the 
spirit of fighting should be emphasized. 

Dwell upon the glory of George Washington's life, 
his honor, his truthfulness, and his success as a 
military leader. 


Let the children make folded frames from paper 
large enough to fit the small Perry pictures of this 
great man. These to be taken home as souvenirs of 
the day. 


The flag will be the most interesting of drawing 
lessons on this day. As the children draw, one child 
may explain the meaning of the stars and stripes. 

Calandars, with a suitable decoration of hatchet, 
cherries, soldiers or flags, made by the children, might 
be pinned about the room. 

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Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 

I recently visited Miss Hilda Busick's kindergarten. 
It is one of the best known in Manhattan. 

Miss Busick's discipline is very quiet, steady and 

She never raises her voice in command. She estab- 
lishes a few strong ideals in the child's mind and 
insists that he live up to them. She makes him feel 
responsible. One of these ideals is that of being self- 
helpful, and then helpful to others. 

It is a most interesting sight to see the little ones 
see for themselves what needs to be done, and run to 
do it without waiting for direction, as for example, 
offering a chair to a visitor or picking paper from 
the floor. A premium of praise is put upon initiative, 
and yet the children are not too self-assertive. 

As a rule, the positive ideal is evident. There are 
few restrictions or dont's. 

Self-control in conversation is developed gradually 
by appealing to the ideal of politeness. "We must 
give each other a chance to talk." 

A young pupil-teacher from Miss Bosworth's Kin- 
dergarten Training class was assisting on the morn- 
ing of my visit. 

She was called away to take charge of a I A class. 

She was full of.eager interest to apply to winder- 
garten methods and to make a success. 

Upon her return from this, her first experience with 
grade teaching, I questioned her. 

She had enjoyed the venture very much and eagerly 
reported two incidents that had occurred to test her 
kindergarten ideals of discipline. 

One boy persisted in whistling for a time. "Tell 
me if I did right," she modestly asked. "I did not 
notice hirii for a time, but as it continued, I said, 
'Hark, children, is that a bird singing? Perhaps he 
is hungry; let me throw him some bread crumbs." 

Needless to say, the whistling stopped when the 
attention of the whole class was turned upon him. 

The child felt the delicate rebuke. He was made to 
feel just a little uncomfortable, but there was no 

The second incident related to me was of a boy who 
kept pulling the hair of the child in front. "What did 
you do?" "I walked right up to him and said, 'Are 
you having a good time?' Then I turned to another 
child and said, 'What do you like to do to have a good 
time?' The child answered, T like to sing.' 'What 
would you like to sing now?" Again the child was 
indirectly rebuked. 

He joined in the song and dropped his mischief. 

Of course I commended Miss C. for her two happy 
thoughts using as she did "Good" to overcome "Evil," 
thus working along the line of positive discipline 
rather than negative. 

Miss C. at once gave all the credit to her kinder- 
garten practice under Miss Busick. 

She said, "I learned this method here in the kin- 
dergarten and I thought I would try to apply it to the 
older children. I never knew how to do it until I 
came to work under Miss B. 

Many of the kindergartners in New York City and 
elsewhere are going into the grades. The experience 
will be a rich one. It is as delightful to watch the 
development of a child from six to seven as from five 
to six. 

I congratulate the elementary school upon the ac- 
cession of kindergartners. I trust the kindergartners 
will carry over these principles of discipline and not 
yield to antiquated modes of correction if they are 
so unfortunate as to find them anywhere. 

As the child passes on he comes upon the age where 
more strong drill is needed. 

Indeed, our greatest child student, Dr. G. Stanley 
Hall, thinks we have not taken sufficient advantage 
of it. He calls the age from 8 to 12 the "drill age," 
but at the same time, it is true that our very large 
classes in public schools tend to over-accentuate drill- 
ing to the neglect of initiative and thus make ma- 
chines instead of thinkers. 

One excellent corrective I have noted of late years, 
is the use of dramatic illustration of the reading les- 
son and of the story in the I A and I B classes. 

The children play out any reading lesson in their 
own simple ways. They show more life, freedom 
and initiative in this exercise than in any other way. 
Kindergartners are well prepared to carry out this 
simple dramatic work in I A. 

Its effect upon the reading is marked. It helps 
in breaking up stilted reading. It helps the children 
get the sense of what they read. It helps them in 
oral reproduction of the story. 

It is a relaxation and entertainment to both teacher 
and child. It develops grace and gesture, or I may 
say, permits the child to retain his own natural grace. 
Elocutionists now study the child's wonderful tones 
and gestures. The large public school too often tends 
to efface them. 

NOTE — Kindergartners going into the grades should 
look up simple dramatic readers. Miss Mae Higgons, 
president of the N. Y. P. S. Kindergarten Association 
is teaching this year in a I A class and highly recom- 
mends "The Story Reader." Its name surely is hap- 
pily chosen. It follows "The Culture Reader," and 
"The Aldine" in the use of Mother Goose. Several 
readers are now usually supplied during a term. 
The day of one reader only in a grade is past in our 
best schools. 

I send good cheer to those kindergartners who are 
going or have gone into the grades. In most cases 
I am sure, they will find it a broadening and a happy 
experience. In certain respects it is a relief while 
it adds other duties. 

The true mother enjoys her babies but delights in 
moving forward with them. 



F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

The sleigh is a very appropriate object to make use 
of as a manual training lesson for February, and it is 
a very easy lesson to manage. 

Give the children any size paper of any color, of 
medium or heavy weight providing it is oblong in 

Let the teacher draw the diagram of the sleigh 
on the black-board. Let the children use their 
rulers, Rule lines AB AC— the only caution neces- 



V N 


sary is to tell class to have them at the same distance 
from sides of the paper. If AB is one inch from edge 
CD must be also. 

Rule lines EF IJ GH taking the proportions from 
the black-board sketch. 

Slant line from G to B and from H to D . 

Cut line from K to L and from M to N. 

Cut line from A to L and from C to N. 

Cut on line from B to Q and from D to R. 

Cut on line from P to O. 

Paste 1 and 2 under the sleigh's body. 

Bend runners into position. 

Put wool for rope to pull the sleigh. 

F. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

Notice how the snow melts around the base of trees, . 
weeds and bushes. The reason for that is that when 
the sun shines, a certain' amount of heat is absorbed, 
which melts the snow near by. 

In February look for the seeds still hanging in their 
pockets to fee birch trees. "Winter winds have not 
blown them all away. When the pockets are opened, 
hundreds of tiny seeds are discovered. 

Notice also that by February very few rowans are 
left on the trees, but traces of feasts that the birds 
have enjoyed may be seen on the snow under the 

Seeds should be sown in window boxes so that class 
may watch their growth. Keep a record of when the 
seeds were sown and of when the first cotyledon made 
its appearance. 

Have as much variety as possible in the seeds, so 
that differences may be noted when leaves begin to 
show. Do not be afraid to take some up and examine 

roots. Good drawing lessons Will be the result of this 

Where are all the birds? Watch for the return of 
the first. 

Lessons on the caterpillar, the cocoon and the 
chrysalis, will be in order. 

Perhaps some Pussy willows, venturesome enough 
to come out in February may be found. If so the 
teacher will not lack material for object lessons, 
paper cutting lessons, drawing and songs. 

What about the trees in February? Because we do 
not see any leaves, are the trees dead? What about 
the sticky brown buds on the chestnut trees? On 
what other trees have buds been seen? 

Encourage the children to notice the weather con- 
ditions. Is there any wind? From which direction 
does it blow? Is it freezing or thawing? What does 
the frost do to the ground? What use is the snow? 
When it melts, where does all the water go? 

Have twigs in water and watch for the buds to un- 
fold. Twigs from apple trees will blossom in the 
school-room if kept in a sunny place. 

The covering of birds is an interesting topic for 
this month. Those birds that do not go south in 
winter are provided with extra down to keep out the 

Perhaps some children have seen swans and geese 
swiming in the water in winter time, and evidently 
enjoying it. How do we account for their not taking 

Carrie L. Wagner. 

February is such a short month, but so full of sub- 
ject matter that is interesting to the children. Valen- 
tine brings numerous interesting articles to make, 
among them pretty things made of clay. What could 
be a prettier than a necklace of clay beads painted red 
with a heart pendant? This could be given to mother 
or a little friend for a valentine. Larger clay hearts, 
painted red, with pretty pictures pasted on them and 
a string fastened in the top while damp, will make 
prety plaques. 

Some of the trades are spoken of this month, and it 
uiil be easy to make some of the things belonging to 
the blacksmith shop. After singing the "Anvil 
Chorus," it will be interesting to make the hammer 
and the anvil, and some of the children will even 
attempt to model the horse. Perhaps they will call 
the horse George Washington's pony or the one he 
rode when a soldier. And how interesting it will be 
to make cannons, guns, and build forts of the clay. 

"How the wind blows; 
How the cold grows, 
Jack Frost is coming, 
Look out for your toes 
Icicles freeze 
Fast to the trees, 
There — he has kissed you, 
I just heard you sneeze." 





(The Target.) 
(Translated from the German of .Frederich Froebel.) 
Bkrtha Johnstox. 
Motto for the Mother (Prose Rendering.) 
However meaningless this play 
May seem to be, 
Yet therein lies much more 
Than one may imagine. 
It resembles the rough diamond 
Which, when polished, 
Shows many hues in one, 
To the delighted eye. 
How, also, things dissimilar, 
Readily offer themselves to combination; 
Plow, also, the widely separated, 
Join themselves into one; 
And also, the union of other different things, 
This little play searches out, 
For those who love to see 
Truth wreathed about with play; 
Which the child's mind 
Senses with such wonderful ease, 
And which, towards the high advantage 
Of this insight, paves the way for him . 

That all activity 
Leads to one Whole, 
v And, also, that to Labor 
Is due a just recompense; 
That nothing is arbitrary, 
That things condition themselves, 
That Proportion strives 
To express itself in all things: 
Help your child to 

Comprehend these truths, in his feelings; 
Presaging this, measure, moderation, 
Will not leave him, during his life. 

This stick lay I lengthwise, 
This stick lay I crosswise. 
Then in both a hole I bore, 
And-drive a nail right through the core. 
This makes a flat board, fastened well, 
And the Target is ready then to sell. 
"What costs it?" 
"Three pennies" 
"Why, that's too dear!" 
"You have net counted the cost I fear" 
"One penny cost the small, straight sticks, 
"One penny costs the smooth, flat board, 
One penny's due the skilful labor. 
"So if three pennies you cannot afford, 
Goodbye, little neighbor." 

With this little play we enter upon a new, a peculiar 

stage; yet this play must occupy a necessary place, 
whatever it may be, in the course of the child's de- 
velopment, for I have found it, as to its universal, 
primitive form, in the most diverse districts, and in 
tie most diverse of German dialects, both High and 
Low. It seems to me important for the child's life 
as a whole, since it leads him, by the easiest steps, 
into the life of the intellect, and the life of trade. 

The external side of the little play, is already known 
to you, Mother. The baby stands or sits in front of 
you, holding, first his left hand, then his right hand, 
horizontally towards you. You now take, either the 
index finger of your baby's other hand, or of your 
own, and draw with it en the other, two lines, which 
intersect each other, exactly at right angles; then 
you pretend to bore with the middle finger, a hole at 
the point of intersection, next letting it represent a 
hammer, driving in a nail, finally placing your hand 
flat upon it, meanwhile singing the given song. 

As already said, the little play is very common, and 
in irost varied forms. Why? Frankly confessed, I 
see therein the first trace:; of an effort to make the 
child mindful of position and form, and the phen- 
omena necessarily associated with them. The one 
line is the line of length, the other, that of breadth; 
joined together, one appears as perpendicular, the 
other as horizontal; they intersect each other reci- 
procally, in their center, which unites things opposed, 
such as the four equal and therefore right angles, 
which lie adjacent to it, formed by both lihes recipro- 
cally intersecting each other. Also, both lines, with 
their four ends, lie in one plane, which is doubly 
shown'by the hands, the one beneath, and that clapped 
upon it 

"There, I don't understand one word of all that," 
you say; "how then can my child understand any- 
thing of it?" 

You are right, Mother. Your child could not under- 
stand one word of what has just been said, were 
it told him. But, Mother, be must have some pre- 
sentiment of the thing, or else the play would not 
please him so. You see, therefore, thoughtful, at- 
tentive Mother, some understanding of the thing must 
touch the deeper springs of your child's nature, lie 
closer to his natural, original, primitive self, than an 
understanding of the Word. Would you then teach 
him in a way that is natural and that will impress 
him, teach him directly through his observation of 
and experience with things. 

"Why should such educational methods be so 
abiding?" you ask. 

What is observed for oneself impresses itself deeply, 
three things being therein always united, which the 
child seems to presage: the object, the particular, the 
universal, and the relation of both to the child. 

Three things are also here undivided, 
And even if the child does not yet name them, 
Yet in him they awaken strong feelings 
Else he would not observe them so attentively. 



The three lead to one goal, 
To which also the child now inclines: — 
To have mastery over things, 
In relation to Size, Numher, and Form. 

The artist himself, seems to wish to bring this 
home to the child; the three Tyrolese archers have 
one and the same aim in view; and the same plea- 
sure reigns in the hearts of the three boys who are 
carrying the target. 


Mks. L. T. Worley, Dallas, Tex. 

That children enter the subsequent grades with 
much better mental poise, as well as ability to think 
and act, than children who have not been in kinder- 
garten, is proven by the third of our series of 
articles on the kindergarten through Miss Georgia 
R. Locke of the Graduate Kindergartners' Club, San 

Just at the period of life when a child is enriching 
his vocabulary, his reading is the first step from the 
kindergarten to the primary. He does not read in a 
dull, uninterested way, 'I-see-the-blue-bird.' He reads 
with animation: 'I see the bluebird.' He has been in 
the park and seen the bluebird; he has played being a 
bluebird; he has picked out the children dressed in 
blue; he has drawn a crude picture with a blue 
crayon. He has heard stories and repeated them. 
He has learned some of the best verses the language 
affords. The exercises of the intelligently conducted 
kindergarten are infinitely more interesting to the 
normal child than being suddenly called from play 
and bodily freedom to give attention to signs in a 
book from which he is told to say 'The cat sat on a 
mat. 'It is an ox,' etc. If the conditions are favorable 
to eager interest the exercise of reading will have the 
best effect. 


In the kindergarten the child does not have actual 
lessons in number, but he uses numbers in a practical, 
concrete way. He and his companions are told to 
march in twos, and if this is well done they may 
march in twos and twos, thus making fours. He is 
told to choose six children to play a game and that 
the next time he may choose nine if he can count the 
number correctly, and so by learning, in using num- 
bers and their combinations, he comprehends number 
and he is getting a vocabulary of words that stand 
for real things; he divides, puts together, transforms, 
distinguishes from form and color and creates at first 
hand mathematical formula. He applies what he 
learns. He discovers and recognizes through original 
experience. A little boy who had played with a set of 
blocks containing eight cubes was given a new set 
containing eight blocks of another shape, whereupon 
he announced almost at first glance, 'Same much as 


The child in the kindergarten learns position ancj 
direction and other elements of geography. He visits! 
the railroad-yard across the way and afterward buildsfil 
a railroad-yard in the sand in right relation to thel 
kindergarten; he visits a business street and repro-f 
duces it afterward with blocks in right direction from 
a residence street. Simple geography, of course — 
very simple — but the surest kind of foundation for 
later lessons in a book labeled 'Geography.' 

The preparation a child gets in a good kindergarten 
for later lessons in music, art, handwork, physical 
training and nature study is so obvious it need not be 
dwelt upon. Nature study just comes along as a 
child's power develops through observation. If 
teaches the value of absolute truth; it cultivates a 
love of the beautiful and a perception of color. A 
child soon learns that he can not manage nature; 
nature study places emphasis on kindness instead of 
cruelty; it encourages a natural desire to protect. 
With suggestive stories the child's mind goes on in- 
vestigating and he is made to feel that the nature 
story is a continued story and that there is always 
something coming and with it the development of his 

The kindergarten child is independent, self-reliant. 
He is called upon constantly to look out for himself, 
his surroundings, the younger children. He straigh- 
tens cupboards, puts on his own coat, waters plants, 
leads the games, sings alone; not very big acts in 
themselves, but the kindergarten child is not very 
big, and these independent acts day after day, suited 
to his ability at four or five years, make for indepen- 
dence, self-reliance in bigger measure at eight or 
ten years. 

The kindergarten attempts to send children forth 
neither bashful nor precocious. The misfortune of 
both faults is obvious. Two little boys who entered 
kindergarten at the same time were the extremes of 
these two types. The difficulties of the kindergart- 
ner in handling each case according to its needs 
were many and trying, but they are now forgotten in 
her pleasure in knowing that both children are doing 
well in the grades, hampered neither by shyness nor 
forwardness. As the farmer does not think to en- 
hance the value of his crops by planting his seed 
sooner than the prescribed time, but by fertilizing, 
plowing, studying the kind of seed in" relation to the 
kind of ground, gives fertilizing experiences and pre- 
pares the soil for the seed, which will soon be planted 
there in the shape of primary school lessons. 

It is a pleasure to think, just under the snow, 
That stretches so bleak and blank and cold, 

Are beauty and warmth that we cannot know, 
Green fields and leaves and blossoms of gold. 

Look up and not down; 
Look forward and not back; 
Look out and not in; 
And lend a hand. — Hale. 



Upon reading Frobel's Commentary to the Target 
play, we find ourselves asking, is there in English 
folklore any such finger-play? In other words, is the 
little game of so universal a character as Froebel 
thinks, or is it limited to districts in the lands of the 
Teutons? Germany seems particularly rich in such 
finger plays. Is it possible, that had some investiga- 
tor mads some fifty years ago, a similar study and 
compilation of English finger-plays, that they would 
have proved equally abundant. If any of our readers 
know of any such plays as have not yet been noted, 
we will be pleased at the opportunity to record them. 

In modern times Germany still seems to be the 
country in which the Schutzen Fest were still held, 
and even in America, our German citizens still main- 
tain the good old picturesque outdoor festival. So 
general there has been this traditional practice that it 
is, perhaps, not surprising, that the child should have 
a finger-play based upon it. 

Target practice is of course in vogue amongst those 
who wish to acquire skill with firearms for hunting 
or for war, and archery as a pastime was revived in 
England in 1844 and in the United States in 1878 and 
has many skilful devotees, so that while the finger- 
play as such, is new to most children, the target itself 
is more or less familiar. 

The regular targets used in archery are made of 
straw covered with canvas. 

The little play as given by Froebel suggests three 
lines of development. We can devise all kinds of 
aiming games that lend to train to accuracy of eye 
and muscular control; there are the mathematical 
principles involved in the relations of the parts of 
the target to each other; and there are the equitable 
principles of trade. 

On the morning circle let the teacher superintend 
the making of a simple target. She may be able to 
secure a round barrel-head and then with due im- 
portance, have the children place the two sticks that 
are to strengthen it; the proper adjustment of these 
will give opportunity for noting the relations of the 
sticks to each other, the angles formed, and the like. 
An augur may be necessary for making the holes for 
the insertion of the wooden pin. Then let concentric 
circles be drawn upon it, after which it can be put in 
position and the children may toss at it the First Gift 

If, for any reason, the making of a target is not 
feasible, draw on the floor two straight lines, about 
two feet long, at right angles to each other to repre- 
sent sticks, and then a circle or so around them, and 
let the children roll the balls into the rings. 

An aiming toy for beanbags can be made of a 
wooden-box like a soap-box. Remove the top and one 
narrow end. Then turn it upside down and it will 

stand in an inclined position. Saw one or two holes 
into what is now the top and the toy is ready for 

The Gift work suggested by this play is as follows: 

First Gift — Aiming games. 

Second Gift — Build tower in center of ring to be 
knocked down with sphere. 

Play store to bring in elements of honest dealing. 
Good fruit; good flour; crates of vegetables, etc. Be- 
fore we can eat our breakfast how many people have 
helped to prepare it for us. Coffee growers in the 
east, orange growers in the west, cereal growers, 
and the boatmen and trainmen. 

Of the Third and Fourth Gifts make shops with 
counters, bales, crates, etc., also target shop. Circles 
can be used for targets. Also for pennies. 

Of rings and sticks make target design for shoot- 
ing-lodge frieze. 

Of sticks and peas make outlines of saw and other 
tools as seen in the picture. 

With Occupation materials, use the paper circles as 
targets with sticks pasted on to strengthen them. It 
may be necessary to cut a tiny notch in the middle of 
each stick so that they will dovetail. 

These may be sold over the tiny counters made of 
the Third and Fourth Gifts. In each case call atten- 
tion to the workmanship of the target; the materials 
and how well put together. 

Tiny arrows may be cut from stiff paper, and with 
the cardboard modeling, make a small cylinder to 
hold the arrows like a quiver. 

Katherine Dopp, in "The Place of Industries in 
Elementary Education" has a fascinating chapter on 
the arrow and the various processes necessary to the 
making of a perfect one. 

Speak of the long practice required with firearms 
and bow and arrows, before skill is acquired. Tell 
the story of William Tell, and the apple. Also, David 
and Jonathan. This being the month of St. Valentine, 
you may tell of the little winged archer Cupid who 
never fails of his mark. Cupid was the god of friend- 
ship between those of the same sex as .well as of the 
attraction of the different sexes for each other. Does 
the time and thought spent on making ugly, crude, 
unkind valentines represent labor well directed? Let 
the children feel the difference between the labor spent 
on making something friendly and beautiful and on 
something that carries a sting. 

In "The Parents' Assistant," that famous book of 
short stories by Maria Edgeworth, are two that older 
children may enjoy reading. One is called "Two 
Strings to his Bow." The other, "The Little Mer- 

When speaking of the skill acquired, in shooting do 
not fail to mention the gun used by the life-savers. 



when firing the life-line over a_ wrecked vessel. In 
this connection speak of the splendid courage and 
heroism of the life-savers and let the children feel 
that justice requires their being adequately paid. 

Why do scientific men, teachers, doctors and the 
like, find it necessary to ask the prices they do for 
their services? Because, for one thing, they have to 
spend much time and money to prepare themselves for 
their professions. 

A little finger play can be made by holding horizon- 
tally the middle and forefingers of the left hand to 
represent a counter or table. The other fingers are 
doubled up out of sight. Back of these two fingers let 
the forefinger of the right hand stand up to represent 
the target-maker or shopman. The two thumbs stand 
up on the near side of the counter to represent the 
two children. In reciting the words of the target 
song, (see commentary) let the forefinger nod back 
and forth when speaking, and the two thumbs do the 
same when it is their turn. 

66666 6666666 6666666 
Three small boys are they — 
Off for a holiday. 

With a target round and arrows straight, 
To practice till they can shoot first-rate. 
Each bright boy a nickel paid, 
So partial owner he was made. 
Each shares in the cost and shares in the fun, 
And shares in the joy of a victory won. 

Three marksmen bold are they — 
Off for a holiday. 
With target round and rifles new. 
To practice till each one's aim is true, 
So distant the target, ('twixt you and me), 
I wonder how they the bulls'eye see. 
But hands are steady and keen their eyes, 
They know its position, shape and size, 
So they practice long, until each scores high, 
When, "with friendly handshake, they say "Good- 

Olive Wills. 

This is the month when songs of love and patriotism 
are sung all over our land, when kind thoughts for 
each other are fluttering on wings of love among the 
children and among the grown ups as well. When 
memories of heroic deeds are recounted to the little 
ones so that patriotism and love for the Fathers of 
our country may live generation after generation. 

Since we all know the joy little children feel in 
doing with their hands and how this doing impresses 
the lesson more, firmly on their memory, we will 
again make our valentines and spread the love mes- 
sages abroad. 

Lincoln had love of right and honor, Washington 
deep love of country, thus love is the spirit of the sea- 
son and we feel glad that we can celebrate these two 
birthdays in the same month with St. Valentine. The 
three valentines here given should be outlined for the 

youngest children then directing their work in color- 
ing, or if you like give them a cardboard pattern and 
have them trace around it.. 

(See illustrations on following page.) 

The heavy drawing paper is folded and the parts 
marked with a star in the illustration are placed on 
the fold, cutting the whole double so they will make 
booklets with the message inside. 

Color before cutting them out and you will have 
cleaner edges. 

Choose any message you like but here are a few 

For the pansy. 

"Pansy is for memory of you." 

The dove. 

"Beneath my love's safe sheltering wing 

The heart, dear love, should rest and sing." 

The sailboat. 

"Sail, sail, o'er the ocean blue. 

And bear to my love my message true." 

An interesting way to study of Lincoln and Wash- 
ington would be to make booklets of pictures cut from 
circulars, papers and magazines. These pictures of 
flags, soldiers, caps, tents, guns and cannons. An 
interesting booklet noticed was like an A B C book, 
using only the letters of the much loved names Lin- 
coln and Washington. For instance. 

L is for Lincoln, very brave man. 

(In this page paste a picture of Lincoln.) 

I is for Illinois where this great life began. 

N is for navy and C. the cannons they used. 

O is for orders he gave to his men and 

L the love without end. 

N for the nation he blessed and saved for us all. 


More than one-third of the children in the kinder- 
garten and primary grades of the St. Paul public 
schools were absent January 12th. 

All of the schools had sessions and were well 
heated, but many parents kept their children at home 
rather than let them face the biting sub-zero cold. 

At every school the principals reported that scores 
of children were absent. 


Dr. E. A. Meyerding, school physician, received 
many calls this morning from principals asking what 
was the best treatment for frostbites as many chil- 
dren were suffering from frostbitten toes, fingers and 

The treatment prescribed by Dr. Meyerding was 
an application of snow to the affected parts, followed 
by movements to stimulate the circulation. After 
these treatments an application of any soothing oint- 
ment was used. 

Every man is his own ancestor, and every man is 
his own heir. He devises his own future, and he in- 
herits his own past. — H. F. Hedge. 






Uraguerite, Miller, Teacher Public Schools, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 

Characters: Children of kindergarten or primary 
rade age, in colonial costume representing, 

George Washington, as a boy, 
Mr. Washington. 
Mrs. Washington. 
Colored slave boy. 

George Washington, as a soldier. 
Betsy Ross and friends. 
George Washington, as a gentleman. 
(Child in colonial costume to recite the follow- 
ing verses as the scenes take place.) 




Many, many years ago 

There lived a wonderful man 

Whose name is known everywhere 
Throughout this great wide land. 

You all know good George Washington 

And what he did and said, 
But all you know about him 

Is just what you have read. 

Today I am going to show you 
How all these things you know 

Really, truly happened 
Many years ago. 

Don't you love the story 
Of George and the Cherry tree? 

That is the first picture 
I am going to let you see. 

You know George had a hatchet 

As sharp as it could be. 
He couldn't help but try it 

On his father's cherry tree. 

(George Washington as a boy enters, testing his 
hatchet, cuts at imaginary objects, notices a small 
cherry tree (artificial) cuts it down, throws up his 
arms in dismay, picks up a bunch of cherries and 
runs off the stage.) 

But his father didn't like it ''.',. 

When he saw his cherry tree. 
And he scolded his little colored slave 
As cross as he could be. 

(Mr. Washington enters followed by his colored 
slave, notices the fallen cherry tree and shakes his 
head angrily at the slave. Slave drops to his knees, 
shakes his head and cries.) 

But George's mother said, "0 no! 

I don't believe 'twas he. 
Do not be so cross just now, 

Let us wait and see." 

(Mrs. Washington enters, lays her hand on Mr. 
Washington's shoulder, takes his cane from his hand 
and shakes her head. Slave rises.) 

Then out sprang George 

Who was near by 
"I cut it with my hatchet 
Father, I can't tell a lie." 

(George Washington enters, running and holding 
up the hatchet and cherries.) 

Of course they all were very glad 

To think George had not lied. 
And George's father shook his hand 
And looked at him with pride. 
(Mrs. Washington embraces George. Mr. Washing- 
ton shakes his hand. Children leave the stage.) 

When George Washington went to school 

He learned his lessons from a man. 

And later, when school days were o'er 

George was a soldier in command. 

(George Washington enters with paper and quill 
accompanied by school mates carrying book and 
rod. Leaves the stage and George, as a soldier 
marches in, turns and marches out.) 


Because his country had no flag, 

Betsy Ross and a friend or two. 
Made for him the flag you see 

Our own red, white and blue. 

(Betsy Ross and friends enter carrying strips of 
American flag. Group themselves and sew. The 
soldier Washington enters, greets the ladies, examines 
the flag, nods and smiles. Children leave stage. 

Although he was a busy man 

He liked to have his fun. 
And when the ladies gave a dance 
He went to everyone. 



(Betsy Ross and Washington as a gentleman enter 
dancing steps of the minuet singing or accompanied 
by piano. ) 

Now girls and boys let's give a cheer 
For great George Washington . 
Aren't you glad that you live here 
And love him, everyone? 
(Washington as a soldier marches in and halts as 
child reciting waves American flag over his head and 
concludes verses. Children leave stage.) 





By Mary E. Cottexg. 

Touching the pictured kittens one after the other 
the teacher counts one, two, three, four — what? Yes, 
plump, little kittens. What kind are they? Do they 
lcok like your tiger-cat? Your pussy "has no white 
upon her' ? What parts of these are white? Yes, 
there is a good deal of white on them. Which one has 
the least? That one then is more like a tiger-pussy 
than the others, isn't it? Where are they? Yes, it's 
their home; but in what kind of a place is it? So 
you "can't think?" Well, they are not in the house, 
can you guess now? I will help you a little: do you 
know what that is a pile of at the right-hand back 
part of the picture? You "can't think?" Why, that 
is hay. It makes a fine bed for pussies. You thought 
"the clcth on the floor was the bed?" Very likely 
that piece of an old horse-blanket was spread on the 
hay, once upon a time when the kittens were very 
young; but when they began to learn pussy-cat games 
it was pulled off in some of their frolics. Well, I 
promised to help you guess where their home is; it's in 
the barn — up in the loft, — that means upstairs. 
These pussies must be barn-pussies then. Those 
beams which you can see at the back of the picture 
show us that this is a barn as well as the hay does. 
"What are beams?" You remember, don't you, those 
great pieces of wood which we saw the other day on 
the load of lumber — the ones Laddie called "logs with 
square ends?" Those are used in making a building 
in the places which must be strong; and when they 
are used as they are in this barn they're called beams. 

What are the kittens doing? "Nothing?" Better 
look closely, and think again. "One's stretching his 
mouth open; another is watching something up high, 
and the "tiger has his back to us and we can't see 
what he's doing: the other's just only looking." Do 
you see anything on the edge of the blanket near the 
front of the picture? Who is watching that grass- 

What do you think is going to happen by and by? 
Yes, "that grasshopper will be caught." "Do kittens 
eat grasshoppers?" Old pussies do, but I don't be- 
lieve these kittens would. Cats love to hunt in the 
grass for them, and though they eat them, grass- 
hoppers aren't the right food for pussies. I suspect 
mcther-pussy brought this to show to her kittens so 
they might learn about and practice catching it. 
Grasshoppers are such lively insects a pussy must be 
very quick to jump and strike them if she's to catch 
any "Where is the mother-cat now?" Very likely 
she's hunting for something else to bring home to the 
family. You know kittens have a great deal to learn, 
and Mrs. Pussy is very careful to show and teach 
tl.em all about all the things they will see by and by 
when they go from this home in the barn. "When 
will they go"? The .mother-cat will let them go just 
as scon as they know how to take care of themselves. 
Let's think of all the things they can already do. 

"Lap milk, w r ash heir faces, chase each other, roll 
around, run after their tails, bite, scratch, climb, 
purr, catch mice." Yes, they are able to do all of 
these things except to catch mice; they're not strong 
enough to do that yet. Pretty soon they will be 
though. Why are they waiting around that dish? 
They are waiting for some milk; they're hungry. 
Biggest Sister will soon bring them some, she does 
every day, "Will Mrs. Pussy come for some, too?" I 
think so, because you see that dish is large enough to 
hold milk "aplenty" for the whole family. "What are 
they going to do after dinner? Wash their faces and 
take a nap, maybe. "What are those two white lines 
for down back" in the picture? Those are just cracks 
between the boards that form on side of the barn. 
If you peeped through them you could see right out 
of doors. "Do the kittens look out"? I don't believe 
they do. "What makes it so dark at the back"? 
That's the way it is in a real barn. Whoever paints 
pictures knows all about the places he puts into them. 
"Did he know about kittens"? He surely must have, 
for he painted a great many pictures besides this 
showing pussies doing exactly the things that they 
are always doing. I think an artist, — that is what 
we call the person who makes pictures — must love 
pussies and know a great deal about their, dear, 
comical ways to make pictures of them, don't you? 
You "love pussies"? I'm glad you do for then you 
will be kind to them. 

During the period while the picture remains before 
the children encourage free expression about their 
pets and what they do for their comfort. Much hand- 
work similar to that introduced in connection with the 
picture used in October may be used with this by 
Adam. The rhyme-story given below may be used in- 
stead of a prose one, 

"0, my pussy, full of play, 
Tell me what you do all day." 

"0," said pussy winking he? eyes 

And twitching her tail in droll surprise, 

"I go racing over the floor, 

Out at the window, in at the door; 

Now on the chair back, now on the table 

'Mid balls of cotton and spools of silk, 

Or crumbs of bread and jugs of milk. 

And I love rolling over and over 

In the fresh, green grass and nodding clover; 

Chasing the shadows as fast as they run 

Down the green paths in the summer sun, 

Climbing to tree-tops brave and bold, 

Now enough I'm sure I've told.' " 

BOSTON, JAN. 10, 1916 
At the January meeting of the Lucy Wheelock 
Kindergarten Alumnae Association the speaker was 
Xiss Florence Luscombe, who discussed equal suffrage. 
The next meeting will take place Feb. 12, when Miss 
Annie Law of Cincinnati will be the guest. 

Sorrows remembered sweeten present joy. — Pollok, 



DEAR RURAL TEACHER.— In undertaking this department I trust that my somewhat extended experience in 
rural schools and my subsequent normal training and city school work may assist me in making it practically 
helpful to you in your work with the little children. I understand the tremendous tax upon the time of any rural 
teacher who is trying to do good work, the wide range of studies, the constant temptation to neglect the little one9 
for the apparently more pressing need of the older classes and the lack of equipment necessary for the best work. 
My hope is to assist you to secure better results with the small children. and I shall unhesitatingly recommend the 
intelligent use of kindergarten material as likely to produce the best results with least expenditure of time. How 
to use this material, what to select, what substitutes, etc., will be discussed from month to month in thesecolumns. 


"Not in the clamor of the crowded street, 
Not in the shouts and plaudits of the throng; 
But in ourselves, are triumph and defeat." 


The matter of school room decorations for the 
month should not be neglected. You may be able to 
teach more of patriotism in this way than in any 

Most of the teachers in the rural schools are over- 
crowded with the regular work, in fact in general 
have a hurried feeling and something of dissatisfac- 
tion in not being able to accomplish all they desire 
each day. The suggestion of a special program be- 
comes only an added burden instead of a pleasure. 

With few suggestions from the teacher, the decor- 
ating may be the work of the older pupils. Stencils 
of Washington and Lincoln, Washington on horse- 
back, hatchets, cherries, and a variety of other appro- 
priate designs may be easily transferred to the black- 
board, and traced with colored crayons. 

Flags and red, white and blue tissue paper or bunt- 
ing may be used to drape the pictures. Arrange a 
number of pictures of Washington and Lincoln in 
different parts of the room. These may be purchased 
for a few cents, and mounted upon mounting or Bris- 
tol board. 

If you have a small amount of blackboard space, 
the following may be written upon placards, and 
placed where they may be easily read. 

"The Cincinnatus of the West." 

"The Defender of His Country, the Founder of 
Liberty, the Friend of Man." 

"First in War, First in Peace, and First in the 
Hearts of His Countrymen." 

"I am humble Abraham Lincoln." "Honest Abe." 


The paper cutting and drawing for the month may 
consist of articles that will represent the soldiers' 
camp life: tents, guns, cooking utensils, forts, trees, 
flag, and cannon balls. 

Give each child a sheet of drawing paper 9x12. 
He may mount his cuttings in appropriate places, 
and add some touches of color to represent the sky, 
grass, and shrubbery to complete the scene. 


The rural teachers are constantly in need of busy 
work devices that may be used with few suggestions. 
The older pupils claim much of the time, and as the 
younger pupils generally remain the entire session, 

they should have a variety of simple devices for 
instruction and -entertainment. 

Many hours may be spent with the peg board in 
Drawing, Arithmetic, and color work. 
Border designs may be worked out in an arrangement 
of lines using one or more colors. Designs in cross 
shapes may be made, or a number of triangles ar- 
ranged to form rosettes. Simple rug patterns or 
wall paper designs may be suggested. 

Pupils may be given number work which may be 
represented on the peg board with different colored 

3,000 pegs in six primary colors may be purchased 
for fifteen cents, and are well worth the amount 
expended for the teaching of color. In the color work 
the pupils will enjoy color days. Let all the work for 
one day be in red pegs only, and they may designate 
same "Red Day," another day use yellow only, called 
"Yellow Day." Allow each on a given day to select the 
color which he enjoys most. 


How many two cent stamps can be bought for a 
ten cent piece? 

How many two cent pencils will a five cent piece 
buy? How much change left? 

How many penny valentines will be needed to give 
each in your class two? 

How many hands have three children? 

How many fingers? 

Mary is five years old and baby is one year: how 
much older is Mary than baby? 

How many oranges can you buy for 10 cents if 
oranges are 3 cents each? 

What pieces of money will make 10 cents? 15 

Four and one-half of four are how many? 

How many threes in six? 

What do we call % a quart? 

How many pints in a quart and a pint? 

How many sides has a square? 

How many inches in a foot? In one-half foot? One- 
third foot? 

A boy ate an apple each day for two weeks: how 
many did he eat? 

Boxes of toy money and number cards will be use- 
ful in teaching beginners the number work. No real 
number work should be given to the first year pupils, 
the above are questions which should interest rather 
than tax the minds of the pupils. 




There is an old legend that runs about like this: 

A long, long time ago there lived in France a 
priest who was very fond of children, and would 
listen to all their troubles, and give them words of 
sympathy no matter how small their troubles ap- 
peared to be. 

The fame of his gentleness and kindly interest 
spread far and wide, and so many came to him for 
words of encouragement and sympathy that it was 
impossible for him to listen to all their troubles. 

He finally asked them to write out their petitions 
and send them to him unsigned, and said he would 
burn them, and the smoke would carry the message 
to its destination. 

Sometimes these were messages of kindness and 
love. After this good man died, it became a custom 
for the children to send unsigned messages of love 
to their friends on his birthday, February 14th. 

Have the children make Valentines to exchange 
with each other, and also some to be given to their 


We suggest a Valentine drill for the little people. 
The dresses may be white, decorated with red hearts, 
and each carrying a large red heart. The hearts 
may be raised and lowered in the march similar to the 
hatchet or wand drill. 

The following may be sung in closing to the tune: 
Tramp! Tramp! Tramp! 

Hearts, hearts, hearts we still are sending 
To our friends both great and small; 
They will cheer them on their way, 
And will help us all this day 

To think more kindly of our good Saint Valen- 

It matters little where I was born, 
If my parents were rich or poor, 
Whether they shrank at the cold world's scorn, 
Or walked in the pride of wealth secure; 
But whether I live, an honest man, 
And hold my integrity in my clutch, 
I tell you brother, plain as I am, 
It matters much." 

A graceful and honorable old age is the childhood 
of immortality. — Pindar. 

The spirit of melancholy would often take its flight 
from us if only we would take up the song of praise. 
—P. B. Power. 

Magnanimity is sufficiently defined by its name: yet 
we may say of it, that it is the good sense of pride, 
and the noblest way of acquiring applause. — Roche- 

A fortune is usually the greatest of misfortunes to 
children. It takes the muscles out of the limbs, the 
brain out of the head, and virtue out of the heart- 
Henry Ward Beecher. 



Gail Harrison 

Paper read at the I. K. U. Meeting, San Francisco 

The great struggle in Europe has caused many of 
us to think more seriously and analytically about-the 
whole question of freedom and control, about the 
reationships existing between the governed and the 
governing. How much of freedom and control is 
necessary in various situations to the end of living 
efficiently and happily? 

We have asked ourselves, no doubt, has this war a 
message for other nations, especially America? Are 
there not warnings for us as a nation? If so, what? 

Freedom is surely something that cannot be given; 
it must be won. We must have faith in the learning 
process for social and moral situations as well as for 
the mental and physical ones. 

The very fact that a democracy throws so much re- 
sponsibility upon the individual is our best reason for 
working out the whole democratic creed in our 

We must not forget the demands and needs of 
society and over-emphasize the demands and needs of 
the individual child. Our schools, from the kinder- 
garten to the university, must be an embryonic 
society, where the child and youth meet actual life 
situations and conditions and are thereby strength- 
ened, disciplined, and prepared for effective living, 
because they have the opportunity to live so every 

Are we not realizing more keenly every year that 
the majority of our youth have respect for very little 
in this world — neither the Son spelled with a capital 
nor his fellow creatures — that they are an indulged, 
entertained, undisciplined group, sadly prepared for 
the art of living to some purpose? 

Do not, I beg of you, think me a pessimist about 
this. Far from it. It is essentially an optimistic 
viewpoint, fop the cure seems well begun when we 
have realized and frankly acknowledged the need of 
remedies. 'Man improved education as he improved 
any other human activity, by open-minded thought 
about it. Social pressure is required to prevent folly 
and injustice in education as elsewhere." 

The great problem for a democracy today is, how 
far is it wise for the immature to make their own 
laws or have a voice in their making and how far 
shall the mature enforce them? 

The established order is too often thought right 
and variations from that order are not welcomed. 
Must we not be more open-minded and give a fairer 
hearing to those who offer variations, and not just dis- 
miss them as annoying? 

Is there not a happy medium between freedom 
and control in our methods of training children 
which will produce children to be enjoyed and looked 
upon as blessings; which will develop in them a re- 
spect for their elders, not awe nor fear, but a whole- 
some admiration for superior attainments and a 
desire to be with them? Familiarity should not 
breed contempt but admiration and aspiration. 



In this whole matter of discipline, modern psychol- 
ogy is very encouraging if we would but heed the 
statements of experts in this field of education. 

Chief in importance among the social instincts 
are: — 

1. Gregariousncss or the liking to be with our 
own kind, which should afford daily opportunities 
for making social adjustments, and discipline us grad- 
ually into becoming members of a group. 

2. Mastery and submission, which develop our 
leaders end followers. 

3. Seal of approval, an instinct we use in too 
shallow and superficial a way, showering our approval 
upon tho veneers of life, upon the pretty clothes 
children wear, or their sugar-coated manners, rathe r 
than upon the virtues which really make daily life 
worth while, — kindliness, consideration for others, 
and duties done, which contribute to the welfare of 
the home, the school, and the community. 

As the first necessity in education everywhere 
is to know what man will be and do apart from 
education, it surely behooves us to consider more 
carefully the "original nature" of young children and 
how we may modify and redirect it toward the ulti- 
mate best. 

All changes produced happen in accordance with 
certain fundamental laws of change, and "reason 
finds the aim of human life the improvement and 
satisfaction of wants": — 

1. The law of exercise — that "other things being 
equal, exercise strengthens the tond between the 
stimulus and response." 

2. The law of effect— that "satisfying results 
strengthen and discomfort weakens the bond between 
stimulus and response." 

This stimulus-response concept is the pivot and 
core of all modern educational psychology, and 
Thorndyke feels that original satisfiers and annoyers 
are the greatest levers education has at its command 
for redirecting, modifying, and eliminating original 
nature. The satisfyingness and annoyingness of the 
states which follow the making of the connection 
between the stimulus and response are the chief 
forces which remodel man's nature. This law of 
effect is the fundamental law of learning and teach- 

Upon this law and our wise application of it to 
the training of little children rests the whole ques- 
tion of discipline, or the lack of it. If the satisfac- 
tions and annoyances followed consistently' upon the 
heels of the responses made, we should have less 
friction and more self-control and self-government. 

Let us take, for instance, the table manners of 
the children in the homes of to-day. 

How many children do you know whom it is a 
real pleasure to have at the table? I am not expect- 
ing them to live up to the old tradition of being 
seen and not heard, for surely we have gotten beyond 
such rigidity, restraint, and discomfort. No, I merely 
expect them to take their place as members of the 
household, who all have the same aim, that of an 

enjoyable meal, where each individual proves his 
understanding of the law of reciprocity. Any failure 
to contribute to this aim must result in some annoyer 
of sufficiently dJterring power to make the child 
realize that he prefers to stay a member of the group. 

Children are very wonderful in the way in which 
they live up to the demands that are made of them. 
They behave as well or as badly as they are allowed 
to. The blame for their unpleasant ways must not 
be laid upon them but upon those who have had 
charge of their training and have allowed them to 
grow into unsocial beings, unbalanced and disagree- 
able, in fact — social nuisances. 

Mothers and teachers so often ruin their attempts 
at discipline by giving too many chances. A phrase 
I hear every few moments at a friend's table is, 
"David, if you do that again you cannot have your 
dessert," but never but once did this actually happen, 
though the misdemeanor was almost always repeated, 
with slight variations. 

A child cannot be expected to behave well when 
there is company unless he has acquired the habit 
Qf behaving well when there is not; that is a psy- 
chological impossibility. 

So much of the talking might be avoided, and 
beneficially so, if those who bring children up (by 
hand, as did Pip's sister) would do more and say 
less, if the annoyer administered were closer to the 
child's feelings, if he really cared about it, if it really 
annoyed him! As long as children get what they 
want without behaving well, without doing things 
for other people, why should they change their ac- 

So often the punishment or annoyer given means 
nothing; for instance, ssnt to the kitchen to finish 
a meal, or sent to bed and allowed to have books 
and playthings. To a sensitive child there may be 
ignominy in having to finish a meal in the pantry 
but to the average one it matters not so long as the 
pie or cake is forthcoming. 

Then, too, if the child is constantly removed 
from the situation and stimulus which offers tempta- 
tion, how is he to acquire strength and control to 
resist making the wrong response? How is a child 
ever going to learn how to behave in any given situa- 
tion if he and the stimulus are kept apart? 

Opportunities for social adjustments must be con- 
stant and regular and made among those contem- - 
poraneous in age, as well as with their elders, away 
from mother and nurse or teacher who prompts, 
props, and prods his moral and social responses, who 
is his conscience, and who makes his choices for him. 
Social or life situations allow for the great factors 
of learning both by imitating others and from the 
suggestion of others, and these are valuable, if the 
suggestions come from a sufficient variety of sources. 
Many children of today are greatly to be pitied 
because too much is done for them, dictated to them, 
and they are deprived of the learning processes. 

We seem to have dropped into an age of enter- 
taining, a breathless going from one sensation to 
another, whether it be mechanical toys for the five- 



year-old or moving picture plays for the sixteen-year- 
old. .It not only destroys their power to think, but 
also makes impossible happiness, contentment, and 
resourcefulness, and they speak of life as "so dull" 
at seventeen, if there is not "something doing," as 
they say, every waking hour. 

It is deplorable, the few children one finds who 
contribute any service in their homes. Is this not 
one very strong reason why time hangs heavily, 
for who appreciates in a true sense that which is not 
earned? We seldom value anything for which we do 
not make sacrifices. The law of contrast, as ex- 
pressed in the proverb, "Variety is the spice of life," 
is a necessary one if we would have appreciation, 
but variety does not mean fatiguing and nerve-wrack- 
ing and incessant change. 

The slogan for children to-day seems to be "Make 
them happy" and consequently they are planned 
for and about and deprived of the chance of learning 
the real joy of work, of accomplishing, of overcoming 
difficulties, and they grow up without the ability 
to do so, merely for lack of practice. Duties should 
be planned for children especially if they are only 
children of wealthy ones. How shall we bring about 
an appreciation of all that is done for them if they 
are never allowed to taste and learn through daily 
need the pleasure of working for others? 

This slogan of "Make them happy" actually de- 
prives them of the curative side of remorse, which 
may follow a misdemeanor or a failure to get good 
marks at school. Something is done to divert and 
cheer them and mother defends and finds excuses 
for delinquencies if masters or family chide. So no 
resolve, to try to do better results from these failures 
and the child grows to college age without developing 
the sterling qualities he is expected to have and has 
not acquired for want of opportunity to respond in 
the right way. 

To return to this fundamental question, Why have 
law and obedience? 

1. Because in a democracy it means the protec- 
tion of individuals against those who do not obey. 

2. Because in the home it means the welfare and 
happiness of each member. Because it brings habit 

3. Because in the school it means conservation 
of both energy and time, and protection of weaker 
from stronger. 

What may we do to help children to win the right 
sort of freedom? 

1. Study and work for a better understanding of 
the fundamental principles of democracy. 

2. Apply these principles in the management of 
children in the home, school, institution, and com- 

John Dewey in his splendid Monograph on the 
Fundamental Principles of a Democracy tells us: — 

"A State (and this includes Home, School, and 
Society) represents men so far as they have become 
related to one another and are possessed of a Unity 
of Purpose and Interests." 

"A Democracy must have a common will, for it 
is this Unity of Will which makes it an effective 

"There is an individualism which is ethical, not 

"Individualism of freedom, of responsibility, of 
initiative to and for the ethical Ideal, not an Indi- 
vidualism of lawlessness." 

"Finally, Democracy means personality and per- 
sonality means personal initiative. The law of per- 
sonality is not self-assertion nor unregulated desire 
but control from within." 

Let us apply these to the home and school. 

First, we must have an oneness of purpose. What 
is it? 

The happiness, welfare, and freedom of all. 

Children must be helped to discover that partici- 
pation in the life of different City States, as Colin 
Scott defines them, depends upon: — 

a. His own self-control. 

b. His power to use freedom that freedom may 
be allowed at each stage of life when control means 
the power to govern self and contribute to the wel- 
fare of any particular environment. 

c. The fact that freedom is gained and held just 
so long as variation from traditions means Progress. 

d. The fact that all Life conforms to Law and 
that physical and spiritual freedom are obtained only 
by conforming. 

Our management of children must be more con- 
sistent, more just, and more individual, less auto- 
cratic and decidedly more democratic. 

Let us bear in mind Hanford Henderson's inspiring 
definition of religion: — 

"Christianity as a religion has but one essential 
and that of Service. Religion is not a belief but 
an attitude of mind expressing itself in human 



By L . Rountree Smith, (Book Rights Reserved.) 


The children are in a circle. They choose one to be 
the Cuckoo, who skips about inside. the ring. They 
all skip around the ring singing, Tune — "Lightly 

Sing cuckoo, sing cuckoo, 
For the spring has come again, 
Sing cuckoo, sing cuckoo, 
In the sun and rain, 
Merry birds, we hear them call, 
And we'll try to name them all, 
Sing cuckoo, sing cuckoo, 
Spring has come again. 
The Cuckoo skips around inside the ring, goes up to 
any child, bows and says, 
What bird are you? 
I am the Cuckoo! 

The child must give the name of a bird quickly, 
bowing to the Cuckoo, or they change places. 

The children may wave arms up and down and 
imitate birds in any way as the game proceeds. 




Jennie R. Faddis. Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools, Butte, Mont. 

The relation between the kindergarten and the 
elementary school is an old and much discussed topic, 
yet one made ever new by changing conceptions of 
education. As the principles which govern organic 
education are more clearly understood and applied all 
along the line of training of chlidhood and youth, the 
relationship between the elemental divisions of educa- 
tion passes through varied aspects, to be interpreted 
fairly well only by the initiated. 

The nature of the beginning of the kindergarten 
movement, the birth itself, made it essentially differ- 
ent in character from that of the elementary school. 
An educational review of a few decades past shows 
the fundamental differences in favor of the kinder- 
garten, as more akin to life itself and as the leavening 
influence in the educational process which follows the 
years of its period. The influence has been in kind 
both external and internal, the latter a hopeful pros- 
pect in present times. 

The failure of the kindergarten to transform at 
least the primary end of elementary education has 
been in a large measure responsible for the construc- 
tive criticism heaped upon the kindergarten. A 
comparison of the reports of former kindergarten con- 
ferences with those of to-day indicates the stimulus 
consequent to the criticism as a factor of growth in 
building a stronger, more enduring foundation of the 
educational system. 

Evidences of need for increasingly more effective 
work on the part of the builders are seen on every 
hand. First of these evidences is that there is still 
lack of the kindergarten in whole school systems of 
considerable size in parts of our country. Some sys- 
tems add kindergartens slowly, grudgingly. Califor- 
nia has reason to be proud of the law recently passed 
in the state which provides that "upon petition of 
parents or guardians of twenty-five or more children 
between the ages of four-and-a-half and six, residing 
within a mile of any elementary school, and with the 
approval of the school authorities the Board of Edu- 

cation concerned shall establish and maintain a kin- 
dergarten." You may know that the legislation 
which accomplished this was the result of the efforts 
of the California State Congress of Mothers. The 
reports of progress in the establishment of new kin- 
dergartens in the state have been most gratifying. 
It is believed that more backward states will follow 
the good example of California. 

Secondly, there is lack of provision for progres- 
sive kindergartens in places where the kindergarten 
has long been an established part of the school sys- 
tem. This is largely due to prevalence of traditional 
customs in educational thought and practice, which 
retards progress in kindergarten as well as in grade 

Thirdly, and hard to reconcile to-day, is the lack 
of appreciation of the' value of the kindergarten, 
whether this condition comes through apathy to the 
best interests of children, or is owing to wrong con- 
ceptions of the nature of the kindergarten. 

This failure to recognize the kindergarten as an 
essential part of children's educational experience 
comes from the world outside and within the ranks of 
those called educators. It is to be feared that there 
are still many people who would agree with the 
woman on a train a few days ago who assured me, 
in response to my suggestion, that her little daugh- 
ters would enjoy the kindergarten, that she did not 
believe much in the kindergarten as it teaches chil- 
dren the habit of playing. 

School authorities, superintendents, principals, 
and now and then a teacher, oppose kindergarten on 
the ground that it does not fit children for real work. 
It is probable that some school authorities who have 
small comprehension of the substantial essence of the 
kindergarten have not only not promoted its growth 
by trying to inform themselves of its best fundamental 
principles and practical workings, but have been the 
means of discouraging its growth, by saying that it is 
losing ground. This has been the case where the 
matter of expense has been an exaggerated concern, 
for the kindergartner plainly, even to the layman, 
must have equipment, even though the grades just 
above it are often skimped for necessary supplies. 

DRAWING FOR FEBRUARY, J. M. Niven, Toronto, Canada 



The bulwarks of the kindergarten system in the 
twentieth century are its strong training schools, 
versus the weak ones of an earlier period. The 
private training schools that cannot be well equipped 
for giving a broad, modern preparation are disappear- 
ing. The requirements for admission to-day to our 
recognized leading kindergarten courses are main- 
tained at so high a standard that young women 
know they must possess more than merely a love for 
little children and the ability to play the piano, 
before they knock for admission at the door of the 
training school. What a splendid opportunity is 
afforded to-day for the development of womanhood 
through the length and course of the kindergarten 
training, the breadth of subjects in the curriculum 
given by able men and women instructors, and through 
good opportunities for experience in student teaching 
under skilled supervision. It gives one unbounded 
satisfaction to realize that more and more little 
children will have the opportunity to develop into 
school boys and girls from an environment dominated 
by those who have had more than a taste of usable 
science, art, and literature, and whose psychology 
and sociology shall function in the education of the 
whole immediate community. 

Public school workers are much concerned with 
the ways in which kindergarten training functions in 
the school system. In the first place, the natural 
aptitude for work in kindergartners must be taken 
into account. Proportionately a much larger num- 
ber of kindergartners than grade teachers have gone 
into the chosen work from a decided preference for 
their particular kind of work. This condition of 
working existence presupposes a wholesome satis- 
faction in the work, which we see emanating from the 
kindergarten to the good of all who come in contact 
with its influence. Besides the joy that radiates 
from the good kindergartner, is noticeable at once 
that feeling of security that real training gives, the 
lack of which we feel in an overwhelming degree 
in elementary teachers, who often have a long way 
to go before they begin to comprehend what it means 
to use to advantage the natural instincts and impulses 
of growing children, as guideposts at every turn of 
schoolroom procedure. 

As primary teachers have more general and more 
specific preparation for work, including a grounding 

in fundamental kindergarten principles, and as kin- 
dergartners in general have the training which gives 
them an intelligent sight into the work which follows 
the kindergarten age, the elementary grades will be 
able to profit much from the kindergarten in the 
public school. The workers will in time bridge over 
the gap which once yawned like a great chasm be- 
tween the foundation and the superstructure, and 
the kindergarten spirit will extend ever upward. 

Primary teachers are already receiving much help 
from the manifestations of increasing intelligent in- 
terest on the part of kindergartners who follow the 
progress of the children they started. 

The intelligent world expects considerable of 
children from four to six years old, as we are able 
to judge from published vocabularies and records of 
various kinds of tests of physical strength and mental 
capacity. Most of us have wished at times that we 
had been treated earlier in life than we were as if we 
had intelligence, had had more respect paid to us as 
thinking human beings. Parents who study young 
children with the purpose of guiding more intelli- 
gently individual developing childhood are still rare, 
compared with those who think of their chief duties 
as that of providing food, clothing, and shelter, with 
more or less recreation of the unwholesome kind 
thrown in. Dorothy Canfield Fisher, in her book Mother 
and Children, issues a warning note to parents against 
allowing the trained outsider to perform so large a part 
of the duty toward the child when it must share the 
home with other institutions. As a parent, she says: 
"The point is that no longer having a monopoly of 
the job of bringing up the children, we no longer 
enjoy the monopolist's immunity from competition. 
We must look to our guns and keep our powder dry 
if our fortress of the family is not to be captured by 
our more worthy competitors; and what is 
more to the purpose we must steal the ammuni- 
tion of the other side. An alert business man does 
not meekly let a rival supply all the market with 
a desirable commodity. An alert father might see 
to it that the scout-master does not supply his boys 
with all the comradeship and manly ideals of honest 
work and fun they know. An alert mother might 
see to it that her girls do not make up their ideals 
of good taste and culture and refined wonanliness 
solely from various teachers whom they admire." 
(Continued in next issue.) 

DRAWING FOR FEBRUARY, J. M. Niven, Toronto, Canada 




Los Angeles County has become the greatest kin- 
dergarten center in the West,, according to statistics 
compiled yesterday by Mark Keppel, county superin- 
tendent of schools. During the year just passed, 
this county had 4458 boys and 4475 girls in tjie kin- 
dergarten, which is more than the whole State of 
California had ten years ago, the enrollment at that 
time for the State being 2295 boys and 2399 girls. 
The kindergartners of Los Angeles contain two-thirds 
of the number of children of all kindergartens in the 
entire State. 


The Alumnae association of the Fannie Smith Kin- 
dergarten Training school on Lafayette street held 
a very special meeting at the school on Saturday, 
January 22 at 3 o'clock when Miss Nora Archibald 
Smith, a sister of the well known author of Rebecca 
of Sunnybrook Farm, Kate Douglas Wiggin were 
present. Miss Smith and her famous sister formerly 
had charge of the Goldengate kindergarten in San 
Francisco and since that time have collaborated in 
children's books. Miss Smith who is most prominent 
in the kindergarten field spoke upon story telling and 
will have several new stories for kindergartners. 


The kindergarten has become an increasingly im- 
portant function of our public school equipment, and 
it is pleasurable to behold the broad guaged kinder- 
garten policy that Nashua has pursued for several 
years. Each year finds opportunity for kindergarten 
extension and particularly the growth in pupils the 
last year emphasizes the necessity for enlarged 
quarters and the addition of one or more new kinder- 

We earnestly hope that the city government, co- 
operating with the Board of Education, will look 
seriously into the question of esablishing a kinder- 
garten in the vicinity of Harbor school. Several 
petitions for such kindergarten have been presented 
but deferment has been made in each case, assumably 
through lack of appropriation. — Nashua Telegram. 

Miss R. A. Babcock, kindergarten training school 
teacher at Worcester, Mass., spoke at Northboro, Jan. 
14, on "Ideals and Methods of the Kindergarten." 

Heaven often smites in mercy, even when the blow 
is severest. — Joanna Baillie. 


(No Glue or Gelatine) 
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By Dora II. Stockman 

152 pp 21 Excellent Exercises 



■ IHWi Ml ■! I ■'! JP»«^1M 


Jolly, Catchy, Snappy, Happy, Easy, Pleasy, Popular, 
Inspiring, Varied, Character-building. 


Such heart-warmers as "The Golden "Wedding," "A 
Master Stroke," "The Bird's Convention," "The shadow 
on the Home" and "The Old and New Santa Claus.' 
Then the nerve-thrillers like Neenah's Gratitude "A 
Modern Hero," "A Patriotic Party" and the brain de- 
veloper and educators, such as "Guessing Game of th< 
Trees," "Michigan Playing Fairy," "Stunt Corn-stalk'! 
Lesson." Can be put on in an ordinary schoolhouse, oi 
will grace an opera house. Address — 

FARMERKIN'S farm rhymes 

By Dora H. Stockman. 

Seventy Sprightly Jingles full of nature lore. 
Mother Goose recall to the farm! 

"Farmerkin, Farmerkin, 

In wonder-world of joy. 
Who would not wish to be 
A little farmer boy?" 
Ethical lessons subtly veiled. 

Fine supplementary reading for first three grades 
beautiful present. Good for the school library. 

Handsomely and durably bound with a three-colo 
artistic paper cover. 

Price, 40c postpaid; $3.60 per dozen. 

HENRY R. PATTENGIIX, Lansing, Mich. 

419-420 Park Bldg, 

Pittsburg, Pa. 

How Old do You Look? — Stop, Think 

If you look older than you are, it is because you are 
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100k as old as you are, still you are unjust to yourself. 

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Miss Cocroft after many years* experience has per- 
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"The Place of the Kindergarten in the Education 
of the Child" is the caption over an interesting 
article by Dr. Rudolph A. Acher of the department of 
educational psychology at the state normal school 
Valley City, N. D . 

The first five years," the writer says, "are the 
most important formative period in the child's life. 
While there are no definite memories of these early 
years in the case of most adults, there is a constantly 
accumulating evidence that the later life tendencies 
all have their source and origin in the experiences of 
these early days." 

Dr. Acher points out many mental disturbances in 
adults may be traced back to some unfortunate ex- 
perience in the child before he was five years old. It 
has been found by experiment that a lack of aggres- 
siveness in an adult, for instance, has been traced 
back to some repeated childhood defeat. The same is 
true with constructive instinct. 

'The rank and file of mothers with their household 
duties and responsibilities have neither the time nor 
the expert training to minister to these childhood 
needs. They may love their children ever so much 
and may even steal a little time now and then to sing 
a lullaby or attempt to answer some questions with 
which they are constantly bombarded, but the in- 
adequacy of such a program has been established 
without a doubt. 

'Now the modern kindergarten with its well trained 
and natively endowed teacher and with well equipped 
material is splendidly adapted to meet these early 
demands of the child. There its questions are answer- 
ed, its distorted ideas straightened out, its curiosity 
satisfied and strengthened, its constructive instinct 
developed and its power of expression stimulated. Its 
whole emotional and volitional life is given a sound 
foundation so that in later life there will be more 
scars and sore spots developed upon its psychic life. 

'The first five years of the child's life are pre- 
eminently the time when it should lay a thorough 
foundation for the mastery of the mother tongue. It 
is during these years that the language instinct or 
perhaps better the expression instinct is prominent. 
The child needs first of all a rich sensory and motor 
experience through every possible avenue and then it 
needs abundant opportunity for self expression in 
every possible way but more especially by means of 
oral language. It not infrequently happens that a 
bright five-year-old with proper kindergarten advan- 
tages has a working vocabulary of six or seven 
thousand words. He Can use these in sentences and is 
often able to relate a story or narrative that would 
make many high school students blush if they should 
try to equal it. There is every reason to believe that 
the mastery of well spoken English is largely a matter 
of the first five years of the child's life. No program 
of education is so well adapted to give the proper at- 
tention to this need of the child as the kindergarten. 

"If the public and especially the parents could 
only be led to appreciate the fact that the child of five 
years of age has undreamed of possibilities and 
capacities, all hungering for development, there would 
soon be kindergartens in every community." 

John Y. Dujnlop. 

The subject of paper tearing and drawing is always 
an interesting and educative occupation and especially 
is this found the case where the teacher of the pri- 
mary school chooses her models to illustrate the les- 
sons from the favorite stories of the class. 

•The work is so attractive to young children that 
no artificial means is required to command their at- 
tention, and it develops the use of the child's fingers 
and trains the eye to the best use. 

Then handiness is developed which enforces love 
for work because whatever a child can do with ease 
he does with enjoyment. 

His ingenuity is also being encouraged and in- 
stinctively his sense of proportion. 

He is also being instructed quite innocently in the 
principles of design, for by the continual lessons in 
tearing his effort, however crude, is- sure to result in 
satisfactory patterns. 

' The first and foremost part of the lesson for this 
work is paper folding, the tinted paper being folded 
so as to lie in a given position, the teacher always 
illustrating with a large piece of paper so that the 
children will always see what is required of them. 

The accuracy of the tearing and the position and 
the color of the various pattern gummed in position 
constitutes the completeness of the exercise. 

Sheet 1 shows the story of Robinson Crusoe. 



■ (— - ■ 







FIG. I, Crusoe ship in the storm; FIG II, the wreck 
and the raft which Crusoe is erecting to convey some 
Of the ship's stores to land. 



FIG. Ill, Crusoe's home. All those patterns are 
shaped by folding and tearing and the few lines 
drawn to indicate the water, the headland and the 

The scheme of the lesson is as follows: 

1. The building of the house. 

2. Crusoe's food. 

3. Crusoe's clothing. 

4. Expression lesson, paper tearing and drawing. 

5. Nature lesson, germination of seeds — rice and 

Sheet II shows the life of three bears in the wood. 

iheet f1°Z 

ZJ y/WW^PPN=^. 


FIG 16 TlG 17 FIG 18 FIG 

The Father hear, the Mother bear and the Baby hear. 

FIG. 9 shows the inside of their home with the 
father bear's chair, the mother bear's chair and the 
baby bear's chair. 

FIG. 10 shows the room with their beds. 

The remaining figure shows the fold and tears for 
the patterns. 

Sheet III shows the picture by the class of that 
nursery rhyme: 

"Jack and Jill went up the hill 
To fetch a pail of water." 

FIG 21 FIG 22 FIG 18 F1GZ4- FIG 2*. 

FIG. 14 shows the beginning of the ascent with the 
hill in the distance and the well near the top. 

The remaining Figs, showing the folds by dotted 
lines and the tears by dotted lines. 

Dora Mondore, Grand Gorge, N. Y. 

One time Jesus went up to Jerusalem as there was 
to be a great gathering of people there. 

At the gate which enters into Jerusalem there is a 
pool of water which was said at that time o be dif- 
ferent from other little ponds or pools of water. 

People said that an angel came down from heaven 
and stirred the water of this pool. If a sick man 
stepped into the water directly after the angel had 
stirred it, he would become well. The first man who 
stepped in was healed; but the other men, if they 
were slow or too weak to step in the water first, 
would not become well. 

When Jesus went to Jerusalem he was passing by 
this pool of Bethesda when he saw many sick people 
lying near the pool, waiting for the angel to move 
the water, so they could step in and become well. 
Some of these people were blind; some were lame; 

one man among them had been ailing for many years. 

When Christ saw this man who had been sick for 
such a long time he felt sorry for him and asked him, 
"Would you like to be made well?" The poor sick 
man said "I have no one to help me into the water 
when it is troubled; and so, always, some one steps 
into the water before I can get in." 

Of course he thought Christ might help him to 
step into the water. But he was not acquainted with 
Christ — he did not know what Christ could do. 
Christ did not put him in the pool of Bethesda. 

Christ said to him "Rise, take up your bed and 

Then the man who had been sck so long became 
well just as "quick as a flash," for Christ had healed 
him. The man went away carrying his bed with 
him, for he felt strong and he wanted to go and tell 
the people that he had been made well. 

When Christ met this man ater he said "Now you: 
are a well man. I want you to always be a good man." , 

He was very glad to meet Christ and after this he 
told the people that it was the wonderful Christ who 
had made him well. 



Practical Points Concerning Kindergarten Equipment. 

(Note: — These points are meant to be suggestive 
and to embody a moderate estimate of the require- 
ments of a kindergarten.) 


Cottage or Bungalow: 

Housing a kindergarten in a building by itself has 
some advantages, but is not essential. The bungalow 
type of architecture satisfies the demands both of 
convenience and of good taste. An ideal building is 
one with walls that can be rolled up on clear days, 
allowing sunshine and air free access. The circular, 
"California Schoolhouse for $500," issued by Edward 
Hyatt, superintendent of public instruction, Sacra- 
mento, describes a building which would be admirably 
suited for a medium sized kindergarten if made 10 
feet longer. 

Floor Space: 

The entire floor space for a kindergarten of 50 
children should measure 1,200 square feet, which may 
be apportioned as follows: Main room 24 by 34 feet, 
two small classrooms each 10 by 12 feet, separated 
from each other and from the larger room by folding 
doors, cloak room 16 by 6 feet, two toilet rooms each 
4 by 6 feet. 

A circle 18 feet in diameter with the center in- 
dicated, should be painted or inlaid on the floor of the 
main room. It is desirable that it contain a smaller 
circle for use when the attendance is reduced. A 
porch 12 feet wide is an important addition, and a 
garden where the children may have individual flower 
beds, observe the common birds and insects, and play 
games, is essential. 

In a School Building: 

Where a kindergarten is housed in a regulation 
school building, it should be located, if possible, in a 
room on the first floor with a south-eastern exposure. 

The same amount of floor space, with the same 
general apportionment, should be allowed. Where 
only one large room is available, screens may be used 
for the temporary separation of the groups of chil- 
dren. The porch may have to be omitted, but out- 
door space for garden work should be provided. 

Dressing Room: 

The toilet rooms should be provided with low basins 
and seats adapted to the size of the children. Paper 
towels and powdered or liquid soap are hygienic 

The cloak rooms should admit of the free circul- 
ation of air, and the books, one for each- child, 
should be placed low and as far apart as space per- 

Light, Heat, and Ventilation : 

The amount of window space should be not less 
than one-fifth of the floor space. The windows should 
be so grouped that the intervening wall spaces will 

not be wide enough to cast troublesome shadows. 
Shades that may be rolled from both top and bottom, 
can be adjusted to keep out of the children's eyes both 
the direct sunlight and the glare reflected from the 
tables. Where possible, the window sills should be 
broad and low, to allow the children to see the view 
and also to allow them to care conveniently for the 
plants in the window boxes. 

Exhaustive studies have been made of heating and 
ventilation problems, and books dealing with these 
subjects should be consulted. 

Where ventilation is had by means of windows only, 
draughts can be avoided by simple patent ventilators 
at the top and bottom of windows. 


The walls should be soft buff or gray-green and 
painted, or else covered with a sized washable paper. 
It is desirable that everything in the room should be 

The woodwork should harmonize, not contrast, with 
the wall coloring. 

At one side of the room, blackboards, preferably 
of slate, placed low enough for the convenience of 
a five year-old child, will give incentive to creative 
expression through large arm movements. 

Chairs and Tables: 

Strong folding tables and durable chairs of different 
heights to fit the children, and made on special hy- 
gienic and artistic lines, can be obtained from kin- 
dergarten supply houses. The color should be brown 
or soft, dark green. 

A higher table and chair for each teacher, and a 
desk or writing table for the director are desirable. 

A piano is essential. Through rhythmic plays much 
of the physical development of the children is ac- 


Wherever possible, the cupboards should contain 
low shelves so that the children themselves can take 
out and put away the materials. The space beneath 
the broad wndow sills can be utilized when not used 
for radiators, and other cupboards may be placed 
beneath the blackboards. 


A cabinet with glass doors and sides supplies a con- 
venient dustless place for objects of interest. 

Pictures, Casts and Vases: 

A few good pictures appealing to childish interests 
should be hung on the wall in spaces purposely ar- 
ranged for them in planning the room. One or two 
good casts and flower jars of different shapes are 
Clock, Aquarium, and Curtains: 

A clock with a visible pendulum, an aquarium 
where the children can experience forms of water life, 
and a place for growing plants are important. 




Curtains ought merely to soften the frame work of 
the windows and not exclude any light. 


Some materials, like halls', hlocks, beads, scissors, 
etc., heing durable, need to be replenished only at 
long intervals. They constitute the equipment. Other 
materials, like paper, paste, crayons, etc., must be 
replenished every year. They are supplies. 

The following estimate is based on a kindergarten 
of 50 children, divided into at least two groups: 

(Articles marked * can be obtained locally.) 

Equipment: Cost. 

10 Tables, 6 feet long x 16 inches wide $ 70.00 

2 Tables for teachers, 3 feet long x 16 inches 

wide 11-00 

52 Mosher chairs 36.84 

Songs and Games for Little Ones, J«nks 

and Walker 1-50 

Song Stories for the Kindergarten, Mil- 
dred J. and Patty S. Hill 1.00 

Songs of the Child World, Jessie Gaynor 1.00 
Songs and Music of Frcebel's Mother Play 1.50 
Songs for Little Children, Parts I and II, 

Eleanor Smith 3.50 

Froebel's Mother Play : • • • 1-25 

*Story books, picture books 

4 Sets worsted balls, 6 colors in a set, first 

gift '■•■ 6.00 

15 Rubber balls I- 50 

25 Sets wooden balls, cube, cylinder, second 

gift 15-00 

25 Sets of each of 4 kinds of building blocks, 
third, fourth, fifth, and sixth gifts, 
small size (enlarged size is preferable) 30.00 

2000 Wooden tablets I 2 - 00 

100 Of each color and size wooden sticks, en- 

6 Colors and white, 1 to 5 inches in length 6.66 
. ^200 Of each size, wire rings, 1, 1%, 2 inches 5.70 

200 Of each size, half rings 1-50 

2000 Wooden beads, 6 colors, ball, cubes, cylin- 
der 4 -0° 

25 Peg boards, large size, and pegs 12.50 

4 Packages blunt sewing needles 40 

25 Weaving needles I- 25 

25 Pairs scissors 

1 Set pictures from Froebel's Mother Play 

1 Perforator 

*1 Crock for clay 

*50 Small flags * 

*2 Lbs. lentils and assorted seeds 

*10 Sets garden tools and watering pot 

*25 Individual paste dishes ($0.30 doz.) 63 

*25 Individual trays or pans 

4 Packages of clay flour 100 

25 Boxes Crayola I- 25 

25 Paint boxes and brushes 6.25 

3 Reams of drawing paper of different kinds 

9x12 inches 2.00 

50 Packages cutting and folding papers, 




squares, and circles, standard colors, 
shades and tints 

15 Packages weaving mats 

25 Packages gray and white cards, for sew- 
ing or mounting 

15 Skeins germantown yarn, assorted colors, 
and brown and white 

3 Packages parquetry, squares and circles 

4 Boxes straws, short lengths, for stringing 
*2 Quarts paste 

5 Packages hardwood splints, 10 ins., plain 
*1 Pound raffia, natural, green and brown.. 

*Chalk, white and colored 


*3 Dozen shoe laces 





Sand may be used for covering the tables with 
oilcloth and giving each child a small quantity, or 
by a sand box on the porch or in the garden, or by 
a zinc-lined sand table at least 2xz 6 feet, made with 
strong supports. 


The teacher is the essential factor in any school. 
No kindergarten, however well housed and equipped, 
can succeed without a capable, resourceful, kindergar- 
ten teacher of pleasing personality, with special train- 
ing for her work. This training should have been 
obtained in a regular two-years' kindergarten course, 
in a training school of high standard. A community 
intending to establish a kindergarten would do well 
to give careful consideration to a selection of the 
teacher, with particular reference to her training. 


Claka J. Dextox. 832 Wealthy St. S. E., Grand 
Rapids, Mich. 

Last night before I went to sleep 

I looked out at the trees, 
For there they stood without a leaf 

All shivering in the breeze. 

"Poor trees," I said, "it seems too bad 
That all your leaves should fall," 

They looked so lonesome in the night, 
So bare and brown and tall. 

And then, this morning when I woke 
Each branch was loaded down 

With heaps of snow all shiney white 
Like mother's new silk gown. 

And O, I laughed right out, because 

I was so glad to know 
The cold and lonely trees were wrapped 

In all that feathery snow. 

Fill up each hour with what will last 
Buy up the moments as they go 

The life above, when this is past 
Is the ripe fruit of life below. 

It is a higher exhibition of Chris- 
tian manliness to be able to bear 
trouble than to get rid of it. — H. W. 





and our 



NO 20 , 

mailed without charge 


Valuable Helps to 


The Kindergarten 

By Susan Blow, Patty Hill 
and Elizabeth Harrison. 
Introduction by Annie * 1 „- 
Laws and Lucy Wheelock «pl.£J 

How to Tell Stories 
to Children 

By Sarah Cone Bryant 1.00 

Stories to tell to Chil- 

By Sarah Cone Bryant 1.00 

Songs and Stories for 
the Little Ones 

'By E. Gordon "Browne .80 




Numerous letters and statements 
have been received by Mrs. John W. 
Eckenrode, President of the Lancas- 
ter Free Kindergarten Association, 
wherein parents and teachers alike 
express their appreciation of the 
work that the Free Kindergartens 
are accomplishing in the city. The 
testimony of the first grade teach- 
ers is that pupils coming to their 
classes from the kindergarten are 
possessed of more initiative, more 
experience, a larger fund of school 
information and a habit of doing 
school work in conjunction with 
other children, in their young years, 
which enables them to make better 
progress from the very beginning 
of their grade work. Likewise 
their social instinct has been 
developed and responsiveness on 
their part to the suggestions of the 
teacher is especially marked. 

The board of managers of the 
Free Kindergarten Association re- 
cently received an acknowledge- 
ment of moneys collected for the 
work of the National Kindergarten 
Association, which is making good 
progress throughout the United 
States. The letter stated that the 
National Association succeeded in 
opening 60 kindergartens during the 
past year upon which boards of 
education are spending $120,000. It 
has also been instrumental in 
having laws regulating kindergar- 
tens passed in two states, and help- 
ed in passing one in a third. 


The kindergarten children are 
playing store in realistic fashion 
at Madison school, during play 

A store has been fitted up and is 
being stocked with things the chil- 
dren make. Many strings of col- 
ored beads, made of modeling clay 
covered with shellac, have been 
prepared by the little folk, and are 
hung in festoons in front of the 

A wise man reflects before he 
speaks. — A fool speaks, and then re- 
flects on what he has uttered. — 

Ridicule is the first and last 
argument of fools. — C. Simmons, 

Responsibility walks hand in hand 
with capacity and power. — J. G. 
Holland . 

Blessings ever wait on virtuous 
deeds, and though late, a sure re- 
ward succeeds. — Congreve. 


As illustrated. No. 188, silver 
plated. Hard Enameled. Two colors , 
any letters or date 20c. $2.00 doz. 
Sterling silver, $4.00 doz. JJo. 239,; 
Sterling Silver, 60c. each. Rolled; 
Gold, 75c. each. 

188 Send for Free Catalog. 

THE METAL ARTS CO., Inc., 85 South ave., 

tor, N. Y. 



Old time classics are here 
presented in simple form 
for oral use by Story Tell- 
ers, or for children's read- 
ing. PRICE $ 75 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



Paid Semi-Annually 

January 1 and July 1 

Withdrawable on 30 Days' Notice 

Over twenty-five years of contin- 
uous success assets, a million and 
a half dollars. Write for financial 
statement and book giving full 





Established in 1S95. 

Devoted to the discussion of the 
elementary school problems in Cali- 
fornia and elsewhere, 

Price $1.50.. 


324 Phelan Building, 


PLEASE when answering- any 
adv. in this column say "I saw your 
adv. in the Kind.-Pri. Magazine." 

On Thursday, February 10th, the 
Buffalo Kindergarten union will 
have its annual game day. 



From $8.00 to $25.00 

From $'i5.00to $125.00 

Write for free 




Northville, Mich. 

"When answering this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind.-PrLm. Mag. 


SixtyMusical Games and Rec- 
reations for Little Musicians] 

By Laura Rountree Smith. 

Teaches the use of sharps and 
flats and other facts of music by 

Contains thirty musical entertain- 
ments for months of the school year. 

Endorsed by leading educators. 

No kindergarten teacher should 
be without it. 

Price 75 cents, postpaid 


150 Tremont Street, BOSTON 


As a Pioneer in Modern 

By E. R. Murray 

The purpose of this book is to 
show that Frobel's educational the- 
ories were based on psychological 
views of a type much more modern 
than is at all generally understood. 
Most educationists have read The 
Educa on of Man, but few outside 
the kindergarten world are likely 
to have bestowed much thought on 
Froebel's later writings. It is in 
these, however, that we see Froebel 
watching with earnest attention 
that earliest mental development 
which is now regarded as a distinct 
chapter in mental science, but 
which was then largely, if not en- 
tirely ignored. 

The major part of the book is in- 
tended to show the correctness of 
Froebel's views on points now re- 
garded as of fundamental impor- 
tance and generally recognized as ! 
modern theories. 

224 pages. $1.25 delivered. 

Warwick AYorkjinc. 

Baltimore, Maryland 

In the manuscript recently pre- 
pared by Miss Luella W. Palmer, 
assistant director of kindergartens 
in the public schools of New York 
city, and endorsed by P. P. Claxton, 
U. S. Commissioner of education, it 
is reported that the child trained in 
the kindergarten shows an advan- 
tage over the non-kindergarten 
child in the following characteris- 
tics: — 

1. Formation of good school (and 
life) habits, such as regularity, 
punctuality, orderliness, cleanliness, 

2. Power of expression, involving 
fluency in language and also a fund 
of ideas, as well as dramatic expres- 

3. Power of observation, concen- 
tration and attention. 

4. Perseverance or energy to fin- 
ish a task when once begun. 

5. Control of the hand for man- 
ual work. 

6. Self-reliance initiative, adapt- 
ability, ability to cope with situa- 
tions with direction. 

7. Ability to work with others, 
willingness to wait one's turn, to 
co-operate, to share responsibility. 

8. Responsiveness, willing obed- 
ience and compliance with sugges- 

9. Knowledge acquired thru ac- 
tual experiences in the kindergar- 

10. Ability to imitate, to follow 
technical suggestions. 

11. Interest in taking up any 
form of school work. 

12. Musical ability and rhythm- 
ical control. 

13. Initial entrance to school 
made easy and attractive. 

14. Ability to read or write more 

No man has a right to do as he 
pleases, except when he pleases to 
do right. — C. Simmons. 

Literary Help 
For You 

Any Subject, for Any Oc- 
casion, i Written to Order 
by Experienced Authors. 

Outlines, $1.00 each, cash 
with Order 

For Additional terms, etc., 
send two 'cents stamp to, 


Department K 
832 Wealthy Street 

Grand Rapids, Mich. 


PLEASE when answering any 
adv. in this column say "I saw your 
adv. in the Kind.-Pri. Magazine.". 

At a recent meeting of the Bel- 
fast school board, the matter of two 
sessions in the Belfast high school 
was again discussed with the re- 
sult that the previous ruling of the 
board to have two sessions, was 
reserved and the school, will for 
the present at least, continue with 
one session. 

The majesty of God revere; fear 
him, and you have nothing else to 
fear.— Fordyce. 


One, if not all of them of interest 
to every teacher. 

FIRST — To give a correspondence 
i course in arithmetic, grammar, and 
other common school subjects for 
the small sum of $5 per subject. Thti 
courses are prepared by Prof. J. W. 
Lusby, President of the Grayson 
Normal and Editor of the Southern 
Teacher, and are aimed to prepare 
one for the most rigid teacher's Ex- 

SECOND — To accept subscriptions 
to the Southern Teacher, a live up- 
to-date teacher's journal with a list 
of teacher's examination questions 
and answers every month, current 
events, etc., etc., for $1.00 per year 
and give every subscriber, a year's 
subscription to McCalls, the great 
Fashion Magazine or a copy ot 
Stocks and Bonds Made Easy, a smal; 
book that thoroughly explains this 
difficult subject. 

THIRD — To sell you for $1.00 Lus- 
by's Normal Question Book, The 
County Examiner, the latest and 
best on the market, to assist you in 
preparing for a teacher's examina- 
tion, and give you a premium if you 
mention this paper. 

FOURTH — To send you the South- 
ern Teacher and the Kindergarten- 
Primary Magazine, both one year foi 

Agents wanted everywhere. Lib-j 
eral commission. 

The Southern Teacher 

N. Main Street, GRAYSON, Ky. 



(Author of the Bunny Cottontail 

A most delightful book 
for the young folks. Beau- 
tiful and artistic; a splen- 
did Christmas gift. 

Price $ 1 .OO 

A. C. McCLURG & CO. 



The Story of Bethlehem 

A Beautiful Nativity Play 

Told n Ten Old Carols 
Translated and Arranged by 


Full Directions For Staging and 
Price, 25 Cents 
. . In "The Story of Bethlehem" 
Miss Hofer has arranged a play of 
unusual interest; it is impressive 
and attractive. .The music dates 
back several centuries and, while 
a little unusual, in that it hasn't 
the familiar ring of present day 
tunes, it is rich in its melodic 
content and beautful — a whole- 
some character of music to know. 
Some of the numbers can be ren- 
dered by full choir of mixed voic- 
es ,accom an merit* furnishing 
the arrangements for such use. 

The play can be given by chil- 
dren or adults. 


64 East Van Buren S.t, Chicago 


\X7E have trained 
" thousan d s of 
women in their own 
homes to earn $10 
to $25 a week as 
nurses. Send for 
'How I became a 
nurse 11 — 248 pages 
with actual exper- 
iences. 48 illust- 
rated lesson pages 
Fifteenth Year. 

557 Main Str ee 1 ' 
Jamestown, N. Y 

The Chautauqua School of Nursing 

for a few 

We Have Permanent Positions „ 

teachers who can devote their whole time to introefucin 
1 standard educational proposition in towns having hig_ 
schools. Substantial remuneration. Address P. 0. Box 


Writing one moving picture play a week. 
Demand Greater Than Supply. You can wr te 
nem. We show you how. Send for free boik- 
et, valuable information and special poze 
^er. Chicago Photoplaywright College, Brio 
278-E-10, Chicago. 

PLEASE when answering any 
adv. in this column say "I saw your 
adv. in the Kind.-Pri. Magazine." 


Bridget — "The new neighbors want 
to cut their grass, mum, and they 
sent over to ask the loan of your 

Mistress — "Lend them our lawn- 
mower to cut grass on the Sabbath! 
Certainly not! Tell them, Bridget, 
that we haven't one." — Boston Tran- 


Niece — "I do think you are clever, 
aunt, to be able to argue with the 
professor about sociology." 

Aunt — "I've only been concealing 
my ignorance, dear," 

Professor Bilks (gallantly — "Oh, 
no, Miss Knowles. Quite the con- 
trary, I assure you." — Boston Tran- 


The New Parson — "Well, I'm glad 
to hear you come to church twice 
every Sunday." 

Tommy — "Yes, I'm not old enough 
to stay away yet." — London Opinion. 

An engine that expends all its 
steam in whistling has nothing 
left with which to turn wheels. — Let 
us then cultivate silence. All we 
can save in noise we gain in power. 
— Rev. Carl Wagner, in "The 
Simple Life." 


Knicker — "Who does the baby 
look like?" 

Bocker — "He is neutral." — New 
York Times. 

By taking revenge, a man is but 
even with his enemy; but in 
passing over it, he is superior. — 
Bacon . 


Dramatization of. for 
'Primary Grades: attrac- 
tive 29-page booklet; 1 1 scenes; illustrated; 15c. post- 
paid. C. L. MCCARTHY, Rufus, Oregon. 

^cxnrl mo i? 6 ^*-* in stamps and 
aena me ^ OCl I will send yon 

NEEDLECRAFT for 12 mos. James Senior, Lamar, Mo. 

If poverty is the mother of 
crimes, want of sense is the father 
of them. — Bruyere. 

If I am faithful to the duties of 
the present, God will provide for 
the future. — Dedell. 

Whether religion be true or 
false, it must be necessarily granted 
to be the only wise principle and 
safe hypothesis for a man to live 
and die by. — Tillotson. 


Announcements, etc., 1 OO for $3.50 
engraved and printed. Corred Styles. 

too Visiting Cards. 50c. Write for samples. 

F. B. ESTABROOK, 144 Summer Street, Boston, Mass. 



Addresses. Special Papers, 
Essajs, Debates, etc., pre- 
pared for individual requirements. Original 
accurate writings for all events. The kind 
that ring true. Five hundred words, 1 dollar. 

113 East 129 St., New York 



A collection of poems for use in 
the first three years of school life. 

Some point or moral is embodied 
in each poeiu. They have been tried 
in the classroom and their useful- 
ness proved. 

A valuable book for primary 
teachers to have in hand. 

Paper. Price 25 cents postpaid. 

New England Publishing Co. 


When answering- this adv. say that 
you saw it in the Kind.-Prim. Mag. 


A sixty page pamphlet, well 
illustrated and full of sugges- 
tions for the primary teacher. 
Send 25 cents for a copy. 



New Mexico Journal 
of Education 

Santa Fe, N. M. 

The pride of dying rich raises the 

loudest laugh in hell. John 



'T'HIS list of Teachers' Agencies is published for the benefit of our subscribers. It includes only those who claim to be able 

to secure positions for Kindergartners or Primary Teachers. We advise those in need of positions to write one or more 

of these agencies for particulars. Even though nowemployed you may be able to secure a position in a larger or better school 


Recommends Teachers, Tutois and 
Schools. No. 120 Boylston street. 


Teachers each 

year. Some Kindergartners. No charge 
until teacher is located by us. Send for 
registration blank. A. H. Campbell, 

American Teachers' Agency 

Myrick Building, Springfield, MASS 

The Pratt Teachers' Agency 

70 Fifth Avenue New York 

Recommends college and normal gradu- 
ates, specialists, and. other teachers to 
colleges, public and private schools, in 
all parts or the country. 

Advises parents about schools. 

WM. O. PRATT, Manager 


Station A. Spokane, Wash. 

We will have openings for a large num- 
ber of Primary and Kindergarten teach- 
ers. No enrollment fees. Blank and 
booklet for the asking. 

Trained Primary and Kindergarten 
Teachers needed. Good positions. Per- 
manent membership. Write to-day. 
612-613 Majestic Building, 

Oklahoma City, Okla. 



INTERSTATE Teachers' Agency 

501-503 Livingston Building. Rochester, 
N. Y. Gives special attention to plac- 
ing Kindergarten and Primary Teach- 
ers in all parts of the United Stales. 
T. H. ARMSTRONG, Proprietor. 


There is an increasing demand for Pri- 
mary Teachers and Kindergartners 
throughout the South. Our agency is 
one of the largest and best known in 
this splendid territory for teachers. Ask 
for booklet, A BAN. 
W. H. JONES, Manager and Proprietor. 



We need Kindergarten Teachers, Supt., 
Principals, Teachers of Science, Math- 
ematics and "Language. 




Provides public and private schools 
with competent teachers. 

Assists teachers and kindergartners 
in obtaining positions. 

81 Chapel Street, ALBANY. N Y. 

Kindergartners and Primary Teachers 

Are in constant demand in the South ai 
good salaries. We can place both. 

The Teachers' Exchange 

P. O. Box 283, Nashville, Tenn. 


We wantKindergarten. Primary , Rural 
and otherteacbers for regularor special 
work. Highest salaries. Send for lit- 
erature and enroll for the coming year. 

P. Wendell Murray, Manag-er. 

Home Occupations 


Mothers' Meetings 


Bertha Johnston 

Address. 389 Clinton Street, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Kindergarten and Primary Teachers 
exceed our supply. No charge until you 
accept position. 

Lewis Teachers 3 Agency 

41 Lyman Block, Muskegon, Mich. 

Sahins' Educational Exchange 


Wants to hear from kindergarten or 

primary teachers desiring places west 

of Mississippi river. Write fully. Will 

answer frankly. 

The J.D.EngleTeachcrs' Agency 


A Placing Agency for Teachers. Estab- 
lished 20 years. Register tor Western 
Kindergarten-Primary positions. Send 
for circular 


< iiilsfien who begin to write by 
using the Bluscograph, acquire a free 
rapid handwriting' in a short time. 

Price 15e. .Agents wanted 

MUSCOGRAFH CO., Greenfield Ohio. 


AN AGENCY '„• SilftS? ,'; 

its influence If it merely hearsof va- 
cancies and tells "TWAT is sonie- 
you about them " ■ •/■A ' thing, 

but if it is asked to recommend a'teach- 

you that RECOMMENDS 

is more. Ours recommends. 

The School Bulletin Agency 

C. W, BARDEEN, Syracuse, N. Y. 



Only Competent Teachers Enrolled. 


Always needed in our territory. We have placed over eleven thousand 

brainy men and women with discriminating employers. If you are 

a qualified teacher, write us immediately. No registration fee 






Our openings come direct from school boards and superintendents who ask fo. our recommendations. 
Many authoritize us to select their teachers outright, year after year. We are in touch with Western 

IES" covering the sixteen states from the Missouri River to the Pacific. 

Our 96 page booklet, "How to Apply for a School and St cure Promotion, with Laws of Certification of 
Teachers of all the States," free to members or sent postpaid for fifty cents in stamps. 

Our free booklet "The Road to Good Positions," sent upon request. 

The Largest Teachers' Agency in the Rocky Mountain Region. WILLIAM RUFFER, Manager 

m&CmWr/£A CtfERS'A GE/VCY 

JEA7jPfff£ BLDG, £>JE/V\S^f9i COLO: 




I'LAY itself into thf elements of an 
Tins new system Is adapted for home or 
school training, concentrating the child mind 
on simple lusso: s in writ in gaud reading si mui 
taneously It lays foundations on which! 
more advanced instructi' n follows easily. 
33 CARDS, 8^x12 inches, in box with in- 
structions. $2.50 by Parcel Post Prepaid, 

The Faulkner School, Dedham, Mass. 

'Etc., are wanted for publica- 
Hannibal, Mo. 

PLEASE when answering' any 
adv. in this column say "I saw your 
adv. in the Kind.-Pri. Magazine." 




Diplomas granted for Regular Kindergarten Course (two years;. 

and Post Graduate Course (one year). Special Certificates for 

Home-making Course, non-professional (one year). 


!lass Rooms and 
Students' Residence 


54 Scott St., CHICAGO. 

Credit in connection with the above awarded by the University of 


Mrs. Mary Boomer Page, 

Directors: Mrs. Ethel Roe Lindgren, 

Miss Caroline C. Cronise, 

For circulars apply to Chicago Kindergarten Institute, 54 Scott St. 





SUM M ER SHOOL, June 1 4 to Aug. 6 

Kindergarten p~i Primary Methods. 
Playground Work. Model Demon- 
stration Schools. Credits Applied 
•> ItegTilar Courses. Resident 
Dormitory on College Grounds. 

Come to a school where Instruc- 
tion received will have practical 
value In your fall work. 

For full information address 

Box 000, 2944 Michigan Boulevard, 




In Affilirtion wi>h New York University 

Two vears normal course accredited 
by State Board of Regents. 


May be taken for Kindergarten Train- 
ing School and University credit. 
New York University, 
University Heights 

July 1, August 11 
For information address 


New York University 
Washington Square, New York City. 


Organized In 18S1 as Chicago 
Free Kindergarten Association. 

Oldest kindergarten training 
school in Chicago. Located In Fine 
Arts sBuilding, overlooking Lake 
Michigan. Regular two years' dip- 
loma course. Special courses open 
to teachers and mothers. Universi- 
ty instructors. University credits. 

EVA B. WHITMORE, Registrar. 

Room 706, 410 S. Michigan Avenue, 

Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School 


1 JJ&&M 





No. 508 

tain St. 


Montessori Teacher-Training School 

Fifth Year 

Instruction in the theory and use of the Montessori 
materials. Resident and d y students. $30,000.00 
building adjoining All Saints 1 Episcopal Church. 
Elementary and college preparatory courses. Bas- 
ketball, Tennis. For illustrated folder address 

Mrs. J. SCOTT ANDERSON, Direct- 
ress, Box 106 
Torresdalt, I'liilndclphla, Pa. 


1874— Kindergarten Normal Institution— 1916 

1516 Columbia Road, N. W WASH I NGTON, D. C. 

The citizenship of the future depends on the children of today. 

Susan Plessner Pollock, Principal 

Address M. DAUGHERTY, Baltimore, Md., 637 West North Avenue 

Summer Training Classes at Mt. Chatauqua — Mountain Lake Park- 

GarrettCo., Maryland 

caught 5i rats one week , TEACHERS! The Ideal Report Cards 

Trap resets itself, 22 inches high, will 
last for years. Can't get out of order. 
Weighs 7 pounds. 12 rats caught one 
day. Cheese is used doing away with 
poisons. This trap does its work, never 
fails and is always ready for the next 
rat. When rats'and mice pass device, 
they die. Rats are disease carriers, also 
cause fires. These Catchers should be 
in every school building-. Rot Catcher 
sent postpaid on receipt of $3. Mouse 
catcher, 10 inches high, $1. Money 
back if riot satisfied. 

H. D. SWARTS, Inventor and Mnfr. 

Universal Rat and Mouse Traps, 
Box 566, Scranton, Pa. 

for pupil's monthly reports 
made out for ten months or less for 
every subject taught in the grades. 
Two forms, each 15c per dozen, 2c 
extra per dozen for postage. Envel- 
opes 5c per dozen. Sample free. .Ad- 

A. E. BISHOP, Iron River, Mich. R. 1 


316-22 So. Mich. Boul. Chicago 

(New Location Overlooking Lake Michigan.) 

19th year. Regular Two Year's Diploma 
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The X e w 

Training for Playground Workers. 
Folk Dancing, Pageantry, Games. >tory 
Telling, etc. Addire-s Pestalozzi-Fi oebel 
Tr. Sch. Box 60 616 South Michigan 
Boulevard Chicaeo 111. 


Successor to Miss LAURA FISHER 

Training School for Kindergartners 

Normal Course two years. Graduate 
and Special Courses. 

200 Commonwealth Avenue 


literary Service Based on Merit- 1 

debates, essays, talks, discussions, etc. 
prepared to order on given subjects. 
Thirteen years' experience; $2 per 1C0O 
words. 23 percent discount to teachers 

P. A. MILLER, 211-213 Reisinger ave., Dayton, Ch'o 



SO ANIMAL AND BIRD STENCILS, $1.00 .-A new kind of 
pencils for making outline drawings of animals and birds. Any wide awake teacher 
. ill quickly 'ee the many practical uses for these stencils in the hands of pupils 
especially in the lower grades and kindergarten. With any of these steneils the 
teacher or pupil may draw any number of outlines of a bird or animal. Each sten- 
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Published on the first of each Month, except July and Aug- 
ust, at Manistee, Mich., U. S. A. Subscription price, $1.00 per 
Annum, postpaid in U. S., Hawaiian Islands, Phillipines, Guam, 
Porto Rico, Samoa* Shanghai, Canal Zone, Cuba, Mexico. For 
Canada add 20c, and all other countries 30c, for Postage. 

J. H. SHULTS. Manager. 

March, 1916. 

Entered at the P. O., Manistee, Mich., as Second Class Mail Matter. 



Twenty-third Annual Conven- 
tion of the International Kinder- 
garten Union at Cleveland, Ohio, 
May 2-5. 


We have received a most excellent report of the 
lecture given by Prof. Patty A. Hill before the Public 
School Kindergarten Association, of New York, re- 
ported by Miss Hilda Busick, which will appear In our 

The prodigious task of preserving the safety of 
Americans all over the world under the present con- 
ditions in the east may lead us into war, but that we 
are in danger of invasion from any of the nations of 
Europe is unthinkable. 

The people of the United States are patriotic. But 
it is time for all to realize that patriotism does not 
consist merely of dying for one's country. I believe 
that patriotism consists more in living for the benefit 
of the whole world, of giving others a chance to live 
for themselves, their country and the world. — Henry 

A c.ood deal is said about the deficiency of the 
United States from a military standpoint compared 
with the European countries, supposedly to the dis- 
advantage of the United States, but, is it not wise to 
judge a policy by results. Has preparedness along 
military lines been a good thing for the nations of 
Europe, has it not been the chief aggravating cause 
of all the trouble that has come to those countries, — 
the jealously of one country toward another because 
of extensive military equipment. 

The annual meeting of the Department of Super- 
intendence at Detroit last week, was one of the most 
successful meetings ever held in the history of the 
organization. We hope to give some of the papers 
read in the kindergarten section in the near future. 

If one hundreth of one per cent of all that has been 
spent on this kind of "preparedness" had been used 
to do away with national and international differences 
built up by a diplomacy originating n the Dark Ages, 
war would have ceased long ago. Every man must 
admit that the method is foolish. And even the old 
time "glory of war is dead, the victim of science. 
Then why continue? Why not begin now to build a 
machinery of reason to do the work that the machr 
inery of force has not accomplished? That is the 
great duty facing those who govern. — Henry Ford. 

Congressman Clyde H. Tavenner, delivered in the 
House two remarkable speeches — "The World Wide 
War Trust," and "The Navy League Unmasked" — ■ 
giving startling revelations of an organized body of 
war traffickers who promote war and preparation for 
war — "preparedness." He charges that the Navy 
League, which inspired and financed largely the 
present agitation for "preparation," was founded by 
a group made up largely of war traffickers. He also 
charges that among the most active members and 
officers of the League today are men who not only 
will profit from "preparedness," but who actually hold 
a monopoly on the materials for war which the 
government must purchase — that these war-traffick- 
ing men are in agreement with war munitioners of 
Europe, barring the possibility of the United States 
government purchasing supplies of war at any price 
but that fixed by the war-traffickers of the United 
States. Mr. Tavenner's charges never have been re- 
futed. The very men, who pile up the armament of all 
nations, — and it is true that the same firm will often 
arm both sides in a conflict — will find an enemy for 
any country they arm. And they will arm that enemy, 
too, for the profits on arms are great, and the industry 
is a monopoly. — Henry Ford. 


By JENNY B. MERRILL. Pd. D., New York City 

It may not be known to all kindergartners that the 
first week in March will be "Baby Week" throughout 
the country. Facts about the care of babies have been 
gathered by Miss Julia Lathrop who is at the head of 
the Federal Children's Bureau at Washington, D. C. 

Let every kindergartner who reads this magazine 
make haste to send at once for a copy of the bulletin 
which she has had prepared. It will be sent free of 
charge if you address "The Children's Bureau, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Hon. P. P. Claxton, U. S. Commissioner of Edu- 
cation, presided last month at Detroit at a meeting of 
the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher 
Associations which met in connection with our N. E. 
A. Dept. cf Superintendence. He spoke upon 
"Government Helps in Baby Saving and Home Edu- 
cation . " 

The topic "Children who Err" was presented by 
our own Elizabeth Harrison. 

In connection with these same meetings, Miss 
Luella A. Palmer, of New York City, assisted in the 
discussion conducted by Miss Lucy Wheelock on "The 
Adjustment of the Kndergarten to the Grades.'. 

These timely addresses and discussions should be 
read as soon as possible by all kindergartners. 

What have they to do with the kindergarten pro- 
gram for this month? Much every way. 

Can we not have another kindergarten "Baby 
Week," thus, joining with thousands of mothers and 
teachers all over our country? It does inspire us to 
feel the influence of numbers all earnestly working to 
advance our knowledge on the physical and mental 
care of "Our Babies." They are God's greatest gift. 
Twenty-five thousand motherless children are here in 
New York City in care of the state. Do we do as well 
by them as we would for 25,000 lambs if we wished to 
raise them? Perhaps we would kill many of the 
lamts, and I fear that is what we do indirectly to 
many of the little ones. 

Suppose we as kindergartners could this week have 
special mothers' meetings. Suppose we could invite 
a real baby to visit our kindergarten. Suppose we 
sang a new lullaby and played with our dolly a little 
more. . 

Suppose we draw and cut out baby's socks and cap 
and mittens. Suppose we wash dolly's clothes and 
talk a little more about cleanliness and how dirt may 
make children sick. 

Suppose we bring a bottle of milk into the kinder- 
garten and talk of baby's food. Baby has no teeth 
at first. Mother will watch for them and take care of 
them every day. How? and what about our own? 

Suppose we talk about "Fresh Air Babies." The 
children may enjoy a laugh about the cage a loving 
father in a New York tenement made for baby so she 
could sleep safely hanging out of the window. 
Country babies and village babies have porches and 
piazzas, and yet do their mother's always roll them 
out-of-doors to sleep? 

Let children tell about baby brothers and sisters 
and cousins or the neighbors' babies. 

I once heard our beloved Caroline Haven tell her 
training class of a pleasant custom in the country 
tewn in which she lived when a child. "Whenever 
a new baby was born," said Miss Haven, "our mother 
let us call to see it as scon as it was proper to do so. 
In this way we learned to love babies and to realize a 
little of their importance. 

"Sometimes we took a little present to the baby as 
a pair of socks, or a ball." 

All this is so natural and simple, that it is well 
nigh universal, and yet it will still bear talking aboat, 
or in the case of little ones who have made such a 
call, let them "tell all about it in kindergarten." 

Can we find the sweetest baby poem to memorize? 

This year a collection of such poems written by a 
mother who lost her little one has been brought to 
my notice. Every interesting topic connected with a 
baby's life seemed to me to be represented in the 
table of contents. 

I attended a "Mothers' and Babies' Playground" 
where the lady in charge had used these poems to 
interest the children in babies. 

Lcok into "Pinafore Palace" a collection made by 
two of our rarest kindergarten friends Kate Douglas 
Wiggin and Nora Archibald Smith. The preface is in- 
spiring in itself. 

Let this "Baby Week" come in like the mighty 
rushing wind at Pentecost, and may it blow a gospel 
of loving care for every little one in our land. 

The interest aroused in babies may naturally lead 
to a iceek -with our dolls. Secure a doll for each child 
to dress, and let the crudest beginnings suffice. 

Clothes-pin will answer if a one cent doll is not 
available — or else use paper dolls. 

Just a few inches of white muslin in which the 
youngest child may at least poke holes for the arms 
to slip in — Then a safety pin at the back that "baby" 
may not be scratched. A simple bed may be folded 
or perhaps better made with blocks for the little doll. 
Let the children lead on, and make their own little 
problems. This method is being successfully used 
now-a-days in many kindergartens in preference to 



the formal, geometrical work which was formerly 
used too extensively. 

Dolly's needs will suggest other work from day to 

In one kindergarten I visited, the hoys kept store 
and sold the muslin and toys for baby to the girls. 
But the boys like to dress the dolls too as a rule. 
Dishes for dolly may be made in clay or plasticine. 
Her house may be made in a box and furnished by 
an advanced group, perhaps. 

There are other babies besides ours, and as spring 
is advancing we proceed to a week with trees and 
twigs and birds. We must watch the baby buds open. 
Horsechestnut and lilac are very interesting. Try 

to get them. 


"Baby buds need care too — 
See their warm blankets" — 

and seme have furry caps! 
Some have long curls — 
"The alder by the river 
Shakes out its powdery curls." 

The mother tree sends up sweet sap to feed her 
baby buds. Have we had a maple sugar week? It is 
not too late. 

The snow may still lie as a blanket to protect the 
little blossoms. We may find some brave little 
flowers even before all the snow is melted. 

"Dappy down-dilly comes up in the cold 

Thru the brown mold, 

Altho the March breezes 

Blew keen on her face , 

Altho the white snow 

Lay on many a place." 

Hunt up her whole story in "The Posy Ring," 
another book of collected poems charming for both 
kindergarten and primaries by the same two friends 
of all little ones. 

There are the new spring toys to talk about. The 
ball, the kite, the marbles, the jumping rope. They 
will mark new rhythms and new games for us, and 
keep us busy till 

"March goes out like a lamb." 

If the month has kept up its windy reputation, we 
will of course not fail on pin-wheels and kites, sail- 
boats and possibly wind,-mills, not forgetting the 

Jenny B. Merrill, Pd. D. 


Conversations and stories about taking care of 
babies. Let children volunteer to tell what they have 
seen mother do for baby brothers and sisters. Is 
there a baby in your home? 

What do you do for baby? What can baby do? 
How long does he sleep? What can you do to help 
when he sleeps? What does he eat? What kind of 

milk must we get for him? Does he like water? 
Yes, often he is only thirsty when we think he is 
hungry. Is it good for him to keep a rubber nipple 
in his mouth when he is net drinking milk? No, in- 
deed, it will spoil the shape of his little mouth. It 
■will not hurt him to cry a little when we take it 
away. He will scon learn to be happy without it. 

Talk in simple fashion about fresh air for baby. 
Is is good for baby to be in the sunshine? Yes, if 
we do not let it shine straight in his eyes. What 
can we do about that? Did you ever try to look up 
at the sun when it is bright? Even with our eyes 
closed, it is too bright for us, but it is good for us 
to feel it on our faces, and hands and feet. When it 
is cold, what side of the street should we roll baby 
in his carriage? The sunny side? Why? The sun 
even warms the pavements a little, so that our feet 
do not get so very cold as if we walk on the shady 

In summer time we like the shady side, but now 
we like the sunny side for babies and big children, 

What month is this? What kind of a month is 
March? If it is a very windy day and dust flies, 
shall we take baby out? Perhaps we can sit by the 
window and let him see what the wind is blowing 

Babies love to see things move if they are old 

Is your baby old enough to clap his hands? 

Does he like to spring and dance in mother's arms? 
She holds him tight when he tries to jump. Why 
does he like to spring and dance? 

Be very careful not to let him spring near an open 
window. Why? 

Is it good to bind him all up as the Indians do? 
Have you ever seen the little papoose in the museum? 
Show a picture of swadling clothes or of an Indian 
baby on a board. Tell why we don't use such things 
for our babies. (I fear some of our foreigners do.) 

Singing for baby. What can you sing for baby? 
Have children sing one by one. Let us learn a new 
song for baby: 

"What does little baby say, 
In his bed at peep of day? 
Baby says like little birdie, 
Let me rise and fly away. 
Baby rest a little longer, 
Till you are a little stronger. 
When he rests a lttle longer, 
Baby, too, shall fly away." 

Teach finger plays for baby. — 

Tell the children they may take hold gently of each 
little finger and toe as baby likes to feel us touch 
him. We may shake each one just a little to help 
it grow, but not hard. Do- you know "Pat-a-cake?" 
and "This little pig went to market?" You can turn 
little baby's hand as the weather-vane turns. 

Will he know what it is? No. He will like to 



do it. Perhaps he will laugh and crow about it. (See 
Mother Play of the Weather-vane). 

First tooth. — Has baby a tooth yet? Are you 
watching for it? 

"Such a precious little thing, 

That has come to light! 
'Tis a gem we treasure dear — - 

A tooth of pearly white!" 

Will you show baby how to clean them some day? 
He will watch you, I am sure. Mother washes baby's 
mouth every day. 

First step. — Can baby walk yet? Here is a picture 
of baby taking his first step. (Show Millet's First 
Step). It is very appropriate for the kindergarten 
wall as it shows the interest of both father and moth- 
er in baby's walking lesson. 

Baby's first picture. — Whom does your baby look 
like"? Show several photographs and talk about them. 

"Tis here we see a little face, 

Our baby's face so wondrous fair — 

But oh, the picture in our hearts, 
Is fairer still, beyond compare." 

Weighing baby. — How often do you weight baby? 
Why do we weigh him every week? Tell me tomor- 
row how much your baby weighs. How much do you 

Baby plays. — Is your baby old enough to play ball? 
(See Kindergarten Guide for simple ball games for 
babies). Teach the children some of the rhymes 
mothers use as the ball moves. 

Will you play ball with your baby and your dolly? 

"High — low; high — low; 
See it come — see it go." 

"The ball is round, and rolls each way, 
The ball is nice for baby's play." 

Does your baby love to play peek-a-boo? Can you 
guess why he laughs when you play it? (Kinder- 
gartners should review for their own sake Froebel's 
commentaries upon "Peek-a-boo," and "Cuckoo." Use 
these in Mothers' Meetings). 


Drawing. — Objects and scenes suggested by the 
wind, as, clothes blowing on the line, kites flying, 
the weather-vane,, a sail-boat. Free and illustrative, 
also single objects. 

Paper cutting. — Dolls and balls — pin-wheels. 

Building blocks. — Baby's bed, high chair, turning 

Clay modeling.— Baby's bath tub, balls, boats, free 


Dramatic play illustrative of the pranks played by 
Mr. Wind. 

The wind-mill — weather-vane. 

In playing wind-mill, the children enjoy standing 
back to back, two by two, thus getting the four arms 
of the wind-mill. They have a little trouble at first 
in arranging arms but two who get the slant well 
can be used to set the standard. 

Imitate motions of spring toys for rhythms, as toss- 
ing ball, flying kites, jumping rope. These motions 
should not be accompanied by music at first, later 
they can become rhythms and played in unison. Many 
kindergartners have the real "jumping rope" in kin- 
dergartens. Children love to throw the rope over 
their heads even if they do not succeed in jumping 
over the rope as it reaches the feet. 

It is interesting to analyze these complicated move- 
ments for ourselves to see how wonderfully the child 
imitates movement unconsciously and without a fear 
that he cannot. 

Play out-of-doors if possible on fair days. 

Play family games if it proves desirable to follow 
up the topic of the week. 

Because they 


Why do little children love dolls? 
are like babies. 

Have children bring their dolls and have a doll's 
party. Let the dolls sit in the circle. Sing lalla- 

Review the finger plays taught last week with the 

Show dolls of other nations or pictures of them. 
Tell about the Paderewski dolls sent from Europe 
this year. They illustrated the peasants' costumes 
of Poland and were exhibited to raise money for 
children whose fathers were killed in the war. 

If desirable to do more Nature work this week, in- 
troduce other babies as, baby-birds, placing twigs in 
water in the center of the ring and lead to care in 
observing them. 


Drawing. — The jumping rope, the kite, colored 
balls, tops of different colors, etc. 

Free illustrative scenes. 

Cutting. — Cut out the dolls after drawing — cut 
dresses — color. 

Clay modeling. Twigs, buds, tops, (may color 

Construction work. — Dressing dolls as suggested 

Doll's house. — Begin if there is time. 


Continue those of first week. 

Use the lullaby in rhythms, rocking dolly to music. 


Show bird pictures — hang them up as birds are 
seen in country or in parks. Visit tree nearest 



Watch for iiast building. Talk of these things after 
hey have entered the child's experience. 

Name trees and birds. Children like to learn spe- 
:ific names. 

Show nests in the cabinet if none are being built, 
jut concentrate upon the actual building if it can be 
;ecn near the school or encourage children to report 
)f other trees and nests near their homes. 


Drawing. — Trees, twigs, nests. 
Cutting. — Birds to be colored. 
Modeling. — Birds, nests, eggs. 
Weaving. — Tell of the bird that weaves. 
A mat for dolly's house. 

Building. — Garden wall, trees inside, free building, 
of houses for dolls. 


Bird games. — Gradually work towards a connected 
series, telling the spring story. 

Continue wind games as the weather suggests 


Talk of sunrise and sunset, longer days, where 
does the su-n rise. 

Point to North and South. 

Observe shadows at noon. At noon the sun is in 
the south. 

Our shadow points north. 

The north is opposite the south. 

Children who are early taught these directions, are 
interested in pointing them out on their walks. They 
come gradually to understand, that is, the meaning 
grows with experience, and when they are used in 
geography, they are real directions. 

Talk of the light and warmth the sun gives us. 
Teach a line from Genesis: — "God made two great 
lights, the greater light to rule the day and the lesser 
light to rule the night. He made the stars also." 
I hope all the children have seen Jupiter and Venus 
this winter. Last month the sight of these two plan- 
ets with the new moon in the west one evening was 
a rare sight even to be appreciated by young chil- 

I know a boy of six who enjoyed it with me and 
who loves to say "Good night to the stars," and 
"God bless the little stars." I find children enjoy 
the choice language of Scripture in short, carefully 
selected passages. 

Have shadows observed in the class room and on 
walls, many times. Review or introduce the light 

The sun sends us beautiful colors. Use the prism 
and let the children play with it often. 

Observe twigs and plants. 


Drawing and coloring. — Phases of the moon. The 
Sun — shadows. 
The aquarium— fishes. 

Sand. — Digging, plowing, according to locality. It 
may be too early in some places. 

Setting up a scene illustrative of March as a windy 

Follow picture in Froebel's Mother Play. 

Modeling. — Fishes, tadpoles. 

Cutting and mounting. — The aquarium, using col- 
ored papers appropriate for gold fishes, tadpoles, green 
plants, pebbles, etc. 

Cut yellow circles for the Sun. 

Make yellow chains for sunshine. 

Cut and color more birds. 

Sunrise and sunset dramatized. 

A child dressed in yellow or carrying a yellow ball 
starts on the east side of the room, walks towards 
the south, when he reaches it, he mounts a chair to 
illustrate that the sun is higher in the sky at noon, 
then walks to the west and disappears. 

Darken the room and let the children go to sleep. 
It is night, the sun has set. Let the sun re-appear 
in the east, and have the children wake and stand 
singing a greeting song to the sun. 

Play games with shadows. 

Show shadows on the wall. 

See Froebel's Shadow pictures. 

Play light-bird. 

Play Fishes and Tadpoles, as: 

"Taddy pole and polly wog, 
Lived together in a bog. 
Here you can see the very pool, 
Where they went to swimming school. 
By and by, 'tis true but strange, 
O'er them came a wondrous change. 
Here you see them on a log, 
Each a most decided frog." 

NOTE. — Each week it is well to reserve Fridays 
for free work and reviews of songs, stories and pic- 

A memorial meeting for Mrs. L. A. Truesdell, 
prominent kindergarten and social worker, who died 
in August, was held Saturday afternoon at the Mis- 
sion Kindergarten, Fifth street. Friends, students 
and the mothers' clubs connected with the kindergar- 
ten work of the city, of which Mrs. Truesdell was 
superintendent for many years, paid tribute to the 
little mite of a woman who did so much good during 
her life. Former students told how the work, begun 
by her, is now being carried on in forty different 
states, as well as in foreign countries. Mothers told 
of the aid Mrs. Truesdell had given them wtien in 
distress, and of the burdens she lifted from many 
weary shoulders. Of particular benefit, the mothers 
said, was the fact that the kindergarten affords a. 
place where they might leave their babies to be 
warmly housed, cleansed and fed while they toiled.-— 
Milwaukee Journal, Feb. 8, 1916. 




Jennie R. Faddis, Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools, Butte, Mont. 

(Conciuded from last issue.) 

Comradeship of the right kind, between parents 
and their wee ones, accompanied by a record of the 
study of whole-sided development of this period of 
childhood, will <_ive the world much needed material 
to aid in understanding and directing the early years 
and put a higher value on the amount of real 
knowledge pessessed by a child of four born with 
good body and mind and allowed to develop natu- 
rally in a favcrable environment. 

Consider the wealth of vocabulary commanded !r 
a normal fo'iir-year-old. I have been specially in- 
terested in the last two years in the language develop- 
ment of five children of this age whom I have 
known more or less intimately. Two of these 
children have had their vocabularies faithfully re- 
corded by parents. Think of the large beginning 
toward real education that a child of four has who 
can use correctly at need fourteen hundred words, not 
counting several hundred variants of verbs, adject- 
ives, and the proper nouns which may occupy an im- 
portant place in the child's speech. A father replied 
to my expression of wonder as to the number of words 
that might be included in the understanding vocabu- 
lary of a child of four, that the rate of progress in 
understanding made by a small inquiring mind is at 
times amazing indeed, and the manner of acquiring 
most interesting. I began my acquaintance with one 
of the four-year-olds mentioned in a walk of a few 
blocks, when the little lad overtook me on bis way to 
kindergarten. His first statement to me was that 
they, his family, were no longer going to have charge 
of the house in which they were living. A somewhat 
elaborate explanation of their plans followed and I 
was soon aware that the expression to "have charge 
of" was newly acquired. It was "hard worked," as 
the little fellow talked of the present, the past, and 
the future. After I had heard of the trip to the new 
home in prospect, of which they were to "have 
charge," and to be reached by train, boat, and auto- 
mobile, I was well entertained with the story of The 
Three Bears, my little friend seeming to assume that 
I might never have heard of the famous trio. 
"Finally" and "probably" were words oft repeated in 
this conversational output, of which the language 
was of the best. This child has never heard baby 
talk from his elders, has had his questions answered, 
and has listened to careful" explanations of whatever 
might interest him. 

What varied and refreshing forms of imagination 
an acquaintance with these embryo citizens reveals. 
Watch a child of four, as he transforms his pile of 
boxes in the back yard into trains and boats, and 
listen as he goes on his self-made travels. I watched 
a sturdy four-year-old boy, with ability to use hands 
as well as head, playing in a sand bank. He ap- 

peared to be digging vigorously, when his father 
called him to come and get ready for bed. The little 
fellow reluctantly obeyed, coming slowly toward the 
torse. To his mother he sobbed, "Daddy wouldn't 
let me stay to get my ice cream. I digged down till 
I could feel the servants of the fairies and they 
were going to bring me some ice cream in just a 
minute." Who that understands child nature and 
revels in the manifest signs of power to dream great 
dreams and from these construct great works for 
man, would take away Santa Claus, the brownies, 
elves, and fairies? 

In the book, What Is It To Be Educated, C. 
Hanford Henderson dwells at length on cultivating 
the imagination in childhood. He says: "Children 
are often accused of having too much imagination, 
but in reality that is hardly possible. The imagina- 
tion may run riot, end, growing by what it feeds 
upon, come dangerously near to untruthfulness, the 
story of facts may have teen too small. But the 
remedy is not to kill or cripple the imagination; 
it is rather to provide the needed equipment of facts 
and to train the imagination within the limits of 
truth and probability." * * * * Further, Mr. Hender- 
son says: "It is not safe to assume that we parents 
and teachers are blessed with such a large store of 
imagination that we may at once pass on to the work 
of cultivating it in our children. On the contrary, 
our immense lack of equipment in this illuminating 
quality is only too evident when one dances at our 
schools, our industries, our churches, our government, 
at our own irrational lives. A lively imagination 
playing freely about these social institutions would 
long ago have quite transformed them. The fact is 
people of the world have scant regard for the 
imaginative people, for it is imagination which pricks 
many a solemn bubble and upsets many a time- 
honored convention. Imagination is at the heart of 
all reforms, of all progress. It is the enemy of all 
absurdity and unreason. To see the world as it is, 
and then to picture it as it ought to be and might be 
— this is the high province of the imagination. Even 
in the exact sciences, it is the man of imagination 
who extends the boundaries of knowledge. In 
mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, even 
in biology, one must be a poet and must see the 
things that are not, as well as the things that are. 
One must image novel results in order to win novel 
results. * * * * 

"All the men and women who have done things 
have had imagination. So valuable a quality is well 
worth cultivating in ourselves and in our children. 
It can be increased by definite and practical meth- 
ods. One excellent step in this direction is not to 
take things for granted, but in a friendly way to 
question all statements by contrasting them with 
their opposites. Another is to read books of travel 
and adventure, fairy tales of a sober sort, and the 
lives of inventors and pioneers. We are prone to 
forget that human achievement is a spiritual victory 
and depends upon invention. A prominent sociol- 



ogist thus states the case: 'Wealth, the transient, is 
material; achievement, the enduring, is immaterial.' 
The products of achievement are not material things 
at all. They are not ends, but means. They are 
methods, ways, principles, devices, arts, systems, 
institutions. In a word, they are inventions. In the 
face of such testimony as this, it is odd that we should 
make education consist of repetition and grant such 
small part to initiative." 

A devoted and capable primary teacher of ex- 
perience says that little children whose imagination 
is not cultivated are hampered as the grown-ups, 
who, having eyes, see not. This teacher, a firm, 
supporter of the kindergarten, to the advantage of 
both kindergarten and grades, feels that little chil- 
dren are well started in their education when they 
can see with eyes open, image with eyes closed, and 
have power to place themselves in many situations, 
through the exercise of the imagination. She ex- 
pects the kindergarten to prepare them to do all this, 
which is of infinitely more value than the school work, 
as the counting, et cetera, of the kindergarten may 
be called, in preparing them to work and play 
together, and in teaching them to listen to every 
utterance of the teacher, as if they anticipated some- 
thing they wanted to hear. 

In choosing materials for the curriculum today, 
in answer to the questions, What we shall teach and 
how we shall teach, the awakening of each mind 
is a stronger purpose than ever before, the developing 
of native power a much-considered task of education. 
The value of initiative is urged from every strong- 
hold of human intelligence. The need of guided 
imagination is a far cry from a sordidly practical 
world. Where shall we begin with little children who 
have come from the home — the home most alive to 
its responsibilities and able to further every step of 
organic education, the home which can only contribute 
children who must be supplied with everything that 
makes for soul-development, as well as much needed 
for physical growth? 

We turn to two lines of world interest that every 
little child can feel himself a part of, the world of 
human nature and the great outdoors, as he joins the 
group of those who are his equals in time experience, 
at least. 

The kindergarten must, in all its plans, ever take 
large account of the human ties, which, though they 
bind so closely under some conditions of living, yet 
make him what he is, under all conditions of ex- 
istence, — in a normal state, a growing personality, 
full of driving instincts, led by curiosity, dominated 
by love and some fear. How much the child shall 
be allowed to live over the experience of the home 
and the neighborhood, that he in a greater or less 
degree leaves behind him on coming to- the kindergar- 
ten, or the primary school, is a matter settled some- 
what differently by the different kindergarten and 
primary mothers, and by others in authority more 
remote. We seem to be coming nearer to a common 
judgment in favor of basing the early work of little 

children on the best material we can select from the 
sum total experiences of their lives, with the idea 
that each phase of their usable history may be ex- 
tended as fast and far as possible in the creation of 
a fuller, richer world about them. How closely the 
home and the earliest educational institution of the 
child's experience may work together is still a topic 
to be speculated upon, as mothers and fathers are 
in these days entering school building more in the 
role of inquirers, learners, than in former times, 
when many came only to complain. 

In considering the use of the nature environment of 
a child as full of possibilities for his unfolding self, 
the assurance of Dr. Dewey supports the belief of 
those who would help children at an early age to 
make intimate friends with the -growing, changing 
life of animals and plants, give them opportunity to 
unlock for themselves some of the mysteries of na- 
ture's appealing methods, and start them on that long 
road of appreciation of beauty of earth and sky, 
— of rivulet, flower, tree, bird, and cloud. This ac- 
cumulation, for use as a permanent fund, which 
means resources within one's self, is constantly 
needed as life's way is plowed. Study your fellow 
travelers on a wonderful 'journey of several days 
duration. How many of them are able to appreciate, 
in any measure, the wonders and beauties before them, 
which might speak in appealing language if they had 
learned as chidren to read Nature and follow her 
ways? Dr. Dewey told us years ago that the scientific 
attitude of mind is not irrelevant to the teaching 
of children and youth, as many would suppose, and 
that "the native and unspoiled attitude of childhood, 
marked by ardent curiosity, fertile imagination, and 
love of experimental inquiry, is near, very near, to the 
attitude of the scientific mind." 

Take, for example, the work with seeds, which is 
sometimes very successfully carried out in the kin- 
dergarten and primary grades, for seed distribution, 
the introduction to all this work, may be of the 
liveliest interest to the younger children. The 
gathering, sorting, classifying, arranging — is all work 
full of motive, which results in concentrated effort of 
the best quality. There is much chance for discovery 
as individual collections are made. These little 
observers, with eyes so near to the ground, find out 
for themselves what helps the seeds to fly, how 
differently the various flyaways are constructed, 
which flyaways can fly farthest, and possibly why, 
and the ways tramp seeds have of holding on. As 
they classify seeds according to habitat, as seeds of 
the garden, field, and farm, as vegetable, flower, and 
fruit seeds, there is a wonderful amount of absorb- 
ing manipulation of stimulating material. The seeds 
collected, saved, and labeled are those used by the 
little gardeners the following spring. 

What more appealing material for beginning first- 
grade language and reading could be found than the 
children's experience with the seeds, the knowledge 
gained in the kindergarten functioning as worth while 
reading matter, regardless of the text-books which 



are to follow the first reading lessons. In such school 
work children are not asked to forget all the knowl- 
edge they have gained in six years, a charge made in 
connection with a type of first grade reading matter 
not being rapidly enough removed from our schools. 

The more competent first-grade teachers of ex- 
perience make many a primer for their own needs. 
The lessons of a series from a "seed primer," made 
by one of these live teachers, show how children's 
experiences are made the basis of the language read- 
ing work. The sentences of one lesson read: — 

Jack has a dandelion seed. 

He found it in our walk. 

He picked it up. 

He brought it carefully to school. 

He put it on a paper. 

He pasted its name in a corner. 

He put glass over it. 

Now he can keep it a long time. 

Another lesson records enlarged experiences: — 

We walked by the river. 

We found new seeds. 

They stuck to our stockings. 

They stuck to our sweaters. 

The old seeds like to fly. 

They are flyaways. 

The new seeds like to ride. 

They make us take them to ride. 

They steal a ride. 

Let us call them tramps. 

What exultation as a discoverer a little worker 
carries into the schoolroom on Monday morning, 
when Saturday and Sunday have yielded new tras- 
ures to display to teacher and schoolmates — and then 
to have a whole reading lesson based on the treasure, 
as Frank did in the following: — 

Frank has a new seed. 

Its name is Clematis. 

He saw it when he was riding. 

His father stopped the car. 

Frank picked the Clematis. 

The Clematis' seed can fly. 

It does not fly like the Dandelion seed. 

It has no parachute. 

It has a feather. 

Story, song, and poem are woven quite naturally 
into such work at need, and become a part of the 
fiber of the child's constitution. 

When work generally is based upon the vital ex- 
periences naturally invoved in kindergarten and 
elementary grade procedure, furnished by every con- 
ceivable situation which the alert teacher can bring 
about, the adaptive instincts will be dealt with in a 
different manner from now. We shall rejoice that, 
"Curiosity is more omniverous than imitation." At- 
tention "getting" and "paying" will not be the dismal 
matter it commonly is. Interest will be valued only 
as it is "the principle of the recognized identity of the 

fact to be learned or the action proposed with the 
growing self; that it lies in the direction of the agent's 
own growth, and is, therefore, imperiously demanded, 
if the agent is to be himself." 

We rave constantly to meet the query as to what 
the kindergarten should do for the children, how 
prepare them for the next step in the educational 
career, which the public still claims to comprehend 
much better than it docs the beginning of the edu- 
cational process. We need to grasp the whole mean- 
ing of education in order to try to put the function of 
any part of it into words. We want to prove that 
the little growing, changing self must be well 
occupied, that his time and efforts and results are to 
be reckoned with in considering his whole later de- 
velopment. We want, as well, to show why he must 
be allowed to live a free, happy individual who may 
develop all the initiative his nature affords, in order 
at the same time to be truly thoughtful, controlled, 
obedient, and considerate of others in all his dealings 
with his fellows. We must drive home in con- 
vincing manner, to all concerned, that what was 
good enough in education for the child twenty-five 
years ago is not good enough for the child of today, 
born into ever new and more complex conditions of 

Not many days ago an intelligent father said to me 
that he did not feel that the kindergarten was meet- 
ing the experience of his child. He told me of the 
child's life outside of kindergarten, and I agreed 
with him that the background of that kindergarten 
was not large enough to develop the wholesome in- 
terests of his boy and thus employ the full powers of 
his wide-awake nature. 

This week, a mother talked to me in grave con- 
cern over her problem, a five-year-old boy whose short 
experience in the public school kindergarten left the 
mother in doubt as to whether he would not be more 
harmed than benefited by a year of the kind of treat- 
ment he had received. She said she could not criti- 
cise the kindergarten, but that she as a mother, eager 
to know what modern education is doing for children, 
and resolved to follow the course of her children 
through school, is reading, talking with educators, 
and observing the public school work about her. She 
related several incidents of her mornings in kinder- 
garten with her boy, who could surely not be 
labeled a conformist, though I have heard people 
outside of the home pay tribute to his manner of 
quick and willing obedience. The kindergartner in 
one case laid upon the table an orange, saying to 
the children, as she distributed equal amounts of 
clay, that each one was to make a nice round 
orange, like the one before them, and that, the best 
ones would be saved till . tomorrow. The boy in 
question made with his ball of clay a boat, which he 
soon displayed with some pride to the kindergartner, 
who said very firmly, "I told you to make an 
orange; I did not want you to make a boat." The boy 
then proceeded to construct an engine, which he held 
up with satisfaction, calling out to his mother to see 



how complete it was, with smokestack, headlight, 
and wheels. The mother said that the making of the 
orange was wholly unrelated to any other work of the 
morning. In fact, she said, the work with the blocks, 
the cutting, pasting, and the games, all seemed to 
stand alone, and were undertaken without special 
appeal to the children at any point. 

In trying to sum up the relation between the kin- 
dergarten and the elementary grades, it has been in- 
teresting to compare conditions in two large school 
systems of about the same size — one in which good 
kindergartens have for many years been an integral 
part of the system, and the other without a kinder- 
garten. The system with the kindergarten founda- 
tion may lack substantial elements of progressive 
education that the other has, but we are concerned 
with the influence of the kindergarten on the grades. 

First. Immature children may be given varied 
and rich experience in kindergarten before they must 
begin to read and write and do number work, re- 
quired in equal amounts in many systems for all 
children alike, though the difference in capacity in 
first-grade children is often greater than in any two 
grades above. 

Second. The kindergarten does a great work for 
foreign children with language handicaps, who need 
to grow slowly into the use of a new language 
through dealing with real thingsin live situations. 

Third. The free, spontaneous play of the kinder- 
garten and the play element in work, which develops 
the real co-operative spirit, may be brought to the 
attention of all grade teachers. 

Fourth. The homelike, well ventilated, orderly 
kindergarten room, furnished with plants, pictures, 
piano, aquarium, and visiting pets, puts the bare, 
desolate, or stuffy, disorderly schoolroom to shame. 

Fifth. An abundance of material in evidence in 
room and closet, much of it in a raw state to be 
made up into things of use and beauty, indicates that 
although the kindergarten is a lovely school home, 
and the best kind of a play room, it is yet a veritable 
workshop. Would that our grade school-rooms could 
more rapidly assume the aspect of well-ordered work- 
shops in which materials serve as more of a stimulus 
to experimentation. 

Sixth. The kindergartner, a trained teacher, gives 
evidence of her own skill in pieces of work often 
seen about the room. These are not for the children 
to imitate directly, but serve as models of color com- 
binations, proportion, appropriate size, and careful 

Seventh. The kindergartner's pleasing person- 
ality, radiating a joyous attitude in work and to- 
ward all life, is sometimes a marked contrast to the 
neighboring workers with children. 

Eighth. The willingness of the kindergartner to 
help others, especially the teachers of the first and 
second grades, to see the possibilities in environ- 
mental materials, in all materials usable with 
children, is an educative factor of great value. 

Ninth. Constructive work of a high quality is 

done by the trained student of child nature and 
child needs, in showing how little waste there need 
be of a child's time and effort, when he is given an 
opportunity to help himself, to learn to depend upon 
himself, to perform tasks involving the common wel- 
fare of his group, — in other words, when he is treated 
as a thinking, responsible being, who must learn to 
make important decisions through the exercise of 
judgment in small matters in childhood. 

Tenth. The suggestive kindergarten programs 
that indicate problem work in progress, in terms 
easily interpreted, give forth many useful hints. They 
may include: (a) the method of developing topics 
through conversation; (b) the games, stories, songs, 
and pictures to be used in relation to the other work; 
(c) methods of using materials, through dictation, 
part dictation, and through the freedom of choice on 
the part of children; (d) the test time of day for the 
quiet period; (e) the nature and purpose of the ex- 
cursion. In short, the kindergarten program on the 
wall may show the well-defined interests and the 
means which are employed to assist children in 
making the required physical, social, and intellectual 
adaptations. A series of such weekly programs may 
be illuminating to teachers and patrons. 

Eleventh. Kindergartners go to the homes and 
bring parents to the school, and they help them to 
see and exercise the obligations and privileges of the 
natural guardians of children toward the education 
beyond the kindergarten, to know and uphold guid- 
ance and training that mean real development, 
through appealing work, joyous play, in all varied 
experience with real things in lifelike situations. 

Twelfth. The worthy kindergartner knows what 
she has undertaken to do during the year and what 
she has accomplished. She should put her aims and 
results in a report accessible for the primary teacher, 
who must learn to build carefully upon the foundation 
laid by the kindergarten. 

In conclusion, I can only emphasize the urgent 
appeal of thinking workers that more and better 
opportunities for comprehending the real meaning of 
education be given to> those who have to do with 
the guidance of childhood and youth. Adults must 
make their lives convey the meaning that a real 
educator utters, and kindergarten and elementary 
school must come together in demonstrating the 
truth: "The fundamental, essential work of edu- 
cation is with the spirit. It must safeguard the 
child from false impressions, unsound conclusions, un- 
warranted commands and inhibitions. It must remove 
obstacles and enemies and sorrows. The proper work 
of education is not to prune and thwart and bend and 
force. It is rather to keep hands off, as well as harm 
off. It is to feed and nourish and cheer, so that the 
child's spirit shall move forward freely into the novel 
creations of its own appointed path." 

Give work rather than alms to the poor. The 
former drives out indolence, the latter industry. — 
Tyron Edwards, 




(Translated from the German of Friedrich Froebel.) 

By Bertha Johnston 


Show to thy child how oft great things on small 

How man may master matter and shape to his 

own end, 
How oft 'neath ugly forms, goodness and skill may 

hide, — 
So to the great truths his childish heart to guide. 


How small is the charcoal-burner's hut, 
Scarce room for three when the door is shut; 
But there with his two sons he dwells, 
Cheerful and true in the forest dells. 
The wood they fetch and burn to coal, 
And the blacksmith carts away the whole, 
Think — how could we make knives, forks and 

And many other useful things, 
If the burner so black and sooty should tire 
Of faithfully tending the charcoal fire? 

Come, baby, let us the charcoal-burner greet, 
Without his spoons how could we eat? 
He's kind, so we'll not be afraid of him, 
Altho his face seem sooty and grim. 


The picture shows plainly the position of the hands, 
with the wrist resting on some object (the table for 
example) which represents the ground. 

We have already recognized that the eye is that 
which (predominantly and preponderated) mediates 
between the world within man, and the higher spirit- 
ual world. So the hand mediates in itself, between 
that and the surrounding external corporeal, object- 
ive world. And again, is a mediator, between phenom- 
ena in space, especially material phenomena, and im- 
material mind. 

It is not, by any means, in the numerous repre- 
sentations of later life, that the hand first acts thus 
as mediator, but in the narrow, even the narrowest 
limits of the first childish plays. 

Man has only two hands, comprising in all only 
two times four fingers, those on one hand being all 
unlike each other, but each corresponding to a simi- 
lar one on the other hand. Only two opposite thumbs 
has he, acting as a dam or curb to the fingers. But 
what a variety of things, may be accomplished with 
these! — yes, even if we consider merely the joy and 
awakening of childhood, through representation. 

NOTE — Froebel's fondness, for playing upon the 

meaning and sound of words is here illustrated. The 
German word for "thumb" is "Daumen," which 
sounds somewhat like "dammen," to dam or curb.) 

Do they not teach the child, without going beyond 
the boundaries of his own little life, how much, how 
very much, man may accomplish, with the little near 
at hand, without grasping at what is in the distance. 
Therefore, the Englishman is quite right, who wrote 
an entire book showing that the hand of man is a 
token of the paternal grace, love and kindness of 
God towards him, since it teaches him to value the 
insignificant and the near, and from things few and 
small to create iso much. And is it not thus, an ex- 
pression of man's likeness to God? Does it not show 
him in this, to resemble his Creator? Who every- 
where, from the means near at hand creates so much. 

You must early arouse in your child, O Mother, 
this regard for his hand, and thoughtful reflection 
upon what it may accomplish, in order that he may 
injure neither it nor himself, in order that he may 
rather, seek through what he does with it, to resemble 
his Creator, Father, God. 

And as you, O Mother, cause your child to respect 
his own hand, make him honor and respect not only 
he who by means of his hand gives us bread and 
satisfies and nurtures the body; no, teach him through 
the labor of bis hands to respect the capable man, 
everywhere, however lowly his occupation, whereby 
he not only preserves from harm and danger indivi- 
dual people and entire communities, but often directly 
advances the welfare of mankind. 

What, for example, would become of almost all of 
our technical arts, what of our investigations of 
Nature, by way of chemistry, and all that depends 

If the charcoal burner, so black and sooty should 

Of faithfully tending the charcoal fire? 
Tell to your dear child, later, the story of the two 
children, German Princes, whose lives were saved 
by the charcoal-burner, or at least preserved from 
a tragic fate as captives, because, 

Tho sooty the chrcoal-burner's breast, his cloth- 
ing poor, uncouth, 
His heart beat warm beneath it, for innocence, 
virtue, truth. 

NOTE — The book to which Froebel refers is un- 
doubtedly one by Sir Charles Bell, on "The Hand, its 
Mechanism," etc., (1833), in which he says "the hand 
supplies all instruments, and by its correspondence 
with the intellect gives him universal dominion." 


Reference to the Encyclopedia informs us that in 
the ordinary primitive way of making charcoal, sticks 
of wood are piled up in horizontal or in vertical lay- 
ers, around a central opening which extends from 
the bottom to the top of the heap. The outer sur- 
face of the heaps, which are conical or hemispherical 



in shape, are made even with chips and twigs, and 
then covered with leaves, twigs or straw, or moss, 
upon which sods are laid. The sticks to be charred 
are very closely packed. They are of any convenient 
size. A horizontal opening is left in the bottom of 
the heap extending from the central chimney to the 
outside. Other smaller openings are made around the 
bottom for the admission of air and escape of volatile 
products. As the charring proceeds these openings 
are closed and others made higher up. The tarry 
products which result, run out in channels made for 
the purpose. When the entire heap is completely 
charred, all openings are closed, and it is left for one 
or two days, and then partially uncovered, and the 
charcoal spread out in layers. This is done at night 
so as to better see and quench any that remains ig- 
nited. The process may take from one to three weeks 
depending upon the weather and size of the heap. 

Skill and knowledge are required to know by the 
color and density of the smoke, and other indications, 
just when to close certain openings, and when to has- 
ten or retard the process. 

"Charcoal has a great deoxidizing power even at 
low temperatures, it is in fact the great reducing 
agent of metallurgists." 

It is a strong deodorizer, and an antiseptic. 

Plumbers, blacksmiths, and other workers in metals 
used it formerly, as it gave an intense, steady heat, 
without flames. Now, if not working in the wind, 
they use oil. 

The children may be told how many mothers use 
charcoal to cook with, because they can get a hot, 
steady fire, very quickly, when needed. 

The- blacksmith in the picture is using it to heat 
the metal of which he makes various tools and uten- 
sils. The spoon used for feeding the baby even, in 
the picture, could not have been made without the 
help of the charcoal-burner. 


In his Commentary to the "CharcoahBurner," Froe- 
bel refers to some apparently well-known tale, of the 
rescue, by a charcoalburner, of two young princes 
from captivity, and perhaps death. This story is to 
be found in Charlotte M. Yonge's "Book of Golden 
Deeds," under the name of "George, the Triller," and 
also in Vol. IV, of Carlyle's "Critical and Miscellan- 
eous Essays," published by Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
The essay is called "The Prinzenraub." Briefly, the 
tale is as follows: A fierce robber baron, Sir Conrad 
or Kunz of Kaufungen, known from his great size as 
the Giant Knight, has served the Elector Frederick 
the Mild, of Saxony, in his wars against his brother. 
Being captured by the Bohemians, Kunz was obliged 
to pay a heavy ransom for his freedom. Frederick 
refused to indemnify him, and so exasperated Kunz, 
both by the refusal and the manner of it, that the 
knight threatened dire vengeance, Frederick iron- 
ically imploring, "Don't burn the fish-ponds at any 
rate, the poor little fish in the ponds." 

Soon after, Kunz learns that the Elector is to be 
absent from his castle of Altenberg, and bribes the 
scullion, Hans Schwalbe, to admit him and nine oth- 
ers, into the castle, July 7, 1455, (37 years before 
America was discovered). 

Hans let down a rope-ladder, so that the kidnappers 
could scale the steep precipice upon which opened 
the children's apartment, where a feeble old governess 
was the only guardian. Many of the servants were 
carousing in the village. Meanwhile the doors of the 
Mother's room and of the servants' room had been 
locked, so no immediate rescue was possible. The 
boys were taken down, but upon reaching the ground 
it was found that one protesting child was not the 
Elector's son Albert, but the visiting son of another 
Count; Kunz told his accomplices to proceed with 
the older boy, Ernst, while he went back to exchange 
the two other children. 

Soon he was on his way again, with the little 
prince, and followed by his servant. Thus they 
hastened on towards the frontiers of Bohemia and his 
own castle where lay safety, and whither his friends 
were also hurrying. 

Meanwhile, however, some of the servants had es- 
caped, the castle bell was set ringing, the village toc- 
sin caught the alarm, and soon bells were ringing 
and beacons lighted on every hill. 

Kunz rode on till daylight, obliged to seek the 
most secret paths, over hills, through morasses and 
thickets, until near his own castle. But his horse 
was weary after the long, wild ride, and the little 
child all but overcome with fatigue, fear and thirst. 
So Kunz, who must have had some elements of kind- 
ness in his nature, dismounted, putting the two horses 
in charge of his servant, gave the boy water and 
sought wild bil-berries for him. Suddenly, George, 
(surname unknown) a charcoal-burner, appeared, 
aroused from his noonday rest, by unusual sounds. 
Fortunately he carried his long, strong wooden pok- 
ing-pole used for stirring his kiln fire. Seeing him, 
and undismayed by his sooty exterior, the boy hur- 
riedly explained his name and rank and appealed to 
him for aid. The knight's servant struck at the little 
prince with his pole-ax, which the charcoal-burner 
parried with his pole, also setting his dog upon the 
man. Sir Kunz hurried back, gigantic in size, and 
clad in armor, a terrible fight ensuing. George's wife 
appeared, and her screams and his whistle brought 
some comrades to his aid, so that Kunz thought best 
to mount and get away, but his spur caught and he 
was dragged along the ground being finally captured, 
taken to a convent and later to the castle of Freiburg, 
where a week from his venture, July 14, he was be- 
headed, altho it is said, that in his joy at his sons' 
deliverance, the Elector had sent a message of pardon, 
received too late. 

Meanwhile the other party were in hiding, for 
three days in a cave, and learning of Conrad's fate, 
offered to restore Prince Albrecht, in return for a 
full pardon, which was accepted. Near the scene of 
the rescue is the little church of Ebersdorf, in which 
were offered up, in thanksgiving, the coat of Kunz 



and the grimy smock of the charcoal-burner, who so 
bravely risked his life for the little prince; bravely 
indeed, for the robber baron dwelt in (the neighbor- 
hood, and had he been victorious, could have tortured 
his victim cruelly. 

Asked how he had achieved the rescue, he said, 
"1 shook (getrillt) him right soundly with my pok- 
ing-pole," and so he was given the surname of 
"Triller," in Ihe legal papers in which the Elector 
gave him as a reward, a piece of land in the parish 
of Ebersbach. 

A letter written to Carlyle, in 1856, by Walter 
White, tells of his visit to places connected with the 
Prinzenraub, describes portraits seen in the Castle 
of Altenburg, of the Triller, his wife, and Kunz, and 
tells of how July 8, 1855, the 400th anniversary of 
the rescue was celebrated by a procession of some 800 
persons, including many coalers, through the forest 
to the Brewery which now occupies the site of 
George's hut and kiln. Three of his descendants 
took part in the festivities, but since then all have 

Prince Ernest was ancestor of the present royal 
house of Saxony, and of the Prince Consort of Eng- 
land, Albert, and hence the present King of England. 


Hundreds of people were turned away from Car- 
negie Hall, unable to obtain entrance, on Friday 
evening, February 11, at the Memorial Meeting of 
Booker T. Washington. The Hon. Seth Low presided, 
and addresses were given by Dr. H. B. Frissell, presi- 
dent of Hampton Institute, The Hon W. H. Lewis 
(ex. Asst. Attorney General of the U. S.) The Hon. 
William G. Willcox, newly-elected president of the 
New York Board of Education, Dr. J. H. Dillard, and 
Major Moton, the newly-appointed president of 
Tuskeegee Institute. The Fiske quartette and the 
Tuskeegee quintette sang some of the Jubilee songs 
which always so touch the heart, and the chorus from 
the. Music School Settlement sang an inspiring song 
dedicated to Booker T. Washington, the words "Lift 
Every Voice and Sing" being by James Weldon John- 
son and the music by J. Rosamond Johnson, who 
directed the singing. 

All the speakers emphasized the fact that Wash- 
ington was ope of the greatest influences for good our 
country has known, in that he showed the part that 
industrial education could and should play in the 
training of youth. Also, in that he "interpreted the 
North to the South, the South to the North, and the 
Negro to both, and both to the Negro. 

Mr. Wilcox said that after visiting Tuskeegee, he 
told the faculty that they mustn't feel too proud of 
what they accomplished in their school, for plenty of 
white boys and girls could do as well, if they had the 

Mr. Lewis said that Lincoln's act, as the emancipa- 
tor, was justified, in a man like Washington, who, 
from being himself property, became an inheritor of 
the earth. In paying his tribute to Washington's in- 

fluence he said that for seven years he had misunder- 
stood his great leader, "I thought Latin conquered all 
things." Washington said, "Labor conquered all 

Dr. Frissell reminded the great audience of their 
debt to Washington and that we must not let Tuskee- 
gee go down. The great war came about because of 
tb.s exploitation of the weaker races by the stronger. I 
We, the heirs of all the ages, must help the disin- 
herited races. 

Mr. Dillard, a Southern white man, said that Wash- 
ington was one of the greatest influences for good our - 
a better understanding between the races, and that 
in no sense was he a truckler. 

Major Moton, Washington's successor and a full- i 
blooded Negro, spoke ably, brilliantly and modestly, 
and impressed one as a man who would carry on the 
great work in the spirit of the man whose loss is so 
greatly deplored. He pointed out that we could and 
should all work in harmony, tho not necessarily in 
unison. And told a story to illustrate his plea, that ' 
we whose hold on civilization has become so sure, 
through the centuries, should not cut the rope that 
joins to us our more backward brothers. ' 

In his introductory speech, Mr. Low told how 
Superintendent Ella Flagg Young, of the Chicago 
public schools, was so impressed by the splendid car- 
riage of the Tuskeegee students when they entered 
their chapel, that returning to Chicago, she offered a 
prize for the school under her regime which should 
show the best walking. He reminded us what a 
mighty benefit to mankind marked the grant of free- 
dom to Washington, and quoted from Watterson, 
editor of the Louisville Courier-Journal, who said 
that since the war of Secession no man had exercised 
such a beneficial influence or done such real good to 
the country, especially the South. 

Those who wish to subscribe to the B. Y. Washing- 
ton Memorial Fund in the continuance of the institute 
ington had a patience almost divine in bringing about 
may send to William G. Wilcox, treasurer of the in- 
vestment committee,- 3 So. William St., New York 

We need to grapple good habits to our character 
with hoops of steel. 

Custom without personal interest will not make 
permanent habits. A boy may wash his hands till 
he is 21, but if he does not care for the result obtained 
he will stop washing them the day he is away from 
observation. If he takes pleasure in the result of the 
washing, he will wish to be clean, even if cast by 
himself on a desert island. 

If a child recognizes his error in neglecting a regu- 
lar habit it is sometimes wise to say little or nothing, 
but if the habits being taught are disregarded thought- 
lessly, the occasion should rarely pass without a re- 
mark. Common habits relating to manners, to neat- 
ness, thoroughness, courtesy and proper language 
must he enforced, otherwise their opposite bad habits,; 
which are much harder to obliterate, will be formed. I 



. Elsie Gilsox Baker. 

The method of presenting the second gift is often so 
difficult to many kindergartners that I should like to 
offer my way of introducing it to the little children 
under my care. 

These games or plays have been used for a number 
of years in my kindergarten ; and the children enjoy 
them so much that they frequently ask for them again 
during the year. 


By means of a wooden axle or stick, join the cube 
and cylinder by pushing the axle through the holes in 
these forms; then, if possible, let the axle pass 
through the hole into the sphere also, thus securing 
the three forms together. In any case, the sphere can 
be fastened to the other two forms by passing the 
strings with which we swing the sphere on either side 
of the cube and tying them on its under side. 

After the three forms are joined, fold a large hand- 
kerchief or square piece of cloth like a shawl and 
place it around the sphere, crossing it over the other 
two forms, leaving a portion of the sphere open; and 
here we have a baby doll, ready to be loved and rocked 
and finally put to sleep with a lullaby. These 
doll babies are to be arranged by the kindergartners; 
and when the children open the boxes their delight is 
unbounded. It is not necessary to make the faces on 
the cylinders, still it can be done lightly with crayon. 


Here we proceed with the gift by means of a story, 
being careful to tell the children that we are using 
pet names for the forms, but that by-and-by they will 
know the real names 

It is better to tell the story first and then remind 
them of this fact. 

The kindergartner should sit where every child can 
see her plainly and should hold the three forms 
covered in her lap. On the little table before her she 
should place an oblong tray or box cover of about six 
by ten inches, with sides an inch or an inch and a 
half high; so that when she illustrates the story with 
the forms they will not fall over the edge. 

She should then place the sphere in the tray and 
begin the story: — Once upon a time there was a 
little boy who lived with his father and mother. He 
had no little brothers or sisters, and often he wished 
that he had somebody to play with. 

Now there was a nice yard back of his house and 
in it was a big sand hill where he used to play when 
it was pleasant weather. He was such a fat little boy 
and so jolly and happy all day long that his mother 
called him Roly-Poly. Whenever he fell down he just 
rolled over and laughed and got up again. O, no! he 
never cried — that is, hardly ever. 

One day while he was playing by himself, he heard 
someone call "Hullo!" (Here place the cube outside 
the tray.) And when he looked up there was another 
little boy outside the fence; and Roly-Poly ran over to 

speak to him. (Here roll the sphere to the side where 
the cube stands.) 

The little boy said, "I've come to live in the new 
house across the street, and my name is Stand-Still. 
May I come in and play with you?" 

Roly-Poly was so pleased to have a playmate that he 

- could hardly wait for his new friend to climb over the 

fence and join him. He gave him his nice new sand 

pail, with the little shovel, to play with; and then he 

said, "My name is Roly-Poly." 

The other little boy said, "Why do they call you 

Roly-Poly answered "Because I like to run and 
roll all the time. I never want to keep still." 

Then his friend said, "They call me Stand-Still be- 
cause I don't like to run very much, but I can slide. I 
like to slide; and I can stand on one toe and whirl 
around like a top." (Here illustrate.) 

These two little boys played every day and had 
many good times together. One lovely morning, 
while Roly-Poly and Stand-Still were playing in the 
yard, a third little boy came across the street and 
looked over the fence. ( Introduce cylinder outside the 
tray.) Roly-Poly and Stand-Still both hurried over 
to speak to him. Roly-Poly said, "Come in and play 
with us;" and the little boy climbed over the fence. 

"What is your name?" said Roly-Poly. The new 
little boy answered, "My name is Rolly-Polly-Stand- 

The other little boys cried out, "Why, what a funny 
name!" and Roly-Poly-Stand-Still said, "Well, you see, 
they call me that because I can run and roll and I can 
stand quite still, too. It isn't my really truly name." 

Then Roly-Poly and Stand-Still told him their 
names; and the three boys had a happy play-time in 
the sand hill all that long morning. 

(After the story has been told, the boxes with the 
three forms may be passed, so that the children may 
enjoy a period of free play. In most instances they 
will act the story over again, closely imitating the 


Another story. Use the same tray or box cover, and 
again conceal the three forms under an apron or in a 
box in the lap. 

A little boy named Charlie lived in a big city in a 
large brick house on one of the crowded streets. He 
was a happy little boy and dearly loved to run and 
play. In his home there was a dear grandmother; 
and Charlie and his grandmother were very good 
friends indeed. 

Grandmother knew such fine stories to tell! just the 
kind little boys like to hear. 

Every afternoon when it was pleasant weather 
Grandmother took a little walk; and Charlie would 
start out with her, but Grandmother walked very 
slowly and sometimes she would stand still to rest a 
few minutes. Charlie would run on ahead a little 
way; then hurry back to join Grandmother again. 
This is how Charlie and Grandmother went to walk. 
(Illustrate with sphere and cube, letting the cube slide 



and stand still, the sphere roll ahead and back again.) 

Across the street from Charlie's house in another big 
house lived a little girl named Alice. ( Charlie and 
Alice went to the same kindergarten and played 
together. Alice would watch every afternoon from 
a window in her house, and when she saw Charlie 
start with his grandmother for their walk, she would 
beg to be allowed to go with them; so almost every 
day her mother would help her put on her hat and 
coat, and Alice would skip across the street to join 
her friends. 

Now Alice was such a polite little girl (Place the 
cylinder standing on the tray) that she would walk 
nicely by Grandmother's side nearly all the time. 
But sometimes Charlie would call out, "0, Alice, come 
and see the squirrel!" and Alice would forget and run 
over to join Charlie; (Let the cylinder roll), hut the 
little girl and boy always went back to Charlie's 
house very slowly with the dear grandmother. 

(After this story, as with the other, allow free 
play with the forms. The usual methods of proceed- 
ing with the gift are now to be carried out; and it can 
be safely said that no trouble will be experienced with 
the children in regard to confusing the story names 
of the forms with the real ones. After the names 
sphere, cube and cylinder have been given, the chil- 
dren should not be allowed to use any others. 

Personally these little games have made the present- 
ing of the second gift a real pleasure. 


The kindergarten is coming to its own in the state 
of California largely through the law recently passed 
by that state The law provides t hat "upon petition of 
parents or guardians of 25 or more children between 
the ages of four and a half and six, residing within a 
mile of any elementary school," and with the approval 
of the school authorities, the board of education of the 
school concerned "shall establish and maintain a kin- 
dergarten." This law has already resulted in the 
presentation of 50 petitions, with 36 kindergartens 
opened so far in 21 different cities, 19 of which never 
had a kindergarten. The legislation that accom- 
plished this was the result of the efforts of the Cali- 
fornia State Congress of Mothers. 

It is fitting that California should take high rank 
among the states in regard to kindergarten work. It 
was the Silver Street Kindergarten in San Francisco, 
conducted as far back as 1878 by Mrs. Kate Douglas 
Wiggin and her sister, that helped to give such 
popularity and celebrity to the kindergarten cause 
throughout the United States. The Silver Street 
School inspired the Go!den Gate Kindergarten Asso- 
ciation, identified in the public mind with 
its founder, Mrs. Sarah B. Cooper. Mrs. Cooper's 
work, in turn, brou£ht forth the first kindergarten 
legacy — that of Mrs. Leland Stanford. The first public 
lecturer to espouse the kindergarten cause was Felix 
Adler, who stirred Los Angeles and San Francisco in 
1875-76, when visiting the Pacific Coast on a lecture 
tour. It is expected that California, now in the 

eleventh place among the states in kindergarten work, 
will, under the inspiration of the new law, move up 
to near the front, particularly because of the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition. 

The exposition of Philadelphia in 1876 not only ac- 
quainted that city with kindergarten work, with the 
result that Miss Burritt, the "Centennial Kindergart- 
ner," was retained there, but the exposition opened 
the eyes of the entire country to the principles and 
methods of the kindergarten. 

The achievement of the California State Congress of 
Mothers is especially valuable at this time as an ex- 
ample 'for similar associations in other states. The 
legislatures will meet this winter in 38 states, many of 
them needing legislation similar to that enacted in 
California. Legislators doubtless stand ready to do for 
other states what California's legislature has done for 
California. Steps have already been taken in several 
states to have similar bills introduced this winter. 
Those interested may learn the particulars by writing 
to the National Kindergarten Association, 250 Madison 
Avenue, New York City, or to the Bureau of Edu- 
cation, Washington, D, C. 


Carrie L. Wagner. 

When we talk of the work of the wind we think of 
many things to make in connection with the subject. 
A clay windmill with paper fans will delight the 
children as will the boat with paper sails pasted to 

sticks and stuck in the boat while it is damp. The 
light-house is very attractive painted white with red 
or green trimmings. 

The tub in which to wash the clothes so that the 
wind may help to dry them, is easily molded. When 
bands of silver paper are pasted around and wire 
handles attached, the tub is very realistic. 

True glory consists in doing what reserves to be 
written; in writing what deserves to be read; and in 
so living as to make the world happier and better for 
our living in it. — Pliny. 






"Oh March that blusters and March that blows, 
What color under your footsteps glows! 
Beauty you summon from winter's snows, 
And you are the pathway that leads to the rose." 

In the greater part of our United States wind 
is the word almost synonymous with March. It is 
the season when all nature is cleaning house, first it 
acts as the snow eating winds of Indian legends, then 
sweeps the fields and streets as if it were cleaning and 
garnishing for the bride spring. The fleecy white 
clouds scurry across the sky as if they too would 
brush away the winter, for in their wake the blue 
seems clearer and fresher. 

"Through the clear sky of March 
Blue to the topmost arch." 

"I saw you toss the kites on high 
And blow the birds about the sky: 
And all around I heard you pass, 
Like ladies' skirts across the grass. 
Oh wind ablowing all day long 

wind that sings so loud a song, 
Tsaw the different .things you did. 
But always you yourself, you hid. 

1 felt you push, I heard you call, 
I could not see yourself at all. 
Oh wind, ablowing all day long 
Oh wind that sings so loud a song." 

Now allow the children freedom to express the storj! 
of the wind just as they have it in mind .. ithout direc 
tion— afterwards with directions and gestions mak«i 
pictures with scissors or with crayon of some of thd 
following subjects: 



r <ZVI 

And all living things are awakening. The birds are 
twittering, the children running hither and thither 
trying as it were to race with Master Wind. 

Windmills whirling, kites flying, and as I have 
somewhere heard the wind seems to say "The more 
things I can help to whirl the better satisfied am I." 

It is well to bring this life and joy into the school 
room for by this time all are tired of the prosaic 
things we must draw in winter. Talk of the things 
the wind does. This beautiful poem of Robert Louis 
Stevenson is full of suggestions: 

A ladies' dress and veil blowing in the wind. Noticl 
the figure will be slightly bent forward while the dres 
and veil blow in the opposite direction. 

A boy's hat blowing away and of course the boy it; 
full pursuit. 

A windy wash day. The clothes on the line blowing 
in the breezes. 

Sail boats at sea, kites flying, and trees swayed M 
the wind. One day when such a lesson was beifll 
given a child had in his picture several trees bent iu 
•one direction while one tree alone slanted the opposili] 
way. When asked how that could be, quick came tfcj 



reply: "Oh that one is just getting ready to go over 
again." Today I saw a boy very happily running up 
and down street holding a long stick to which was 
attached a bright flag flapping merrily in the breezes. 
I thought perhaps this was an idea for a Primary 
grade teacher. American flags or those of other 
nations. Then there is a never ending variety of kites. 
Here are given a few suggestions : 

Fold a 12 inch square of rather heavy paper as Fig. 
I, place a thin slat like stick under the edge a-b, 
paste the edge to this slat then tie the flying string 

at c. The kite tail at — d — tie a string some 18 inches 
long, the bits of colored tissue paper at intervals all 
the way down. A pleasing decoration is to paste 
strips of colored paper both the length and width of 
the kite on both sides. Or cut pictures of birds, butter- 
flies or flowers and paste on it. Another kite might 
be made as above then cut a large butterfly of draw- 
ing paper, color with bright crayons and paste the 
length of the body to the kite the wings extended. 
Fig. II and III. 

Kite flying is a fine opportunity for a lesson to the 
little ones in perspective. Draw skeleton figures three 
or four boys flying their kites all running down the 
street. Will they all be the same size or will the ones 
away down the street look smaller. Fig. IV. Figs . V 
and VI a cutting from first grade. 

"March is merry 

March is mad, 
March is gay, 

And March is sad." 


This giraffe and camel can be made to stand if cut 
as directed from grey or tan construction paper, 
measuring 4x12 in. Fold in half across the short 
length of paper. Place pattern on as in illustration 
3. Cut by pattern 1. Open and cut off extra legs 
"leave only four." 

Fold strip running from one foot to the other to 
form stay or brace for feet. Paste body of figure to- 
gether leaving legs free. 






P. G. Sanders, Toronto, Ont. 

March gets its name from the Romans, who at one 
time were so powerful. They called it the first month 
of their year, and named it after their god of war, 
whose name was Mars. 

March is a stormy, blustering, windy, month. We 
all know the saying if "March comes in like a lion it 
will go out like a lamb" and "if it comes in like a lamb 
it will go out like a lion." 

In Sicily March is called "Foolish March" because 
they say it never knows its own mind, and you never 
can be sure of it. 

In Italy they say "March is nobody's child" for if it 
rains one day, it snows the next, and it is one day 
stormy and the next day fine, and so it shows favors 
to none. 

In England they like a dry March, they think it 
will bring a good harvest, and that is the meaning of 
the saying "A peck of March dust is worth a king's 
ransom." At one time such enormous sums were de- 
manded for the ransom of a king, that it was some- 
times estimated to be a tenth of the crop. 

And so the saying "A wet March makes a sad 
harvest" is also used in many parts of England. 

O March that blusters, and March that blows 
What color under your footsteps glows! 
Beauty you summon from winter's snows 
But you are the pathway that leads to the 

"As mad as a March hare." 

March is noted for its high winds, which are so use- 
ful at this time of the year. 

"In March come the March winds; 

They blow and blow; 
They sweep the brown leaves 

That green ones may grow." 

The winds seem to wake up the rabbits and hares 
and make them go scampering through the woods. 

The wind breaks off useless branches from the trees, 
which is Nature's way of pruning; it dries up the 
roads and gets the fields ready for planting. 

Resisting the wind makes the roots of the trees and 
saplings take a firmer hold on the earth, and so they 
grow stronger for the wind's rough treatment. 

"March" winds, and April showers 
Bring forth May flowers." 

The 21st of March brings us the Spring Equinox, 
which means equal days and nights all over the 
world. At the time of the Equinox, the sailors look 
out for Equinoxial gales, for then March winds blow 
their hardest. 

"March winds, and April sun make the 
Clothes white, the maidens dun." 

In March some of the birds come back to us from 
the south, and all the children watch for the first 

We go out to the. bush to look for the pussy-willows 
and the catkins. 

"And the spring is sure to follow." 
"These are pussy-willow days," 

The seventeenth of March is St. Patrick's day. 
St. Patrick was a missionary who went to Ireland to 
preach when the people there were in need of help . 

When he tried to teach them about the Trinity, 
they could not understand, so he picked up a sham- 
rock that was growing near by. He showed them 
the three leaflets in one leaf, and that he said was 
the way with the Trinity, it was three persons in one, 
and one in three. 

Ever since then the shamrock has been the emblem 
of Ireland. 

The dear little shamrock, 
The sweet little shamrock, 
The dear little, sweet little 

Shamrock of Ireland." 

So March with her wind and her storms ushers in 
the spring. 



"Snowy, blowy, wheezy, breezy, 
Sweeping up the winter's snow. 

Freezing, pleasing, teasing, unceasing 
So do the March winds blow. 

In blustering March the wild winds blow, 

We think of coming spring 
The pussy-willow ventures out — 

Brave, hardy little thing." 

The March winds get into the children's blood and 
stirs it up, so that they want to scamper about. 

The boys make kites and have a good time flying 
them on the windy days. 

"I saw you toss the kites on high 
And blow the birds about the sky: 
And all around I heard you pass, 
Like ladies' skirts across the grass — 
O wind, a-blowing all day long, 
O wind, that sings so loud a song!" 

March is the month to get maple sugar. The men 
go out to the woods and tap the sugar maple trees. 
The sap flows out and is caught in a pail. It looks 
very thin and watery at first, and it does not taste so 
very sweet. The men then put it into a big kettle, 
and boil it, and boil it. Then the sap gets thick and 
sweet, and is called maple syrup. It is boiled longer, 
and then poured out into pans, and when it hardens 
we call it maple sugar. 

Our country is called the land of the maple. 

Let children cut bunnies from white and mount 
them on a dark background. Pin